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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Via sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.
  2. Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
    Growth Formation Resorption
  3. Runx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
    Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
    However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
    This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.
  4. From monocytes
    Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
    OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
    RANKL causes osteoclast maturation
  5. Runx2 haploinsufficiency
    osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull

4 True/False questions

  1. neurofibromatosisInactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet


  2. ATF4Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)


  3. Where does bone come from?Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
    Growth Formation Resorption


  4. Disorders of intramembranous bone formationDelay: Msx2, Runx2 haploinsufficiencies
    Acceleration: FGF, MSX2 activating mutations. twist haploinsufficiency