82 terms

II micro exam

three derivatives of penicillin are
1. amoxacillin
2. ampicillin
3. carbenicillin
infection occurs when _________
pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues
an inanimate object that harbors and transmits a pathogen
a disease that has a steady frequency over time in a particular geographic location
when an enzyme nicks a strand of DNA and breaks it apart while the other strand remains. the broken strand rolls off the lopp and is used as a template for 2 new chromosomes, one of which is used for mating
rolling circle method of DNA replication
why can DNA that is 1.5 mm long fit into a cell that is only .5 um in diameter
DNA has a loop domain structure
groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene hve the code for one _____
amino acid
the minimum amount of microbes that will cause disease is the _____
infectious dose
agents that can denature microbial proteins include
moist heat, metallic ions, acids, alcohol
____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to ____ heat
moist, dry
____ is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them
the first phase of the bacterial growth curve, where little growth occurs
lag phase
the second phase of the bacterial growth curve, where the most growth occurs
log phase (exponential phase)
the third phase of the bacterial growth curve, where steady growth is maintained
stationary phase
the fourth phase of the bacterial growth curv, where bacteria begins to die off
decline phase
the normal process of bacterial chromosomal replication is called "semi conservative" because _________
one strand of parent DNA is conserved and the other is paried with a new strand
the array of molecules known as ___________ are the mutation fighters in the cell
DNA patrol
if it was not for _________ we would not be able to used plastic petri dished for culturing bacteria
ethylene oxide
the effectiveness of soaps is due to the fact that they _________
mechanically remove organisms
the term _________ refers to the antibiotics that are composed of amino groups and carbohydrates
the ________ state in a patient refers to the presence of a pathogenic organism in the bloodstream that is the cause of the disease
the _______ cycle of a bacteriophage infecting a host cells occurs when it invades the cell and causes the cell to rupture
the _______ cycle of a bacteriophage infecting a host cell occurs when it has a repressor gene that either makes a plasmid or integrates host DNA
xrays are a form of _______ radiation because they make a _______ (same term) substance by taking an electron off
exotoxins are only released after a cell is __________.
damaged or lysed
bacteriocidal agents kill _______ cells
_______ solution was introduced in the late 19th century for treating syphillis infections
three types of filtration that are used for sterilization are:
inorganic, organic, membrane
in the process of autoclaving material, it is the ______ that is the sterilizing agent, not the _________.
heat, pressure
three basic physical requirements that must be met for successful sterilization using the autoclave:
15 lbs/inches squared, 15 minutes, 121.5 degrees Celcius
two organisms interacting resulting in a greater than additive effect
synthesizes own food from simple inorganic carbon sources
a plasmid that can transfer drug resistance
r factor
sites on the chromosome to which genetic activity attributed
donor mating type in bacteria
symbiotic relationship benefiting both organisms
effective agent for bacterial invasiveness
free of contaminating organisms
agent used on living objects to destroy organisms
symbiotic realtionship where one organism derives benefit and the other is unharmed
stretches of DNA replicated in a discontinuous fashion
okazaki fragment
destruction or removal of all life forms
parasitic organism that causes disease
bacteriophage that induces lysogeny
temperate phage
bacterial product that kills other bacteria
endotoxins are a part of _________ cells walls, whereas exotoxins are produced by _______ cells
gram -, gram +
endotoxins are secreted when ________, whereas exotoxins are secreted _______
the cell disintegrates, freely
discovered prontosil
first to isolate penicillin
florey and chain
father of chemotherapeutic agents
discovered penicillin
____________ kills bacterial cells because it inhibits chromosome replication so that maintenance proteins are not produced
ultraviolet light
the first stage of an infectious disease, the period between invasion of the bacteria and appearance of symptoms
second stage of an infectious disease, when the general symptoms show
third stage of infectious disease, when sever symptoms show/occur
fourth stage of infectious disease, when symptoms fade away
fifth stage of infectious disease, when there are no symptoms, carrier
opportunistic pathogens cause disease in ________
compromised individuals
virulence factors include:
capsules, exoenzymes, endtoxins, exotoxins
two major drawbacks for the use of penicillin:
it can produce life threatening allergic reactions, and cause increased resistance to the drug
Coagulates _____
clot fibrogen proteins around organism
leukocidins damage _____
white blood cells
hemolysins damage ____
red blood cells
someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to others is a _____
the bacterial chromosome found in a space in the cytoplasm is called the _____
an animal such as an arthropod that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a _____
a form of bacterial recombination, bacteriophage introduces DNA
a form of bacterial recombination, donor DNA donates nucleic acids via pilli to recipient
a form of bacterial recombination, donor DNA goes into recipient and replaces a degraded strand of recipient DNA
2 common techniques used to generate pure cultures from a sample:
streak plate, pour plate
type of transposable genetic element, larger and non-reciprocal (nothing replaces it)
type of transposable genetic element, smaller and original sequence stays in place
insertion sequences
the site where the old DNA strands separate and the new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the ______
replication fork
a permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a ______
degree of pathogenicity:
member of normal flora that generates disease in debilitated individual:
large outbreak of disease:
global outbreak of disease:
___ is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage
examples of heavy metals:
merthiolate, silver nitrate solutions, zinc, mercurochrome
______ solution introduced in the 19th century for preventing gonococcal infections in a newborns eyes after exposure to mothers infected birth canal
silver nitrate
the term infection refers to:
pathogens penetrating host defenses