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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. over-activated RSK2.
    Too much ATF4 ~> osteoclacin ~> too many osteoblasts
  2. Patterning ~> Skeletogenesis ~> Homeostasis
    Dyostoses Dysplasia
    Lethal Lethal 50% population problems
  3. Somites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
  4. VEGF
    Osteoclasts are brought in with blood vessels (since they are monocytes after all)
    Osteoblasts also migrate from the bone collar to trabeculae
  5. PTHrP mutation in receptor
    Severe dwarfism.
    But aren't little people soooooo cute?

4 True/False questions

  1. Osteoblast DifferentiationRunx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
    Twist inhibits Runx2
    without it, no bone!
    (Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)

          

  2. Regulation of chondrocytesRunx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
    Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
    However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
    This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.

          

  3. Coffin-LowryRegulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)

          

  4. ATF4Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)