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Terms in this set (58)
Where did the Voyage of the Beagle take Charles Darwin?
What organism did Charles Darwin study?
How do you date a fossil based on its relative age?
layers of rock above and below the fossil
How do you date a fossil based on its absolute age?
What are three examples of fossils?
footprints, eggs, body parts
What type of rock are most fossils found in?
Earth's four eras from youngest to oldest.
Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Precambrial
Why do some organisms, that are not closely related, look similar?
due to adapting to survive in the same environment
What were the dominant land animals during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods?
How did mass extinctions encourage the rapid evolution of surviving species?
provided organisms with new opportunities that allowed them to thrive and adapt to their environment
What are three reproductive barriers?
timing, behavior, habitat
What is an example of a vestigial structure?
What two idea is Darwin's theory of evolution based on?
Descent with Modification and Natural Selelction
In genetic drift, allele frequencies change by ________.
What is the half-life of carbon?
When is carbon used to date fossils?
A roadmap that shows how original and earlier species descended and formed new species.
A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships between organisms by specifying the derived characters of clades.
Organisms are named and classified based on physical characteristics in _______
What are the Linnaean taxa in correct order?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
How many kingdoms are there in life?
The modern classification system is mainly based on _____
What is the two part name of an organism called?
What are the five kingdoms?
Animalia, Fungi, Monera, Protista, Plantae
A group of one or more species with similarities
Inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Preserved remains or markings left by an organism that lived in the past
Time it takes for 50% of a radioactive isotope sample to decay
Structural similarity found in more than one species that share a common ancestor
Chronological collection of life's remains in sedimentary rock layers
Earth's history organized into four eras; Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
Geological Time Scale
Process in which descendants of ancestral organisms spread into various habitats and accumulate adaptations to diverse ways of life
Descent with Modification
All of the changes that have transformed life over time
Episode of great species loss
Well-tested explanation that makes sense of a great variety of scientific observations
Determination of absolute ages of rocks and fossils through calculations based on a radioactive isotope's fixed rate of decay
Process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring on average than do other individuals
Motion of continents about Earth's surface on plates of crust floating on the hot mantle
No longer existing as a living species on Earth
Remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but not clear function in the modern species
Contribution that an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation compared to the contributions of other individuals
Process by which humans modify a species by breeding it for certain traits
Differences in physical traits of an individual from the group to which it belongs
All of the individuals of a species that live in the same area
Isolation between populations due to physical barriers
Process by which one species evolves and gives rise to many descendants species that occupy different ecological niches
Evolution on the largest scale; major biological changes evident in the fossil record
Observable change in the allele frequencies of a population over a few generations
Collection of alleles found in all of the individuals of a population
Physical movement of alleles from one population to another
Change in allele frequencies due to chance alone, occurring most common in small populations
Condition in which a population's allele frequencies for a given trait do not change from generation to generation
Group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
Formation of a new species
Final stage in speciation in which members of isolated populations are either no longer able to mate no longer able to produce viable offspring
Theory that states that speciation occurs suddenly and rapidly followed by long periods of little evolutionary change
Evolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species, resulting from adaptations to similar environmental conditions
Body part that is similar in function as a body part of another organism but its structurally different
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