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Christ founded a college of 12 apostles to whom he committed his ambassadorship.

Thesis I

to establish something freely, authoritatively, expressly, in the social order

to found

a social body in which those chosen to belong to it have a social bond and are distinguished by that bond from other people


someone who is sent; ambassador


(Hebrew) one who is sent

shâliach (literal)

Greek for "one who is sent"

apostolos (literal)


apostolos (standard)

office received by the Father for the procurement of the salvation of all people

ambassadorship of Christ

modern ambassador

NOT an ambassador plenipotentiary; cannot make all the decisions in the name of the sender without the sender's approval

biblical ambassador (shâliach)

is an ambassador plenipotentiary; can make all the decisions in the name of the sender without prior approval from the sender

informal representative

someone who unofficially represents another person; NOT an ambassador

formal (juridical) representative

a person who is sent as an extension of the sender and represents the sender juridically

only some

How much power and authority can Christ communicate to the apostles?

divine person power

the power to create, infinite knowledge

human + divine person authority and

power to work miracles in his own name and power, the power to establish sacraments

Messianic power

power that Christ can communicate to other humans

Christ founded a permanent, stable, hierarchical society.

Thesis II

governing power

power to oblige members of a society to be united and act for a common goal

sanctifying power

power to dedicate other to God or unite others with God by a religious rite prescribed by God

teaching power

power to hand on a doctrine in such a way that those who receive it are obliged to accept it

rule by a sacred person


a person designated by God, mediately or immediately, to hold an office established by God

sacred person

liberal and traditional protestants

opponents to the thesis

liberal protestants

denied that Christ founded a visible society; denied that the Church was visible, stable, hierarchical society; believe Christ did not intend the 12 apostles to be rulers

traditional protestants

believed that the 12 apostles were chosen to rule the Church temporarily, they're only needed to start the Church; the office of leadership wasn't passed on; the Church is now ruled by the Bible

asar (literal)


shere (literal)


Yes. Christ gave vast social power to the apostles & obliges all people to be subject to the teaching of the apostles. He implies that office of apostle will endure until the end of the world.

Did Christ intend the Apostolic Office to endure?

Yes- The apostles teach. The apostles govern. The apostles sanctify.

Did the Apostles behave as though they thought they had the authority to continue the mission of Christ to teach, govern, and sanctify?

Yes- The Election of Matthias; Paul as an Apostle; The office of Presbyteros, Diakonos, and Episkopos

Did the apostles transmit their ambassadorial mission to others?

Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Tertullian, Irenaeus of Lyons

Did the early, post-apostolic Church understand that the hierarchial office of Apostle had been transmitted to others after the original Apostles were gone?

90-99 AD

Clement of Rome dates

Clement of Rome

appealed to apostolic succession as the only way of determining who has legitimate authority to rule in the Curch

197 AD

Ignatius of Antioch dates

Ignatius of Antioch

first to call the church "universal"; writes about the full authority of bishops in a local church

letter to the Corinthians

What did Clement of Rome write?

seven letters

What did Ignatius of Antioch write?

apostolic succession

the principle by which the hierarchical office is continued from the apostles to the present day by means of a successive laying on of hands


asar (common)


shere (common)


diakonos (literal)


presbyteros (literal)


episkopos (literal)


diakonos (common)


presbyteros (common)


episkopos (common)

process of election

The process by which someone is chosen to hold a particular office

process of installation

The process by which someone is actually installed in that office and officially made the office holder

180 AD

Irenaeus of Lyons dates

Against the Heresies

What did Irenaeus of Lyons write?

Irenaeus of Lyons

Who was ordained by Polycarp by John?

200 AD

Tertullian dates


convert; priest; apologist


Who wrote against the gnostics?


Who wrote "Perscription Against the Heretics"?

The apostles teach.

So then the Lord Jesus, after he spoke to them, was taken up into heaven and took his seat at the right hand of God. But they went forth and preached everywhere, while the Lord workied with them and confirmed the word through accompaniying signs.

Christ obliges all people to be subject to the teaching of the apostles.

'He said to them, "Go into the whole world and proclaim the gospel to every creature. Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, whoever does not believe will be condemned." '

Christ implies that the office of apostle will endure until the end of the world.

'All power in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching thm to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the world.'

The apostles teach.

"And all day long, both at the temple and in their homes, they did not stop teaching and proclaiming the Messiah, Jesus."

The apostles teach.

"Paul, as a slave of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle and set apart for the gospel of God...Through him we have recieved the grace of apostleship, to bring about the obedience of faith, for the sake of his name, among all the Gentiles, among whom are you also, who are called to belong to Jesus Christ....To Greeks and non-Greeks alike to the wise and the ignorant, I AM UNDER OBLIGATION; that is why i am eager to PREACH the gospel also to you in Rome." (Rom.)

The apostles sanctify.

"Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins"


jew(saul) Roman (paulus) he was on his way to Demascus when Christ appeared to him and was blinded, called to be an apostle.

the apostles sanctify.

"we implore you on behalf of Christ, be reconcilesd to God."

The apostles govern.

"peter acts as a judge of Ananias and Sapphira"

The apostles govern.

"i praise you because you remember me in everything and hold fast to the traditions, just as i handed them on to you"


"let them (the heretics) produce the original records of their churches, let them unfold the roll of their bishops, running down in due succession from the beginning in such a manner" he wrote about gnostics and succession

clement of rome

"in countries and towns they preached and appointed their students after they have proved them in spirit as bishops and deacons of the future faithful. Our apostles, through the Lord Jesus Christ, knew that disputes would arise about the episcopal office. For this reason, as they had received exact knowledge of this in advance, they appointed the above named men, and subsequently gave directions that when these should fall asleep, other tried men should take over their duties"

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