11.1: The Byzantine Empire
Terms in this set (46)
Why did Roman empires divide the Roman empire in 395
due to difficulties in communications between the eastern and the troubled western parts of the empire
Rulers in the East saw themselves as emperors for all of__
Who was a high ranking nobleman who succeeded his uncle to the throne of the Eastern Empire. He sent his best general, Belisarius, to recover North Africa from the invading Germanic tribes. His armies won nearly all of Italy and parts of Spain. He could honestly call himself a new Caesar. He ruled nearly all of the territory Rome had ever ruled.
Who did Justinian send to recover North Africa from invading Germanic tribes
Belsarius attacked Rome and seized it from___
absolute power, headed the church and the state, and could appoint and dismiss bishops at will. Their politics were brutal, and often deadly. They lived under constant risk of assassination.
What language did most Byzantines speak
what did Justinian set up to regulate Byzantine's increasingly complex society.
a panel of legal experts who combed through 400 years of Roman law
what did Justinian's panel create
Justinian's codes consisted of four works. What were they
The Code, The Digest, The Institues, The Novellae (New laws).
What did the Code contait
nearly 5000 Roman laws that were still considered useful for the Byzantine empire
what did the Digest have
it quoted and summarized the opinions of Rome's greatest legal thinkers about the laws. It had a total of 50 volumes.
What was the Institutes
a textbook that told law students how to use the laws
What was the Novellae (New laws)
it presented legislation passed after 534
What did the Justinian Code do
Decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life. Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women's rights, and criminal justice were some things regulated.
What did Justinian do in the Roman empire
rebuilt the crumbling fortifications of Constantinople, constructed a 14 mile stone wall along the city's coastline, repaired massive fortifications along the western land border, rebuilt Hagia Sophia, built baths, aqueducts, law courts, schools and hospitals.
Justinian viewed churches as
the most visible sign of the close connection between church and state in his empire
What does Hagia sophia mean in Greek
What was the Hagia Sophia
a church that had been destroyed in riots that swept Constaninople
What did Byzantine families value
education, specifically classical learning
What were students taught
Greek and Latin grammar, philosophy, geometry (from Euclid), History (from Herodotus), medicine (from Gale).
What was the main street that ran through Contantinople
what did mese mean
What was the Hippodrome (and what does this mean in Greek)
a place where citizens could enjoy free entertainment. It offered wild chariot races and performance acts. It held 60 000 spectators. It means "horse" and "racecourse".
What was the Nika rebellion
a rebellion started by two fan groups who were angry with the government for being too severe in putting down a previous riot of hippodrome fans. They packed the Hippodrome ad demanded the overthrow of Justinian. Belisarius broke in with his troops and slaughtered 30000 rebels.
Who was Theodora
Justinian's wife who had immense power. She was his adviser, and convinced him not to flee during the Nika rebellion.
What setbacks did the Justinian empire face after Justinian's death
street riots, religious quarrels, palace intrigues, foreign dangers
What was the plague of Justinian
a plague that hit right before Justinian's death. It resembles the modern day bubonic plague. It arrived from India on ships infested with rats. In 542, the worst year of the plague, 10 000 people died everyday. It broke out repeatedly until 700. It destroyed a huge percentage of the population.
What caused the Byzantine empire to shrink
attacks from the east and west
What caused Constantinople to hold out for years, and then fall
Its wall, its fleet, and strategic location allowed it to hold out. It fell to Ottoman Turks
What split the church apart
Christianity developed differently under the east and west empires. When the eastern empire became Byzantine and flourished, the differences grew and split apart the church.
Which saint wrote rules for the lives of monks.
Eastern Christianity built its heritage on
the works of early Church fathers, such as Saint Basil and Saint John Chrysostom
What is the leading bishop of the East
a bishop of Constantinople who was the patriarch
Saint John Chrysostom
Who banned the use of icons
Emperor Leo III
religious images used by eastern christians to aid their devotions
Why did Emperor Leo III ban icons
he viewed them as idol worship
How did the people respond when Leo III banned icons
They responded with riots, and the clergy rebelled
Who restored icons to eastern churches
Who declared excommunication of a Byzantine emperor (he declared the emperor to be a outcast from the Church)
a pope in the west who supported the use of icons
Christianity eventually split to
Roman Catholic Church in the west, and the Orthodox Church in the east
Who were two of the most successful Eastern missionaries who worked among the Slavs in the ninth century, ad invented an alphabet for the Slavic languages
Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril
Many Slavic languages are now written in what is called
What are some differences between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches
The pope had authority over all bishops (RC), the patriarch and other bishops head the church as a group (EO), priests can't marry (RC), priests can marry (EO), divorce isn't permitted (RC), divorce is permitted under certain circumstances (EO).
What are some similarities between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches
They base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the bible, Their religious leaders are priests and bishops, they seek to convert people, they use sacraments such as baptism
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