Terms in this set (18)
Kwashiorkor is what type of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)?
Acute - RAPID onset
Marasmus is what type of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)?
-Low protein density diet
-Kcal needs marginally met
-Acute -rapid onset
Symptoms of Kwashiorkor
-Mild/moderate weight loss
-Some retention of muscle and fat
-Growth impairment (60-80%)
-Slow neurological development
Due to drop in serum albumin, electrolyte shifts
-Due to ↓ in liver protein (↓ lipoprotein production)
-Liver is not able to transport fat out
without protein, cannot make lipoprotein VLDL, and then fat cannot be transport out
-Due to ↓ antibodies, atrophy of lymph
-GI pathogens & measles common
-Starving to death
-Insufficient protein, energy, nutrients
-"small, but healthy"???
Symptoms of Marasmus
-Wasting of muscle/fat
-Severe growth impairment (<60%)
-little or no subcutaneous fat
Malnutrition in the Hospital: Kwashiorkor
-Kwashiorkor develops with long-term IV feeding consisting primarily of glucose
-May occur in patients with prolonged recovery from surgery or decreased appetite
-Increases risk for infections
Malnutrition in the Hospital: Marasmus
-Marasmus develops with insufficient intake of protein and kcals
-HIV/AIDS, anorexia nervosa, cancer, or intestinal disorders
-Death may occur from starvation or heart failure
Over-nutrition: too much protein?
-Increased risk of kidney disease for those at risk
-Increase urinary calcium excretion (osteoporosis)
-Increase blood chol (risk of heart dz). Powdered casein ↑ bld chol but soy ↓ chol (approved health claim)
-High protein diet decrease in fruit/veg/whole grains
↑ animal protein intake (meat)
-higher blood chol (heart disease, high sat fat)
-↑ risk prostate/colorectal cancer
↓ potassium, ↓ magnesium →
↑ in blood pressure?
Meats (purines) →
no more than 2 x RDA for protein
What about AA Supplements?
-Individual AA supplements may cause imbalance and toxicity (especially with methionine and tyrosine)
-Body designed to handle whole proteins
-Supplement can overwhelm absorptive mechanism
-Excess of 1 AA can decrease absorption of other AAs
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Protein Digestion & Absorption