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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Somites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
  2. Runx2 haploinsufficiency
    osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull
  3. Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
    Growth Formation Resorption
  4. From monocytes
    Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
    OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
    RANKL causes osteoclast maturation
  5. Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)

4 True/False questions

  1. Regulation of chondrocytesRunx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
    Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
    However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
    This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.


  2. Disorders of intramembranous bone formationDelay: Msx2, Runx2 haploinsufficiencies
    Acceleration: FGF, MSX2 activating mutations. twist haploinsufficiency


  3. Proliferation of chrondrocytesVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.


  4. Osteoblast DifferentiationRunx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
    Twist inhibits Runx2
    without it, no bone!
    (Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)