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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Via sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.
  2. Runx2 haploinsufficiency
    osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull
  3. Patterning ~> Skeletogenesis ~> Homeostasis
    Dyostoses Dysplasia
    Lethal Lethal 50% population problems
  4. Inactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet
  5. over-activated RSK2.
    Too much ATF4 ~> osteoclacin ~> too many osteoblasts

4 True/False questions

  1. Disorders of intramembranous bone formationDelay: Msx2, Runx2 haploinsufficiencies
    Acceleration: FGF, MSX2 activating mutations. twist haploinsufficiency


  2. Proliferation of chrondrocytesVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.


  3. ATF4Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)


  4. Where does bone come from?Somites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts


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