26 terms

AP Bio Chapter 9

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Aerobic respiration
Cellular respiration in the presence of O2.
Three components of aerobic respiration
Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
Glycolysis
The decomposition of glucose to pyruvate. 2 ATP are added, 2 NADH are produced, then 4 ATP are produced and 2 pyruvate are formed.
NADH
NADH is formed when NAD+ combines with two energy-rich electrons and H+.
Cytosol
Glycolysis and anaerobic respiration occur here.
Products of glycolysis
2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, and a net of 2 ATP.
Krebs Cycle
This begins when acetyl CoA combines with OAA to form citrate. there are seven intermediate products. Along the way 3 NADH and 1 FADH2 are made, and CO2 is release.
Pyruvate to acetyl CoA
This is a step leading up to the actual Krebs cycle. Pyruvate combines with coenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA. In that reaction, 1 NADH and 1 CO2 are also produced.
Coenzyme
These accept electrons during a reaction.
Product of the Krebs Cycle
CO2
Mitochondrial matrix
The Krebs cycle and the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA occur here
Oxidative phosphorylation
The process of extracting ATP from NADH and FADH2. Electrons from NADH and FADH2 pass along an electron transport chain. The chain consists of proteins that pass these electrons from one carrier protein to the next. Alone each step of the chain, the electrons give up energy used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP. NADH provides electrons that have enough energy to generate about 3 ATP, while FADH2 generates about 2 ATP.
Cytochromes
Carrier proteins
Final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain
Oxygen. The 1/2 of this accepts the two electrons and, together with the 2 H+, forms water.
36 ATP
The amount of ATP generated for each glucose processed.
Outer membrane of mitochondria
This consists of a double layer of phospholipids.
Intermembrane space of mitochondria
This is the narrow area between the inner and outer membranes. H+ ions (protons) accumulate here.
Inner membrane of membrane.
This consists of a double layer of phospholipids, has cristae. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs here. Within the membrane and its crisate, the ETC removes electrions from NADH anf FADH2 and transports protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space.
ATP Synthase
This is responsible for the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP.
Chemiosmosis
The mechanism of ATP generation that occurs when energy is stored in the form of a proton concentration gradient. Electrons are removed from NADH and FADH2. Protons are transported from the matrix to the intermembrane compartment. A pH and electrical gradient across the inner membrane is created. ATP Synthase generates ATP.
Substrate level phosphorylation
This occurs when a phosphate group and its associated energy is transferred to ADP to form ATP. The substrate donates the high energy phosphate group. This occurs during glycolysis.
Anaerobic respiration
This is when oxygen is not present and no electron acceptor exists to accept the electrons at the end of the electron transport chain. NADH accumulates.
Alcohol Fermentation
Occurs in plants, fungi and bacteria.
Pyruvate to acetaldehyde.
This occurs in alcohol fermentation. For each pyruvate, 1 CO2 and 1 acetaldehyde are produced.
Acetaldehyde to ethanol
Energy in NADH drives this reaction, releasing NAD+. For each acetaldehyde, 1 ethanol is made and 1 NAD+ is produces.
Purpose of fermentation pathway
To release some NAD+ for use by glycolysis.
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