Get ahead with a $300 test prep scholarship | Enter to win by Tuesday 9/24 Learn more

Terms in this set (314)

-Filippo Brunelleschi made dome on cathedral of Florence
-Lorenzo Ghiberti made bronze doors on the baptistry
-to glorify families of patrons and less so groups
-Michelangelo Sistine Chapel of the Vatican's ceiling. Commissioned by Pope Julius II.
-Michelangelo's David became a symbol of perfection and Renaissance artistic brilliance
-Michelangelo's Last Judgement on the wall of the Sistine Chapel which is a symbol of terror and divine power.
-religious topics are still popular, but the patron and the family were often in the scenes. pagan gods were also big in the art now.
-portraits became more popular, showing human ideals in a realistic stile
-Giotto led the way in realism. The body was not as stiff as normal but everything has a better perspective and seems more human.
-Donatello had balance and self awareness.
-Filippo Brunelleschi also made hospitals for orphans in a very calculated and artistic way.
-Van Eyck was one of the first to sue oil paint successfully. The religious scenes are also very realistic and have a lot of personality. Northern architecture was not change much like in Italy.
-Pope Julius II tore down the old St. Peter's Basilica and began to make a new one. Michelangelo did the dome. Also made the Pieta, Moses, Capitoline Hill also.
-Raphael (Sanzio) did a lot of frescoes and portraits. He had a large workshop and wrote treaties that talked about the importance of imitating nature and having an orderly sequence of design and proportion.
-Titian did mannerism when sometimes they made distorted figures, exaggerated musculature, and heightened color.
-Botticelli's Primavera
-women could not learn frescoes or the male nudes, but Artemisia Gentileschi did a lot of painting because she was probably the eldest daughter or there was no sons.
-Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married and pursued a common policy: Spain stayed loose confederation of kingdoms that each had their own cortes (parliament) and laws, courts, taxation, and coinage.
-excluded high nobles from royal council and appointed lesser landowners and people trained in Roman law
-got the right to appoint bishops in Spain and Hispanic territories by Alexander VI (Cesare Borgia's father). This made a national church.
-They entered into Granada and end the reconquista, so Granada was incorporated int the Spanish kingdom. Then Ferdinand conquered Navarre in the north.
-During the reconquista, many Christian kings had give Jews rights and privileges. They supported the monarchy. Over time Christians borrowed form the Jewish money lenders and began to resent them.
-anti-Jewish preaching, the scapegoat in the Black Death, 40% of Jewish population killed or forced to convert.
called conversos or New Christians. They were well educated and had a lot of influence. People resented their success.
-Convinced Pope Sixtus IV to punish converts from Judaism who apparently had insincere conversions. Even if they were actually Christian by that point, they argued that Jewish blood was forever hereditary.
-issued an edict expelling all practicing Jews from Spain. 150k/200k fled.
-Granada Muslims were forced baptized and then also New Christian to be persecuted by the inquision.
-Joanna, F&I's second daughter married Philip who is heir to the holy roman empire. Their son was Charles X. Charles X's son Philip II joined Portugal to Spanish crown later to unite the Iberian peninsula.
-Her husband Peter III came to power during the Seven Year's War. He became unpopular when he withdrew, so she disposed of him with her lover and his brothers.
-continued Peter the Great's effort to bring western culture to Russia, bringing architects, sculptors, musicians, and intellectuals. Bought masterpieces, and patronized philosophers
-offered to publish Diderot's Encyclopedia and gave him money.
-won good press, and she wrote plays and loved good talk so she set tone for Russian nobility. She westernized the imagination of the Russian nobility.
-began to prepare a new law code, restricting rooter, and allowed limited religious toleration. Tried to improve education and strengthen the local government.
-When Emelian Pugachev made a serf uprising, and proclaimed himself the true tzar, Catherine defeated him and was executed, so she stopped reforming.
-Since the peasants were dangerous, she gave the nobles absolute control of their serfs and extended serfdom into new areas like Ukraine. She needed the nobles support because her empire rested not eh support of the nobility. She released the nobles from taxation and state service. Nobles were most powerful, and serfs were most oppressed under Catherine.
-she wanted to expand. Conquered descendants of Mongols and Crimean Tartars, and began the conquest of Caucasus. Greatest achievement was the partition of Poland.
-When she was doing so well conquering territories, Frederick of Prussia proposed that she stop attacking the Turks (which was disturbing the balance of power) and in return Prussia, Russia, and Austria would each take a large piece of Polish territory.
-made Pale of Settlement, a piece of land where most Jews were required to live.
-tensions between first estate and wealthy members of third estate (bourgeoise). The nobility was closing ranks against middle class aspirations. This is an opinion that some scholars have.
-others scholars believe that the bourgeoisie and nobility were both highly fragmented and had lots of rivalries. The sword nobility was made up of people who had descended from old noble families, and the robe nobility that had acquired noble titles through service in the royal administration and judiciary. In the bourgeoisie, there was a difference in wealthy financiers and local lawyers that were rivals.
-Louis XIV's War of Austrian Succession put France into big debt, so the finance minister put a 5% income tax on everyone no matter of estate. The nobles and clergy especially whined.
-After the 7 years war, they passed emergency taxes, but those were so widely protested that they withdrew the taxes.
-Louis XV appointed Rene de Maupeou, and who abolished the existing parliaments and exiled many members to the provinces. He began to tax the privileged groups again. Public opinion sided with the old parlements and people called him a despot.
-Louis XV also unpopular because he chose Madame du Pompadour to be his mistress, who had a ton of influence where she patronized Voltaire, and promoted literature and rococo. She also helped ally France with Austria that resulted in the Seven Year's War.
-People weren't happy with him and his mistress so they desacralized the monarchy
-50% of France's annual budget went to interest payments on the debt, so less than 20% was spent on functions of the state like transportation and administration.
-king was too weak to declare partial bankruptcy, and couldn't create inflation by printing money
-France had no central bank, no paper currency, no means of generating credit, so the had to raise taxes, so the finance minister convinced Louis XVI to call the assembly of Notables, who insisted that they call the Estates General.
;