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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Runx2 haploinsufficiency
    osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull
  2. Runx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
    Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
    However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
    This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.
  3. over-activated RSK2.
    Too much ATF4 ~> osteoclacin ~> too many osteoblasts
  4. Inactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet
  5. Via sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.

4 True/False questions

  1. Osteoblast DifferentiationRunx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
    Twist inhibits Runx2
    without it, no bone!
    (Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)


  2. Three stages of bone developmentSomites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts


  3. Jansen blomstrands chrondroplaysiaVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.


  4. ATF4Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)