APHG Unit 5 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (60)
group's system of economic production. In non-industrial societies, it is usually based on food production.
concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing and retailing
The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields. Effects how much yield one gets from their plants.
Agricultural location model
An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. He also points out that vegetative planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W. India, N. China and Ethiopia. Without the development of agriculture we would still have a relatively small and likely uneducated population.
the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy)
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
rearing aquatic animals or cultivating aquatic plants for food
The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies.
the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
a farm or group of farms run by the government, as in a communist state
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Forgiveness of international debt in exchange for nature protection in developing countries
the act of dispersing or diffusing something
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
any action that relates to the making, buying, and selling of goods and services
Changes in the ecosystem resulting from human activities such as the use of pesticides, soil erosion, desertification.
Extensive subsistence agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
Industries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from the Earth
During war, higher demand farmers bought land. Then demand goes down, overproduction, no money to pay off loans. Dust Bowl.
working the land as an occupation or way of life
a building where livestock are fattened for market
First agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
the act of someone who fishes as a diversion
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
the science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber
consumer driven agriculture integrated on an international scale
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
the season during which a crop grows best
Hunting and gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
the clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, & other manual equipment
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
the growing of vegetables or flowers for market
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
(fossil fuel) natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources
the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth
economy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
raising a large amount of a "cash crop" for local sale or export
-renewable: easily replenished. (sun, air, plants, animals, water.)
-nonrenewable: not easily replenished. (coal, fossil fuels, rocks, minerals.)
Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism (ecotourism).
Sauer, Carl O.
defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion; economic features such as agriculture and industry; and physical features such as climate and vegetation. "Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result."
Second agricultural revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
the special line of work you have adopted as your career
Grains that can be stored and used throughout the year
In American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews.
lines laid out by surveyors prior to the settlement of an area
Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
Third agricultural revolution
currently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms
"Tragedy of the commons"
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
a farm where vegetables are grown for market
Von Thünen, Johann Heinrich
German farmer who initially proposed model which suggested the trend of crop location in commercial farming.