100 terms

Protist

what are protists. for protists quiz feb. 13, 2012
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protists
unicellular, multicellular, or colonial eukaryote; must live in a wet environment; can be plantlike, animal-like, or funguslike
Eukaryotes
cell with nucleus enclosed by a membrane
autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
heterotroph
does not make its own food
amoeba
A type of protist characterized by great flexibility and the presence of pseudopodia.
cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
flagelum
..., long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move
euglena
it has one flagellum
paramecium
it has cilia all over its body
photosynthesis
..., Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
stigma
a spot in a cell or organism that it sees with it attracts light
binary fission
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
endosymbiosis
A theorized process in which early eukaryotic cells were formed from simpler prokaryotes.
slime mould
decomposer, likes damp areas, shy
dinoflagellates
Another group of algae that have two flagella, live in saltwater,glow in the dark, do not contain chlorophyll, cause red tide, no cell wall
phytoplankton
Population of algae and other small. photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean and forming part of plankton
zooplankton
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
seaweed
Many-celled red algae, many-celled brown algae, and green algae
red algae
Deep-depth algae that contribute to the formation of coral reefs
brown algae
Giant Kelp
green algae
Closely related to land plants
yellow algae
a group of algae that includes the diatoms, not seaweed
Characteristics of Protists
Eukaryotic that aren't animals, plants or fungi; Most are unicellular; Some are parasites; Reproduce asexually, sexually, or both; Many have contractile vacuole to pump out water; Classified by way they obtain food.
Classification of Protists
Animallike, plantlike, fungilike
Added complexity to bacteria main areas
Eukaryotic; Multicellularity; Sexual reproduction; Meiosis and mitosis.
Protozoa
Animallike; heterotrophs; classified by how they move.
Zooflagellates
Move with flagella (1 or more)
Trypanosoma
Causes African Sleeping Sickness (vector is tsetse fly)
Giardia
Causes intestinal disease
Trichonympha
Lives in the guts of termites, helps termite digest cellulose in wood- mutualistic relationship.
Sarcodines
Move with pseudopods.
Amoeboid Movement
The type of locomotion using pseudopods.
Food Vacuole
A small cavity in the cytoplasm that temporarily stores food.
Entamoeba Histolytica
Causes Amoebic Dysentery
Endocytosis
Sarcodines obtain food by creating a food vacuole.
Ciliates
Move with Cilia
Trichocysts
Very small, bottle-shaped structures used for defense. When a paramecium is in danger, such as a predator, the trichocysts release stiff projections that protect the cell.
Macronucleus
Working copy of genes
Micronucleus
Reserve copy of genes
Gullet
Many ciliates obtain food by using cilia to sweep food into the gullet, an indentation in one side of the organism.
Anal Pore
Waste materials are emptied into the environment when the food vacuole fuses with a region of the cell membrane.
Contractile Vacuoles
Cavities in the cytoplasm that are specialized to collect water. Helps Paramecium and other water dwelling cells to maintain Homeostasis.
Conjugation
Sexual process but not conjugation. Two cells are now identical.
Sporozoans
Don't move at all.
Sporozoites
Cells with tough outer coats. Formed from sporozoans.
Malaria
Caused by plasmodium. Infected through Mosquitoes. 300-500 million people die from malaria every year.
Common Symptoms of Malaria
Diarrhea, Cough, Body Ache, Sweat, Nausea and Vomiting, Chills and Shivers, Fever, Headache
Algae (unicellular)
Plantlike; make their own food. Along with photosynthetic bacteria, are known as phytoplankton.
Euglenophytes
2 flagella, no cell wall. Eyespot- helps find sunlight. Can be heterotrophic
Diatoms
Cell walls of silicon
Dinoflagellates
2 flagella that wrap around it. Many are luminesce. Can cause red tide releasing harmful toxins when grow out of control.
Chrysophytes
Yellow-green and golden brown algae; Have gold colored chloroplasts.
Red Algae
Absorb blue and reflect red light; can live in deep regions of oceans; important part of coral reefs.
Brown Algae
Giant kelp-largest known algae
Green Algae
Unicellular, colonial, or multicellular
Unicellular Green Algae
Chlamydomonas, a typical single-celled green algae, grows in ponds, ditches, and wet soil.
Colonial Green Algae
Several species of this type of algae live in multicellular colonies.
Filaments
Type of colonial green algae; long threadlike colonies in which the cells are stacked almost like aluminum cans placed end to end.
Multicellular Green Algae
Bright-green marine alga that is commonly ound along rocky seacoasts.
Alternation of Generations
life cycle pattern where haploid individual alternates with diploid individual.
Alternation of Generations Cycle
Gametophyte (N)- Produces Gametes (mitosis)
Gametes (N)- Sex Cells (sperm and egg) (fertilization)
Zygote (2N)- Develops into sporophyte (mitosis)
Sporophyte (2N)- Produces spores (meiosis)
Spores (N)- Forms Gametophyte
Mitosis
occurs when chromosome number stays the same.
Meiosis
meiosis occurs when diploid becomes haploid.
Saprophytes
Slime molds and Water molds. Fungi-like but no chitin in cell walls, can move, and have centrioles. Heterotrophic decomposers.
protists
Unicellular, multicellular, or colonial eukaryote; must live in a wet environment; can be plantlike, animal-like, or funguslike
Eukaryotes
Cell with nucleus enclosed by a membrane
autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
heterotroph
does not make its own food
amoeba
A type of protist characterized by the presence of pseudopodia.
cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
flagelum
Long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move
euglena
Plant like protist which has a red eye spot
paramecium
Protozoan which has cilia all over its body; can reproduce asexually (mitosis) or sexually
eyespot
A spot in a cell or organism that recognizees light (photosynthesis)
binary fission
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size (mitosis)
endosymbiosis
A theorized process in which early eukaryotic cells were formed from simpler prokaryotes.
slime mold
Fungus likek protist - decomposer, likes damp areas
dinoflagellates
Another group of algae that have two flagella, live in saltwater,glow in the dark, do not contain chlorophyll, cause red tide, no cell wall
phytoplankton
Population of algae and other small. photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean and forming part of plankton
zooplankton
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
seaweed
Many-celled red algae, many-celled brown algae, and green algae
red algae
Deep-depth algae that contribute to the formation of coral reefs
brown algae
Giant Kelp
green algae
Closely related to land plants
yellow algae
a group of algae that includes the diatoms, not seaweed
contractile vacuole
cell organelle found in some protists which use energy (active transport) to remove excess water from the cell (Paramecia, Euglena,...)
sarcodines
Have pseudo pods for movement and food getting
protozoa
Animal like protists
macro nucleus
large nucleus found in some protists (paramecia)
small nucleus is called micronucleus
Protozoans with Pseudopods
- Animal-like.
- Move using pseudopods (temporary bulges in the cell).
- Formed when the cytoplasm moves in one direction and the cell follows.
- This method can be used to obtain food when the cytoplasm surrounds the food completely.
Protozoans with Cilia
- Animal-like.
- Move using cilia
- Cilia are small hair-like structures that move like a wave.
Protozoans with Flagella
- Animal-like.
- Move using whip-like structures called flagella.
- Live in the bodies of other organisms.
- Can have a symbiotic relationship with another organism.
Parasidic Protozoans
- Animal-like.
- Feed on their host cell's body fluids.
- Move with flagella, ciliates, or even slime.
Diatoms
- Plant-like.
- Unicellular with glass-like cell walls.
- Source of food for heterotrophs living in the water.
- Move by oozing chemicals and gliding in them.
- When they die, their cell walls collect and form "diatomaceous earth".
Dinoflagellates
- Plant-like.
- Surrounded by what looks like armor.
- Flagella is held between the armor.
- Have green, orange, and other pigments.
- Glow int he dark when ocean is disturbed.
Euglenoids
- Plant-like.
- Green unicellular algae.
- Mostly found in fresh water.
- Can be heterotrophic, but usually autotrophic.
- Move using flagella and have an eyespot.
Red Algae
- Plant-like.
- Multicellular seaweeds.
- Can be used in conditioner and ice cream.
- Can be found living up to 260 meters underwater.
Green Algae
- Plant-like.
- Unicellular with green pigments.
- Can form colonies and become multicellular.
- Live in the water, or can be cound on rocks or trees.
Brown Algae
- Plant-like.
- Many organisms called seaweed are brown algae.
- Have brown, yellow, and orange pigments.
- Live in cool, rocky water.
Slime Molds
- Fungus-like.
- Live on forest floors and other moist places.
- Ooze along surface of decaying materials and eat bacteria.
- Some are microscopic, others cover many meters.

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