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when an enzyme nicks a strand of DNA and breaks it apart while the other strand remains. the broken strand rolls off the lopp and is used as a template for 2 new chromosomes, one of which is used for mating
rolling circle method of DNA replication
why can DNA that is 1.5 mm long fit into a cell that is only .5 um in diameter
DNA has a loop domain structure
____ is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them
the second phase of the bacterial growth curve, where the most growth occurs
log phase (exponential phase)
the normal process of bacterial chromosomal replication is called "semi conservative" because _________
one strand of parent DNA is conserved and the other is paried with a new strand
if it was not for _________ we would not be able to used plastic petri dished for culturing bacteria
the term _________ refers to the antibiotics that are composed of amino groups and carbohydrates
the ________ state in a patient refers to the presence of a pathogenic organism in the bloodstream that is the cause of the disease
the _______ cycle of a bacteriophage infecting a host cells occurs when it invades the cell and causes the cell to rupture
the _______ cycle of a bacteriophage infecting a host cell occurs when it has a repressor gene that either makes a plasmid or integrates host DNA
xrays are a form of _______ radiation because they make a _______ (same term) substance by taking an electron off
_______ solution was introduced in the late 19th century for treating syphillis infections
in the process of autoclaving material, it is the ______ that is the sterilizing agent, not the _________.
three basic physical requirements that must be met for successful sterilization using the autoclave:
15 lbs/inches squared, 15 minutes, 121.5 degrees Celcius
endotoxins are a part of _________ cells walls, whereas exotoxins are produced by _______ cells
gram -, gram +
endotoxins are secreted when ________, whereas exotoxins are secreted _______
the cell disintegrates, freely
____________ kills bacterial cells because it inhibits chromosome replication so that maintenance proteins are not produced
the first stage of an infectious disease, the period between invasion of the bacteria and appearance of symptoms
two major drawbacks for the use of penicillin:
it can produce life threatening allergic reactions, and cause increased resistance to the drug
a form of bacterial recombination, donor DNA donates nucleic acids via pilli to recipient
a form of bacterial recombination, donor DNA goes into recipient and replaces a degraded strand of recipient DNA
type of transposable genetic element, smaller and original sequence stays in place
the site where the old DNA strands separate and the new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the ______
___ is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage
______ solution introduced in the 19th century for preventing gonococcal infections in a newborns eyes after exposure to mothers infected birth canal
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