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three derivatives of penicillin are

1. amoxacillin
2. ampicillin
3. carbenicillin

infection occurs when _________

pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues

an inanimate object that harbors and transmits a pathogen


a disease that has a steady frequency over time in a particular geographic location


when an enzyme nicks a strand of DNA and breaks it apart while the other strand remains. the broken strand rolls off the lopp and is used as a template for 2 new chromosomes, one of which is used for mating

rolling circle method of DNA replication

why can DNA that is 1.5 mm long fit into a cell that is only .5 um in diameter

DNA has a loop domain structure

groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene hve the code for one _____

amino acid

the minimum amount of microbes that will cause disease is the _____

infectious dose

agents that can denature microbial proteins include

moist heat, metallic ions, acids, alcohol

____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to ____ heat

moist, dry

____ is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them


the first phase of the bacterial growth curve, where little growth occurs

lag phase

the second phase of the bacterial growth curve, where the most growth occurs

log phase (exponential phase)

the third phase of the bacterial growth curve, where steady growth is maintained

stationary phase

the fourth phase of the bacterial growth curv, where bacteria begins to die off

decline phase

the normal process of bacterial chromosomal replication is called "semi conservative" because _________

one strand of parent DNA is conserved and the other is paried with a new strand

the array of molecules known as ___________ are the mutation fighters in the cell

DNA patrol

if it was not for _________ we would not be able to used plastic petri dished for culturing bacteria

ethylene oxide

the effectiveness of soaps is due to the fact that they _________

mechanically remove organisms

the term _________ refers to the antibiotics that are composed of amino groups and carbohydrates


the ________ state in a patient refers to the presence of a pathogenic organism in the bloodstream that is the cause of the disease


the _______ cycle of a bacteriophage infecting a host cells occurs when it invades the cell and causes the cell to rupture


the _______ cycle of a bacteriophage infecting a host cell occurs when it has a repressor gene that either makes a plasmid or integrates host DNA


xrays are a form of _______ radiation because they make a _______ (same term) substance by taking an electron off


exotoxins are only released after a cell is __________.

damaged or lysed

bacteriocidal agents kill _______ cells


_______ solution was introduced in the late 19th century for treating syphillis infections


three types of filtration that are used for sterilization are:

inorganic, organic, membrane

in the process of autoclaving material, it is the ______ that is the sterilizing agent, not the _________.

heat, pressure

three basic physical requirements that must be met for successful sterilization using the autoclave:

15 lbs/inches squared, 15 minutes, 121.5 degrees Celcius

two organisms interacting resulting in a greater than additive effect


synthesizes own food from simple inorganic carbon sources


a plasmid that can transfer drug resistance

r factor

sites on the chromosome to which genetic activity attributed


donor mating type in bacteria


symbiotic relationship benefiting both organisms


effective agent for bacterial invasiveness


free of contaminating organisms


agent used on living objects to destroy organisms


symbiotic realtionship where one organism derives benefit and the other is unharmed


stretches of DNA replicated in a discontinuous fashion

okazaki fragment

destruction or removal of all life forms


parasitic organism that causes disease


bacteriophage that induces lysogeny

temperate phage

bacterial product that kills other bacteria


endotoxins are a part of _________ cells walls, whereas exotoxins are produced by _______ cells

gram -, gram +

endotoxins are secreted when ________, whereas exotoxins are secreted _______

the cell disintegrates, freely

discovered prontosil


first to isolate penicillin

florey and chain

father of chemotherapeutic agents


discovered penicillin


____________ kills bacterial cells because it inhibits chromosome replication so that maintenance proteins are not produced

ultraviolet light

the first stage of an infectious disease, the period between invasion of the bacteria and appearance of symptoms


second stage of an infectious disease, when the general symptoms show


third stage of infectious disease, when sever symptoms show/occur


fourth stage of infectious disease, when symptoms fade away


fifth stage of infectious disease, when there are no symptoms, carrier


opportunistic pathogens cause disease in ________

compromised individuals

virulence factors include:

capsules, exoenzymes, endtoxins, exotoxins

two major drawbacks for the use of penicillin:

it can produce life threatening allergic reactions, and cause increased resistance to the drug

Coagulates _____

clot fibrogen proteins around organism

leukocidins damage _____

white blood cells

hemolysins damage ____

red blood cells

someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to others is a _____


the bacterial chromosome found in a space in the cytoplasm is called the _____


an animal such as an arthropod that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a _____


a form of bacterial recombination, bacteriophage introduces DNA


a form of bacterial recombination, donor DNA donates nucleic acids via pilli to recipient


a form of bacterial recombination, donor DNA goes into recipient and replaces a degraded strand of recipient DNA


2 common techniques used to generate pure cultures from a sample:

streak plate, pour plate

type of transposable genetic element, larger and non-reciprocal (nothing replaces it)


type of transposable genetic element, smaller and original sequence stays in place

insertion sequences

the site where the old DNA strands separate and the new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the ______

replication fork

a permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a ______


degree of pathogenicity:


member of normal flora that generates disease in debilitated individual:


large outbreak of disease:


global outbreak of disease:


___ is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage


examples of heavy metals:

merthiolate, silver nitrate solutions, zinc, mercurochrome

______ solution introduced in the 19th century for preventing gonococcal infections in a newborns eyes after exposure to mothers infected birth canal

silver nitrate

the term infection refers to:

pathogens penetrating host defenses

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