Industrial Chapter 7 Essay

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Define the Pygmalion Effect and the role of expectations in leadership. (Q.1)
-Definition: A self-fulfilling prophecy in which managers' expectations about the level of their employee's job performance can influence that performance
-This type of self-fulfilling prophecy was first observed in the classroom. In a classic demonstration, teachers were told that some of their students had a high level of potential and others had a low level of potential. In reality, there were no such differences between the two groups; the students were equal in their abilities. The differences existed only in the teachers' expectations, as created by the experimental situation. Yet, the group of students with the allegedly high potential later scored significantly higher on IQ tests than did the other group. The teachers had subtly communicated their expectations to their students, thereby affecting the students' academic performance.
Identify the two primary dimensions of leader behavior. (Q.2)
-The Consideration Dimension: leadership behaviors that involve awareness of and sensitivity to the feelings of subordinates
-The Initiating Structure Dimension: leadership behaviors concerned with organizing, defining, and directing the work activities of subordinates
Describe Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX). (Q.3)
-It focuses on how the leader-follower relationship affects the leadership process
-Subordinates are of two types: "in-group" and "out-group"
-In-group employees are viewed by the leader as competent, trustworthy, and highly motivated
-Out-group employees are viewed as incompetent, untrustworthy, and poorly motivated
-Two leadership styles: supervision (based on formal authority) and leadership (based on persuasion)
-Leaders use supervision with out-group employees, and leadership with in-group members
-Leaders and in-group members establish personal relationships leading to mutual support and understanding
-High-LMX relationship groups tends to outperform low-LMX relationship groups
Specify the fives types of power. (Q.4)
-Reward Power: organizational leaders have the ability to reward subordinates with pay raises and promotions. Part of organizational (position) power
-Coercive Power: Organizational leaders have an equally strong source of power in their ability to punish subordinates by firing them, by withholding promotions and raises, and by keeping them in undesirable jobs. Part of organizational (position) power
-Legitimate Power: the hierarchy of control legitimizes the right of the leader to direct and supervise the activities of followers and the duty of followers to accept that supervision. Part of organizational (position) power
-Referent Power: refers to the degree to which employees identify with their leaders and the leaders' goals, accept those goals as their own, and work with their leaders to achieve the goals. Part of personal power (i.e. respect)
-Expert Power: refers to the extent to which leaders are believed to have the skills necessary to attain the group's goals. part of personal power (i.e., respect)
Describe the circumstances faced by minorities in management, the reasons Blacks give for quitting, and the issue of "reverse" discrimination relating to promotion opportunities. (Q.5)
-The major reasons Black managers gave for quitting were problems with superiors, a sense of not belonging, and a lack of challenge
-Conflict may arise when a black manager is promoted over an equally qualified white manager. The most common reaction of those passed over for promotion is that the Black person was given the job on the basis of race. This attitude can create hostility on both sides
-Black managers may also have difficulties dealing with other minority employees. Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans often believe that Blacks receive preferential treatment which can cause problems with performance appraisals of subordinates
-Minority employees of all races except Black managers to be more lenient than white managers. Black managers may be pressured by Black subordinates to give them special consideration or overlook poor job performance.
Identify the characteristics of successful first-line supervisors. (Q.6)
-Person-centered
-Supportive, helpful, willing to defend subordinates
-Democratic, with frequent meetings
-Flexible, allowing subordinates to accomplish goals their own way
-Emphasize quality, provide clear directions, and give timely feedback
Describe the problems of leadership for mid-level managers. (Q.7)
-they often feel a lack of influence in formulating company policy
-They feel like they have insufficient authority and resources to carry out that policy
-they feel obsolete
-employee participation in decision making is a source of stress
-massive layoffs and downsizing mean fewer promotion opportunities
-Top executives report high job satisfaction - in part because of more autonomy and control
Describe Fiedler's contingency theory. (Q.8)
-Leadership effectiveness is determined by the interaction between the leader's personal characteristics and the characteristics of the situation'
-Leaders are classified as person-oriented or task-oriented (which type will be more effective depends on the leader's degree of situational control)
-Control depends on relationship between leader/followers, the degree of task structure, and the leader's authority (position power)
-the task-oriented leader will be effective in extremely favorable or extremely unfavorable situations
-the person-oriented leader will be more effective in moderately favorable situations
-criticisms include most of research was in the lab, Fiedler offered in response the cognitive resource theory
Identify the characteristics of successful managers and executives. (Q.9)
-High leadership motive pattern:
--High need for power and achievement
--A lower need for affiliation
--Consideration self-control, and
--A greater need to influence people than to be liked
-Good at self-promotion and acquiring the sponsorship of a mentor
-High scores in self-monitoring
-Less people oriented and more work oriented
Describe why unsuccessful executives typically fail. (Q.10)
-Unsuccessful leaders imposed arbitrary decisions, limited the search for alternative solutions, and operated dictatorially
-Successful leaders were less dictatorial and arbitrary and allowed subordinates to participate in the decision-making process
Effective leadership depends on interaction of which three factors? (Q.11)
-Traits and behaviors of leaders
-Characteristics of the followers
-Nature of the situation
Describe the Human Relations Approach. (Q.12)
-Arose under the impact of the Hawthorne Studies, which focused attention on workers instead of production
-In the Hawthorne experiments, leaders were trained to act differently, to allow workers to set their own pace, to form social groups, and to solicit their opinions
-Workers were treated as people, not cogs in a machine
In which human resource areas do I-O psychologists contribute the most in terms of corporate leadership? (Q.13)
-Selection
-Training
-Research on leadership techniques so as to maximize leadership abilities
Describe transformational leaders. (Q.14)
-They are not constrained by their followers' perceptions but are free to act to transform (change) their followers' views
-They challenge and inspire with a sense of purpose and excitement
-they create a vision and communicate it while accepting feedback and suggestions
-score high on extroversion and agreeableness
-contains three components:
--charismatic leadership characterized by a self-promoting personality, high energy, and a willingness to take risks
--individualized consideration
--intellectual stimulation
Describe House's Path-Goal Theory. (Q.15)
-It focuses on the kinds of leader behaviors that allow subordinates to achieve personal and organizational goals
-Four leadership styles can be adopted to facilitate employee attainment of goals (directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented)
-The most effective leadership style depends on the situation and the characteristics of the subordinates
-requires leader flexibility
-directive style works best with unskilled workers
-supportive leadership works best with highly skilled workers
-theory is difficult to test and operationalize
Identify and describe the four major leadership theories described in our text. (Q.16)
-Contingency Theory: a leadership theory in which a leader's effectiveness is determined by the interaction between the leader's personal characteristics and the characteristics of the leadership situation
-Path-Goal Theory: a leadership theory that focuses on the kinds of behaviors leaders should exercise to allow their subordinates to achieve personal and organizational goals
-Leader-Member Exchange: a leadership theory that focuses on how the leader- follower relationship affects the leadership process
-Implicit Leadership Theory: a leadership theory that describes a good leader in terms of one's past experiences with different types of leaders
Compare and contrast authoritarian and democratic styles of leadership. (Q.17)
-Authoritarian Leadership results when leaders make all the decisions and tell followers what to do. It works best when situations require rapid and efficient job performance
-Democratic leadership results when leaders and followers discuss problems and make decisions jointly
Identify what the consideration dimension relates to its contingency theory, path-goal theory, and LMX. (Q.18)
-High consideration relates to:
--Person-oriented leadership (contingency theory)
--Participative leadership (path-goal theory)
--Full participation (normative decision theory)
--Leadership condition (LMX model)
Contrast the mentoring of men and women. (Q.19)
-women experience the same frequency of mentoring from higher level managers as did men
-other developmental activities are sometimes less open to women
-Comparisons of men and women consistently show that both formal training programs and on-the-job growth experiences (such as high-profile, challenging assignments that increase one's visibility to senior management) are less available to women
-Female managers appear to receive considerably less encouragement from superiors than male managers at the same level
-women find it harder than men to develop mentoring relationships with higher level executives
Specify what the Initiating Structure Dimension relates to in contingency theory, path-goal theory, and LMX. (Q.20)
-High initiating structure relates to:
--Task-oriented leadership (contingency theory)
--Directive leadership (path-goal)
--Autocracy (normative decision theory)
--Supervision (LMX model)
Describe the effects and uses of power. (Q.21)
-The types of leadership power shown to be effective, in order, are expert, legitimate, and referent power
-High and mid-level leaders show a great personal need for power
-The most effective managers do not seek power for personal gain, but rather directed toward the organization and goal accomplishment
Describe the problems of leadership for first-line supervisors. (Q.22)
-Supervisors promoted from the ranks face conflicting demands and loyalties
-the trends toward increased worker participation complicates their jobs
-self-managing work groups are a threat to supervisory power and authority
-computer technology makes supervision more difficult
Discuss leadership issues that would help to explain why half of all business start-ups fail in their first two years. (Q.23)
-Unsuccessful executives typically fail because of personality factors rather than job performance
-they tend to be lacking in consideration behaviors - insensitive, arrogant, and aloof
Describe Implicit Leadership Theory (ILT). (Q.24)
-It defines leadership from the standpoint of the persons who are being led
-According to this view, each of us develops through our past experiences with different types of leaders, our own implicit theory or image of the ideal leader. If our new manager or boss fits that ideal view or perception, then we will consider him or her to be a good leader. If not, we will consider the new boss to be a poor leader
-It is very subjective
Identify the three approaches to leadership that occurred in the first half of the twentieth century. (Q.25)
-scientific management
-human relations approach
-theory X and theory Y
Describe McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y. (Q.26)
-Douglas McGregor (1960) gave formal expression to scientific management and human relations approaches to leadership.
-Theory X approach assumes people are lazy, dislike work, and must be led and directed. It is compatible with scientific management and bureaucracy.
-Theory Y approach assumes that people find satisfaction in their work and function best under a participatory leader. It is compatible with human relations and MBO.
Identify at least six obstacles to the advancement of women as managers. (Q.27)
-women reported more barriers to advancement than men did
-women experienced a lack of fit with the corporate culture and felt that they were deliberately excluded from informal networks
-they noted difficulty in getting good assignments and they were rarely considered for job opportunities that required geographical relocation
-these female managers believed that they had to work much harder and meet higher standards than male managers did
-women found it harder than men to develop mentoring relationships with higher level executives and to have their achievements recognized by the company's top decision-makers
Contrast perceptions of the leadership behaviors of men and women as managers. (Q.28)
-when men and women display assertiveness, for example, women are typically described as "pushy."
-They expect women to take risks but always be outstanding, to be tough and ambitious but not "masculine," and to take responsibility but follow the advice of others
-the higher the management position in the corporate hierarchy, the more traditionally masculine characteristics managers of both genders are expected to display
Define scientific management. (Q.29)
-Promoted by F.W. Taylor, an engineer
-It is a philosophy concerned with increasing productivity, with workers being regarded as extensions of the machines they operated
-Goddard argued that people with low intelligence should be supervised by people of greater intelligence
-"Workers should be told what to do and how to do it"
Identify and briefly describe the styles of leadership discussed in our text. (Q.30)
-Authoritarian Leadership: when leaders make all the decisions and tell followers what to do
-Democratic Leadership: when leaders and followers discuss problems and make decisions jointly
-Transactional Leaders: they focus on the social interactions between leaders and followers
-Transformational Leaders: they are not constrained by their followers' perceptions but are free to act to transform (change) their followers' views
Describe transactional leaders. (Q.31)
-they focus on the social interactions between leaders and followers
-it is based on followers' perceptions of and expectations about the leaders abilities
-the behavior of this type of leader depends on what their followers think of them
Cognitive Resource Theory
-It focuses on the interaction of a leader's cognitive resources (intelligence, technical competence, and job-related knowledge) and level of stress
-Group performance suffers when the leader is under stress
-Cognitive abilities of directive leaders show higher positive correlation with group performance than for nondirective leaders
-Correlation between group performance and leader's cognitive abilities is higher when the group supports the leader than when it doesn't
-Leader's cognitive abilities enhance group performance to the extent the task is intellectually demanding
-Leader's directive behavior determined by relationship between the leader/followers, degree of task structure, leader's authority
-it describes the interaction between cognitive resources, job performance, and stress
-stress management techniques help leader to rely on their intelligence rather than past experiences
-generalizability of the theory remains in question
Normative Decision Theory
-It focuses on decision making that prescribes correct norms or standards of behavior that leaders should follow
-Five styles on a continuum of leader behavior are described ranging from autocratic to fully participatory
-the most effective style depends on the importance of the decision, the degree it is accepted by the subordinates, and the time required to make the decision
-Leaders must be flexible in selecting the decision-making approach that yields maximum benefits in terms of quality, acceptance, and time constraints
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