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Chapter 11

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Jeffersonian Republicans
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jeffrson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states's rights.
favorite son
a politician favored mainly in his or her home state
William H. Crawford
He called for a limited federal government and strong state powers.
Henry Clay
He fought for high tariffs and a stronger national bank. He came up with a compromise to lower the tariff. Lost the 1844 presidency as a result of John Tyler causing a division in the Whig party.
Andrew Jackson
He spoke for Americans who have been left out of politics.
John Quincy Adams
He believed the federal government should help the nation switch to an economy based on manufacturing.
plurality
largest single share
Andrew Jackson
Received the largest single share in the election of 1824.
corrupt bargain
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State. This cast a shadow among Adams' presidency.
economic
The kind of growth John Quincy Adams wanted the government to have.
Democratic-Republicans
Party that supported Andrew Jackson
National Republicans
Party that supported John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
Candidate who represented frontiersmen, immigrants and laborers. Won the election of 1828 by a landslide.
mudslinging
Ruining campaigns with insults. First introduced in the election of 1828.
John C. Calhoun
Man who changed parties to be Jackson's vice president. He supported states' rights. When Jackson disagreed, he resigned the vice presidency and became a senator for South Carolina
Jacksonian Democrats
Another name for Democratic-Republicans
Baltimore, Maryland
Where the first Democratic national party took place.
Old Hickory
Andrew Jackson's nickname because he was as tough as it.
Force Bill
Law that allowed the president to use the United States military to enforce acts of Congress.
suffrage
The right to vote.
bureaucracy
A system where non-elected officials carried out laws.
spoils system
The system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
caucus
A closed political meeting
nominating conventions
A new way of choosing candidates. Each state would send delegates to choose the party's candidate, allowing common people to become more involved with the selection of the candidate and the election itself.
manufactured goods from Europe
In 1828 Congress passed a high tariff on _____________.
Tariff of Abominations
The name Southerners called the new tariff.
nullify
To cancel
Robert Hayne
A senator Daniel Webster argued against on the topic of states' rights. He supported states' rights.
Daniel Webster
A senator Robert Hayne argued against on the topic of states' rights. He was against states' rights, and argued that nullification would mean the end of the Union.
Nullification Act
A law the state legislature of South Carolina passed stating it would not pay for "illegal" tariffs and threatened to secede.
Indian Removal Act
Law that removed Native Americans from southern states and put them on reservations in the midwest
Indian Territory
An area in present-day Oklahoma where Native Americans were sent to after being extracted from various areas in the United States.
Cherokee
Group of Native Americans who protested severely against being relocated, but their efforts failed.
John Marshall
Chief Justice who ruled against Georgia relocating the Cherokee.
Worcester v. Georgia
Name of the Supreme Court case between the Cherokee and Georgia.
17,000
Number of total Cherokee. Most refused to give up land.
General Winfield Scott
General ordered to leave his army to Georgia to remove the Cherokee from their homes and lead them west.
Trail of Tears
Name of the journey west by the Cherokee given by historians.
Trail Where They Cried
Name of the journey west by the Cherokee given by the Cherokee.
Black Hawk
The Sauk chieftain who led a force of Sauk and Fox back to their homeland Illinois. They were chased to Iowa, but unfortunately most were killed by the state militia.
Whirling Thunder
Black Hawk's son.
Seminole
The only group of Native Americans who successfully blocked their removal.
Osceola
Native American chief who went to war against the U.S. instead of leaving Florida.
guerrilla
A type of war technique where surprise attacks are made.
1500
Number of American soldiers that had died against the Native Americans.
10,000
Number of total American soldiers.
Mississippi River
By 1842, almost all Native Americans lived west of the _________ ___________.
Whigs
Enemies of Andrew Jackson. This party consisted mainly of former National Republicans and other anti-Jackson forces.
Nicholas Biddle
President of the Bank.
Henry Clay, Daniel Webster
The two who convinced the president of the bank to renew the Bank's charter earlier. This was a strategy to lose support for Jackson.
Martin Van Buren
Andrew Jackson's friend from New York. Asked by Jackson to veto the Bank's charter's renewal for him. Became president in 1836.
Panic of 1837
Economic downturn caused by specie circular and a wave of foreclosures during President Buren's term.
laissez-faire
A business principle to let people do as they say.
William Henry Harrison
Whig presidential candidate in 1840. War hero in the Battle of Tippecanoe. (War of 1812)
John Tyler
Whig vice presidential candidate in 1840.
Tippecanoe and Tyler too
Whigs' campaign slogan in the 1840 election.
log cabin campaign
Name given to William Henry Harrison's campaign for the presidency in 1840, from the Whigs use of a log cabin as their symbol
King Martin
Name given by the Whigs to ridicule Martin Van Buren.
pneumonia
What Harrison died of four weeks after being inaugurated in 1841.
James Polk
Won the presidency in 1844 as a result of John Tyler splitting up the Whig party.