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Terms in this set (27)
1. Routes of administration for parenterals
a. Intradermal (I.D.)
b. Subcutaneous (S.C., S.Q., Sub-Q, Hypo)
c. Intramuscular (I.M.)
d. Intravenous (I.V.)
g. Intra-articular (joint)
h. Intrasynovial (joint fluid area)
i. Intraspinal, Intrathecal (spinal fluid)
2. Examples of non-aqueous vehicles: oleaginous
a. peanut oil
b. corn oil
c. cotton seed oil (Depo-TestosteroneR - Upjohn)
d. sesame oil
e. soybean oil (source of fat in IntralipidR)
f. ethyl oleate
g. isopropyl myristate
3. What is bacteriostatic water?
a. Sterile water for injection multi-dose containers that contains no more than 30mL of one or more bacteriostatic agents
b. Don't want to give more than 5mL because of toxicity
4. Bacteriostatic NaCl percentage?
5. Bacteriostatic preservative used?
a. Benzyl alcohol
6. pH of bacteriostatic water and how is it adjusted?
a. 5 (4.5-7)
b. adjusted with HCl
7. Bacteriostatic water is used for what purpose?
a. Multi-dose container for repeated withdrawals to dilute or dissolve a drug
8. When should bacteriostatic not be used?
a. Because it contains benzyl alcohol.....
ii. Fluid or NaCl replacement
iii. Epidural or spinal anesthetic procedures
9. *What are products of metabolism of microorganisms
-endotoxins the most prevalent lipopolysaccharaides from gram negative bacteria cell wall ?
What does a pyrogen do to the body?
a. Causes fever, malaise, muscle ache and possible shock-like symptoms
11. How to prevent pyrogens?
a. Heat to high temps...like 250C for 45 min
12. Sources of pyrogens?
a. Water, containers, equipment, solute
13. Solubility: Creatnine
a. Solubilize free hydrocortisone precipitate in hydrocortisone phosphate products
14. Solubility: niacinamide
a. Solubilize riboflavin before riboflavin phosphate was available
15. Solubility: sodium benzoate
a. Solubilize caffeine
16. Solubility: ethylene diamine
a. Solubilize theophylline
17. Other things to know that influence solubility
a. Barbiturates, cardiac glycosides, antihistamines
b. Toxicity specs of solvents; Ex. Instability of PEG 300 can cause toxic decomposition of products
18. Parenterals should be ____ and ____-free.
19. What test is done for pyrogens?
a. Limulus test-contains a protein, which clots in the presence of endotoxins
20. The destruction and removal of all living organisms?
21. Lyophilization is?
22. Freeze drying is when?
a. Water is *sublimed from the product after it is frozen to dry the product
23. Steps of Freeze-drying?
a. Freezing an aqueous product
b. Evacuate the chamber
c. Introduce heat to allow subliming of ice into a cold condensing surface
How many types of glass are there and what are they?
Type 1, 2, 3 and NP (nonparenteral)
Type 1 glass is made of ___ and used for ___.
-resistant to thermal shock
Type 2 glass is made of ___ and used for ___.
-soda-lime treated glass
-resistant to interaction with liquids
Type 3 glass is made of ___ and used for ___.
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