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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
    Growth Formation Resorption
  2. Somites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
  3. Patterning ~> Skeletogenesis ~> Homeostasis
    Dyostoses Dysplasia
    Lethal Lethal 50% population problems
  4. Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)
  5. Inactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet

4 True/False questions

  1. Jansen blomstrands chrondroplaysiaRunx2 haploinsufficiency
    osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull


  2. Osteoblast DifferentiationRunx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
    Twist inhibits Runx2
    without it, no bone!
    (Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)


  3. Proliferation of chrondrocytesRunx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
    Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
    However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
    This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.


  4. Regulation of chondrocytesVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.