The treatment of emotional or behavior problems through psychological techniques.
A nonspecific improvement that occurs as a result of a person's expectations of change rather than as a direct result of any specific therapeutic treatment.
A research technique in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the control and experimental groups.
Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.
A lengthy insight therapy that was developed by Freud and aims at uncovering conflicts and unconscious impulses through special techniques, including free association, dream analysis, and transference.
Therapies that use approaches or techniques derived from Freud, but that reject or modify some elements of Freud's theory.
Any therapy that attempts to discover relationships between unconscious motivations and current abnormal behavior.
Psychoanalytic technique in which a person is asked to report to the therapist his or her thoughts and feelings as they occur, regardless of how trivial, illogical, or objectionable their content may appear.
Psychoanalytic technique in which a patient's dreams are described in detail and interpreted so as to provide insight into the individual's unconscious motivations.
In Freud's theory, the technique of providing a context, meaning, or cause for a specific idea, feeling, or set of behaviors; the process of tying a set of behaviors to its unconscious determinant.
In psychoanalysis, an unwillingness to cooperate, which a patient signals by showing a reluctance to provide the therapist with information or to help the therapist understand or interpret a situation.
Psychoanalytic phenomenon in which a therapist becomes the object of a patient's emotional attitudes about an important person in the patient's life, such as a parent.
In psychoanalysis, the repetitive cycle of interpretation, resistance to interpretation, and transference.
An insight therapy, developed be Carl Rogers, that seeks to help people evaluate the world and themselves from their own perspective by providing them with a nondirective environment and unconditional positive regard; also known as person-centered therapy.
A therapy that is based on the application of learning principles to human behavior and that focuses on changing overt behaviors rather than on understanding subjective feelings, unconscious processes, or motivations; also known as behavior modification.
The appearance of one overt symptom to replace another that has been eliminated by treatment.
An operant conditioning procedure in which individuals who display appropriate behavior receive tokens that they can exchange for desirable items or activities.
An operant conditioning procedure in which a person is physically removed from sources of reinforcement to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviors.
Process of reconditioning in which a person is taught a new, more adaptive response to a familiar stimulus.
A three-stage counterconditioning procedure in which people are taught to relax when confronting stimuli that forming elicited anxiety.
A counterconditioning technique in which an aversive or noxious stimulus is paired with a stimulus with the undesirable behavior.
A cognitive behavior therapy that emphasizes the importance of logical, rational thought processes.
Psychotherapeutic process in which several people meet as a group with a therapist to receive psychological help.
A type of therapy in which two or more people who are committed to one another's well-being are treated at once, in and effort to change the ways the interact.
Brain surgery used in the past to alleviate symptoms of serious mental disorders.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A treatment for severe mental illness in which an electric current is briefly applied to the head in order to produce a generalized seizure.