5 Written questions
5 Multiple choice questions
- Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
Growth Formation Resorption
- Somites ~> Axial
Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
- Patterning ~> Skeletogenesis ~> Homeostasis
Lethal Lethal 50% population problems
- Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
activated by RSK2 kinase
knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)
- Inactivated RSK2.
ATF4 isn't turned on
can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
treated with high protein diet
4 True/False questions
Jansen blomstrands chrondroplaysia → Runx2 haploinsufficiency
osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull
Osteoblast Differentiation → Runx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
Twist inhibits Runx2
without it, no bone!
(Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)
Proliferation of chrondrocytes → Runx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.
Regulation of chondrocytes → Via sox9.
Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.