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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. PTHrP mutation in receptor
    Severe dwarfism.
    But aren't little people soooooo cute?
  2. From monocytes
    Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
    OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
    RANKL causes osteoclast maturation
  3. Runx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
    Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
    However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
    This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.
  4. Inactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet
  5. VEGF
    Osteoclasts are brought in with blood vessels (since they are monocytes after all)
    Osteoblasts also migrate from the bone collar to trabeculae

4 True/False questions

  1. Three stages of bone developmentSomites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts

          

  2. Cleidocranial dysplasiaRunx2 haploinsufficiency
    osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull

          

  3. Basic bone cell typesChondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
    Growth Formation Resorption

          

  4. ATF4Inactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet