26 terms

AP Psych Ch 16-Therapy

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Psychotherapy
The treatment of emotional or behavior problems through psychological techniques.
Placebo effect
A nonspecific improvement that occurs as a result of a person's expectations of change rather than as a direct result of any specific therapeutic treatment.
Double-blind techniques
A research technique in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the control and experimental groups.
Demand characteristics
Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.
Psychoanalysis
A lengthy insight therapy that was developed by Freud and aims at uncovering conflicts and unconscious impulses through special techniques, including free association, dream analysis, and transference.
Psychodynamically
Therapies that use approaches or techniques derived from Freud, but that reject or modify some elements of Freud's theory.
Insight therapy
Any therapy that attempts to discover relationships between unconscious motivations and current abnormal behavior.
Free association
Psychoanalytic technique in which a person is asked to report to the therapist his or her thoughts and feelings as they occur, regardless of how trivial, illogical, or objectionable their content may appear.
Dream analysis
Psychoanalytic technique in which a patient's dreams are described in detail and interpreted so as to provide insight into the individual's unconscious motivations.
Interpretation
In Freud's theory, the technique of providing a context, meaning, or cause for a specific idea, feeling, or set of behaviors; the process of tying a set of behaviors to its unconscious determinant.
Resistance
In psychoanalysis, an unwillingness to cooperate, which a patient signals by showing a reluctance to provide the therapist with information or to help the therapist understand or interpret a situation.
Transference
Psychoanalytic phenomenon in which a therapist becomes the object of a patient's emotional attitudes about an important person in the patient's life, such as a parent.
Working through
In psychoanalysis, the repetitive cycle of interpretation, resistance to interpretation, and transference.
Client-centered therapy
An insight therapy, developed be Carl Rogers, that seeks to help people evaluate the world and themselves from their own perspective by providing them with a nondirective environment and unconditional positive regard; also known as person-centered therapy.
Behavior therapy
A therapy that is based on the application of learning principles to human behavior and that focuses on changing overt behaviors rather than on understanding subjective feelings, unconscious processes, or motivations; also known as behavior modification.
Symptom substitution
The appearance of one overt symptom to replace another that has been eliminated by treatment.
Token economy
An operant conditioning procedure in which individuals who display appropriate behavior receive tokens that they can exchange for desirable items or activities.
Time-out
An operant conditioning procedure in which a person is physically removed from sources of reinforcement to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviors.
Counterconditioning
Process of reconditioning in which a person is taught a new, more adaptive response to a familiar stimulus.
Systematic desensitization
A three-stage counterconditioning procedure in which people are taught to relax when confronting stimuli that forming elicited anxiety.
Aversive counterconditioning
A counterconditioning technique in which an aversive or noxious stimulus is paired with a stimulus with the undesirable behavior.
Rational-emotive therapy
A cognitive behavior therapy that emphasizes the importance of logical, rational thought processes.
Group therapy
Psychotherapeutic process in which several people meet as a group with a therapist to receive psychological help.
Family therapy
A type of therapy in which two or more people who are committed to one another's well-being are treated at once, in and effort to change the ways the interact.
Psychosurgery
Brain surgery used in the past to alleviate symptoms of serious mental disorders.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A treatment for severe mental illness in which an electric current is briefly applied to the head in order to produce a generalized seizure.
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