25 terms

Public order crime

Public order crimes
• Category of crimes also called consensual crimes, vice crimes, public-order, and victim less crimes
• Policing morality vs the protection of society- state should stay out of business of conducting morality.
• Laws are more heavily on the prostitutes (already disadvantaged) than on the other person involved
• The alternative perspective: important to protect society. Gambling for example, They hurt the offenders families.
• Not just a matter of morality but also for the protection of society
• Do the laws against consensual crimes do more harm than good?
i. Influence police/ official corruption
ii. Lead consensual offenders to commit other types of crime
iii. Generate public disrespect for the law
iv. Divert time, energy, money from more serious crimes
v. Provide revenue for organized crime.
Psychoactive drug
any substance that physiologically affect our behavior by changing our mood, perception or mental state. (Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, crack, over the counter medicines) at some point or another we have used drugs.
• High school seniors: 69% used ___ in past year
82% of college students have drunk __in past year, 44% report binge drinking in past 2 weeks
Illegal drugs
• __ ___: 45% of persons age 12+ have used an illegal drug at least once in their lifetime. (SAMSA, 2007)
• Ages 18-25- higher levels of illegal drug
i. Marijuana is the drug of choice
Bourgois- Drug Selling
• In search of respect: selling Crack in El barrio (1995)
• Lure of crack dealing
• $7-8 per hour, with exceptional nights (contrary to belief it is not really a lot of money)
• Poor working conditions (no heat, tough environments)
• See dignity as possible that is not attainable in conventional low wage work
• In their eyes: they have difficulty finding respect in entry level jobs. Dignity is possible in drug dealing that is not obtainable in a normal job
Drugs and crime connection
there is an association but the causality is unclear.
o Drugs aren't causing crime but living in an environment like this make you try drugs.
• Strong correlation between illegal drug use and other types of crime
Alcohol model of legalization
legalize the possession of all drugs but the government would control how they are sold
Leissez- Faire model of legalization
hands off. No state control over the legalization.
Decriminalize model of legalization
decriminalize only certain drugs (marijuana for example) not the problem of law enforcement
Do drugs provide more harm than good?
o Alcohol prohibition
(Prohibition won't work, people won't follow the law. If you outlaw illegal drugs then you might be fostering illegal crime.)
o Marijuana decriminalization
Provides a study of legalization of marijuana. In Netherlands if you are above 18 you can go but 5g of marijuana. Decriminalization does not spur higher marijuana use as a whole.
o 1.Drug laws create crime and problems they are intended to stop
o 2.Drug laws cost money to enforce
o 3.Drug laws fill prisons
o 4.Drug laws create disrespect for law (in a sense that a lot of ppl are not following it)
o 5.Drug laws are good for organized crime
o 6.Drug laws create opportunities for official corruption
o 7.Tax
o 8.Civil liberties
o Drug laws reduce the use of illegal drugs (because it is normalized & if it is outlawed it makes it more exciting to try it.)
Harm reduction policies
o Reframes the problem to a public health issues
o Drug users treated as ppl who need help
o Have programs to reduce the use of drugs. (give sterile needles to heroin users)
o Treatment is most effective than incarcerating people. The legalization of hard drugs will be politically impossible.
• Entering prostitution (Chesney- lind reseacher)
• Histories of abuse
• From teenage involvement to major role.
• Girls will only be acknowledged through sexual activity
• The needs are immediate
• The girl involved begins doing it just to get by but then they get trapped into it. It becomes a life that is not easy to exit.
Pathways to prositution
o Street prostitutes: runaway
o Some recruited by pimps
o Some drift into prostitution
o Some work in other branches of sex industry (strip clubs) and later experiment with prostitution.
Indoor prostitutes
have security cameras, there's a lot of control over the money and working conditions, provides a working and safer environments. Safer and easier to control harm/aids in prostitution.
Street workers
o Samples comparing groups (prostitution) find differences in victimization rates: proportions higher among __ __
off-street workers
(call girls and escorts)
Not risk free either
But these setting are safer than the streets
Why the difference?
Predominant focus
o Workers
o Female workers- there are also males and transgendered ppl working
o Street prostitution- know more about this
o Illegal prostitution-know more about this than legalized prostitution in brothels
Under researched topics
o Customers and managers- Customers=johns and the managers=pimps
o Male and transgender workers
o Indoor prostitution- harder to get access but we need more work to know the roles it plays in society
o Legal prostitution- need more information on legal prostitution
why do people buy sex?
o 15-18% of men have paid someone for sex.
o There is a market for this service
o Some desire someone with a specific image
o Some find it more thrilling or risky bc its illegal
o To avoid long term long term or emotional attachment in relationships
Prostitution managers
: Someone who excercises control over a worker and extracts some or all of the profit.
Little research on street level pimps and managers and owners of indoor establisments
o Legal context
Does it make it safer?
exiting prostitution
o Prostitution serving organizations
Those that allowed for role distancing were more successful
Longer term programs
Had residential programs
Clients able to adopt new role and identity
Legalizing prostitution
o Would legalization reduce problems associated with prostitution?
o Pros/cons:
o Reduce harm to society, safer and easier to control if it is legalized- can be taxed and that money can be used for good.
o If we legalize it are we favoring the victimization of women? Do we take that stance of victimization of women?
o Maybe we should start at the core of what is leading to prostitution
Sex trafficking
oRecruitment of women
Mail order brides
Friend or acquaintance who gains woman's confidence** most common way. Gets her papers confiscated and therefore is vulnerable.
Trafficking in women and girls for purposes of sexual exploitation is valued at 7 billion annualy
Estimate of over 1 milion women and girls trafficked
50-100,000 women and children are trafficked into us per year for labor or sexual exploitation