A&P Final

Bio 208 final exam
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Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by
a. a basement membrane
b. junctional complexes
c. intercellular glue
d. a fibrous netting
e. reticular fibers
a. a basement membrane
The urinary bladder and renal pelvis have this type of tissue
a. simple cuboidal
b. simple squamous
c. stratified squamous
d. transitional epithelium
e. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
d. transitional epithelium
A transitional epithelium would be found
a. lining the ducts that drain sweat glands
b. at the surface of the epidermis
c. lining the urinary bladder
d. lining the kidney tubules
e. lining the stomach
c. lining the urinary bladder
compartment x has water and salt. Compartment y has only water. Both compartments are equal volumes. If you replace the impermeable barrier (to salt and water) with a membrane permeable to BOTH salt and water, the volume of the solution in compartment Y will:
a. increase
b. decrease
c. stay the same
d. will become more isotonic
e. will become more hypertonic
c. stay the same
Each of the following are at higher concentration INSIDE cells than outside cells EXCEPT:
a. sugars
b. free amino acids
c. K ions
d. Na ions
e. lipids
d. Na ions
Which of the following is the Least common substance associated with a cell membrane?
a. glycoproteins
b. proteins
c. cholesterol
d. phospholipids
e. glucose
e. glucose
All of the triplet codes needed to produce a specific polypeptide chain are found in a(n)
a. gene
b. codon
c. anticodon
d. chromosome
e. desmosome
a. gene
The classes of membrane proteins that permit water and solutes to bypass the lipid portion of the cell membrane are:
a. carrier proteins
b. channel proteins
c. anchor proteins
d. receptor proteins
e. identifier proteins
b. channel proteins
Cell membranes are said to be:
a. selectively permeable
b. actively permeable
c. freely permeable
d. impermeable
e. none of these
a. selectively permeable
Galactosemia results from an inability of galactose to be converted to
a. trypsin
b. thyamine
c. tyrosine
d. glucose
e. melanin
d. glucose
For most humans around the world, which "food group" is most commonly burned as energy?
a. fats
b. proteins
c. carbohydrates
d. nucleic acids
e. both A & B
c. carbohydrates
Which of the below is the least common atom associated with nucleic acids?
a. N
b. S
c. C
d. O
E. H
b. S
When two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration synthesis
a. a new monosaccharide is formed
b. a polysaccharide is formed
c. a disaccharide is formed
d. a starch is formed
e. hydrolysis occurs
c. a disaccharide is formed
The most common fat found in the human body is in the form of
a. steroids
b. adipocytes
c. diglycerides
d. triglycerides
e. monoglycerides
d. triglycerides
An unstable isotope that emits subatomic particles spontaneously is called
a. proton
b. a neutrino
c. a metaisotope or neutron
d. a gamma ray
e. a radioisotope
e. a radioisotope
Which is the highest level (and most complex and interesting) o all of the sciences?
a. Anatomy and Physiology
b. Biochemistry
c. Chemistry
d. Physics
e. Physical Chemistry
a. Anatomy and Physiology
Of the A-E choices below, which is the LEAST associated with homeostasis
a. positive feedback
b. negative feedback
c. receptor input
d. effector output
e. control center
a. positive feedback
When body temperature LOWERS, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to INcrease the body temperature. This regulation mechanism is a well-known example of
a. positive feedback
b. negative feedback
c. diagnostic regulation
d. competitive regulation
e. non-homeostatic regulation
b. negative feedback
A chemical imbalance in a heart muscle cell can case the heart to cease pumping blood, which will cause other tissues an organs to cease functioning. This observation supports the view that
a. chemical molecules make up cells
b. all organisms are composed of cells
c. all cells are independent of each other
d. congenital defects can be life threatening
e. all levels of organization within an organism are interdependent
e. all levels of organization within an organism are interdependent
The study of specific organ function is called
a. histology
b. cell physiology
c. special physiology
d. system physiology
e. physiological chemistry
d. system physiology
Fill in the blank with the wording from the presentation: fake tans cause___ _____
a. real friends
b. golden sands
c. rich business
d. fake friends
e. real cancers
e. real cancers
All of the following are Accessory Structures to skin EXCEPT:
a. skin pigments
b. nails
c. hair
d. sweat glands
e. arrector pili
a. skin pigments
Blistered skin is listed as a _____ degree burn
a. fifth
b. fourth
c. third
d. second
e. first
d. second
The layer od epidermis that is most prominent in thick skin (like soles of feet)
a. stratum spinosum
b. stratum basale
c. stratum lucidum
d. stratum granulosum
e. stratum corneum
c. stratum lucidum
Most body odor is the result of bacterial metabolism of the secretions produced by
a. merocrine sweat glands
b. apocrine sweat glands
c. ceruminous glands
d. sebaceous glands
e. mammary glands
b. apocrine sweat glands
The layer of epidermis that contains MELANOCYTES is the
a. stratum germinativum
b. stratum granulosum
c. stratum spinosum
d. stratum corneum
e. stratum lucidum
a. stratum germinativum
When a fair skinned person blushes, why does his or her skin turn red?
a. the blood supply to the skin DEcreases
b. the blood supply to the skin INcreases
c. The number of red melanocytes in the skin DEcreases
d. melanocytes increase production of red pigments
e. the number of red melanocytes in the skin INcreases
b. the blood supply to the skin INcreases
Glands that discharge a waxy secretion into hair follicles are
a. merocrine sweat glands
b. apocrine weat glands
c. ceruminous glands
d. sebaceous glands
e. mammary glands
d. sebaceous glands
Each of the following are associated with a nevus tumor EXCEPT:
a. a mole
b. a birthmark
c. aberrant proliferation of cells
d. BOTH A and B
e. hemangioma
e. hemangioma
What type of multicellular membranes are associated with lungs?
a. cantaneous
b. mucous
c. plasma
d. serous
e. synovial
d. serous
What kind of connective tissue has lots of collagen and high linear strength (as in tendons)?
a. adipose CT
b. supporting CT
c. dense regular CT
d. areolar CT
e. vascular CT
c. dense regular CT
What type of inter-cellular connections are associated with fine protein filaments in and out?
a. tight junctions
b. nexus
c. gap junctions
d. chemical synapse
e. desmosomes
e. desmosomes
One would find pseudostratified columnar epithelial lining the
a. heart
b. trachea
c. stomach
d. urinary bladder
e. surface of the epidermis
b. trachea
The myosin head binds most directly to which if the choices below?
a. troponin-A
b. troponin-I
c. troponin-T
d. acin active sites
e. tropomyosin
d. acin active sites
A person whose genetic makeup makes them a better marathon runner than sprinter probably has more ____ in their legs.
a. fast muscle fibers
b. slow muscle fibers
c. intermediate muscle fibers
d. non-contractile muscle fibers
e. smooth muscle fibers
b. slow muscle fibers
Which most allows a person's muscles to increase their single quick jerk from 5 to 50 pounds?
a. change from white to red muscle
b. changing muscle length
c. temoral summation
d. using more passive (elastic) forces
e. muscle recruitment
e. muscle recruitment
Which of the below is the biggest difference between smooth and skeletal muscle?
a. can exhibit automaticity
b. can contract independently
c. uses myosin in contractions
d. uses Ca in the excitation contraction coupling
e. uses actin in contractions
a. can exhibit automaticity
Creatine Phosphate
a. is only formed during strenuous exercise
b. acts as an energy reserve in the muscle tissue
c. cannot transfer its phosphate group to ADP
d. is produced by anaerobic respiration
e. binds directly to myosin molecules
b. acts as an energy reserve in the muscle tissue
Which of the following factors would NOT INcrease the strength of or chances that a sk. muscle will contract?
a. increased [Ca++] in sarcoplasmic reticulum
b. increased permeability of SR to Ca++
c. increased amounts of ACh in synaptic cleft
d. increased permeability of sarcolemma to Na+
e. increased permeability of sarcolemma to K+
e. increased permeability of sarcolemma to K+
Action potentials (A.P.s) convey info to the brain through each of these means EXCEPT:
a. which brain structure receives them
b. which body area sends them
c. the size or shape of the A.P.s
d. the rate at which they are sent
e. how long or short the train of A.P.s are
c. the size or shape of the A.P.s
The ____ acts as a switching and relay center for integration of conscious and unconscious sensory and motor pathways.
a. ponds
b. medulla
c. midbrain
d. diencephalon
e. cerebellum
d. diencephalon
Which brain structure fine tunes detailed voluntary and ballistic movement?
a. cerebellum
b. cerebrum
c. hypothalamus
d. thalamus
e. the midbrain
a. cerebellum
Which brain structure is most closely associated with thirst, hunger, rage, and pleasure?
a. cerebellum
b. cerebrum
c. hypothalamus
d. thalamus
e. the midbrain
c. hypothalamus
Which of the following is responsible for reciprocal inhibition?
a. alpha-motor neurons
b. sensory motor neurons
c. extensor neurons
d. interneurons in the spinal cord
e. gamma-motor neurons
d. interneurons in the spinal cord
Each of the following are associated with the autonomic nervous system EXCEPT:
a. usually under voluntary and conscious control
b. cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons are located in the CNS
c. the postganglionic neurotransmitter is ACh
d. the postganglionic axons can have an excitatory or inhibitory effect on cardiac muscle
e. the postganglionic axons can have an excitatory or inhibitory effect on smooth muscle
a. usually under voluntary and conscious control
Each of the following are associated with the stretch reflex EXCEPT:
a. generally quick response time
b. can involve cranial nerves
c. adjusts balance and muscle tone
d. regulates skeletal muscle length
e. considered monosynaptic reflexes
b. can involve cranial nerves
A sudden increase in blood pressure detected by baroreceptors in the walls of large arteries near the heart will cause
a. parasympathetic increase of heart rate and sympathetic constriction of blood vessels
b. sympathetic increase of heart rate and parasympathetic constriction of blood vessels
c. Parasympathetic reduction of heart rate and sympathetic dilation of blood vessels
d. Sympathetic reduction of heart rate and parasympathetic dilation of blood vessels
e. None of the above will occur
c. Parasympathetic reduction of heart rate and sympathetic dilation of blood vessels
Vitamin D is necessary for
a. collagen formation
b. reducing osteoblast activity
c. increasing osteoclast activity
d. the formation of organic framework of bone
e. absorption and transport of Ca & phosphate ions
e. absorption and transport of Ca & phosphate ions
What type of membrane channels are non-gated and responsible for the permeability of the membrane at rest?
a. leak channels
b. Na+/K+ ion pump
c. ligand-gated ion channels
d. Voltage-gated ion channels
e. Ca++/Cl- ion pump
a. leak channels
The active sited on actin become available for binding when
a. actin binds to troponin
b. myosin binds to troponin
c. calcium binds to troponin
d. troponin binds to tropomyosin
e. calcium binds to tropomyosin
c. calcium binds to troponin
Which of the following is the site of cerebrospinal fluid production?
a. dural sinus
b. sagittal fissure
c. cerebral cortex
d. choroid plexus
e. cerebellum
d. choroid plexus
Autonomic reflexes are used by the body to help regulate each of the following EXCEPT:
a. heart rate
b. digestion
c. blood pressure
d. smooth muscles
e. skeletal muscles
e. skeletal muscles
The _____ neuron runs from the CNS and the autonomic ganglion.
a. sensory
b. preganglionic
c. postganglionic
d. somatic motor
e. somatic sensory
b. preganglionic
About what percent of an adults bone is replaced each year?
a. about 100% (i.e. about all of it)
b. about 75%
c. about 50% (i.e. about half)
d. about 25%
e. about 0% (i.e. almost NO replacement)
d. about 25%
Appositional bone growth is most closely associated with which of the following?
a. diameter growth by adding new bone towards the outside
b. diameter growth by adding bone towards the inside
c. length growth by increasing bone to the epiphyseal plate
d. length growth by increasing the length of one or both of the very ends of the bone
e. length growth by increasing the shaft length of the bone
a. diameter growth by adding new bone towards the outside
The normal loss of bone that occurs with aging is called
a. osteoporosis
b. osteogenesis
c. osteopenia
d. osteoinflammation
e. bone cancer
c. osteopenia
Which cell type produced the myelin sheath?
a. ependymal
b. oligodendrocytes
c. astrocytes
d. microglia
e. macroglia
b. oligodendrocytes
Which molecule, listed below, in its ionic for, is higher inside our cells than in our blood?
a. water
b. calcium
c. chloride
d. sodium
e. potassium
e. potassium
The most abundant mineral in the human body is
a. sulfer
b. sodium
c. calcium
d. potassium
e. phosphorus
c. calcium
The action potential exhibits the following characteristics EXCEPT:
a. it can summate
b. it can regenerate
c. it has a relative refractory period
d. it can "jump" from node to node
e. none of the above are exceptions
a. it can summate
Which is the most responsible for the absolute refractory of the action potential?
a. K channel inactivation gate
b. Na channel inactivation gate
c. Ca channel activation gate
d. Na channel activation gate
e. temporal or spatial summation of the A.P.
b. Na channel inactivation gate
Which of the following is NOT true about changes in the membrane potential? an increase in
a. Na+ in cell causes depolarization
b.K+ in cell causes depolarization
c. Cl- in cell causes depolarization
d. Ca++ in cell causes hyperpolarization
e. K+ out of cell causes hyperpolarization
c. Cl- in cell causes depolarization
d. Ca++ in cell causes hyperpolarization
Which below most directly precedes the release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
a. cross bridge cycling
b. exocytosis of synaptic vesicles
c. action potential along muscle cell
d. movement of Na through ligand gated channels
e. release of ACh
c. action potential along muscle cell
Which is most closely associated with the thin filaments in muscle?
a. the M-line
b. the crossbridge
c. the H-band
d. the A-band
e. the I-band
e. the I-band
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the
a. somatic nervous system
b. afferent nervous system
c. autonomic nervous system
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. parasympathetic nervous system
a. somatic nervous system
Which component below binds most directly to the actin filament?
a. troponin-A
b. troponin-C
c. troponin-I
d. troponin-T
e. The M-line
c. troponin-I
The volume ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the
a. stroke volume
b. cardiac output
c. cardiac reserve
d. diastolic volume
e. systolic volume
a. stroke volume
Which of the below is most likely to occur if EPO production is too high?
a. anemia
b. polycythemia
c. low blood volume
d. BOTH A and B are correct
e. BOTH A and C are correct
b. polycythemia
Which below is the most common (numerous) leukocyte?
a. lymphocytes
b. basophils
c. eosinophils
d. monocytes
e. neutrophils
e. neutrophils
In type II diabetes, insulin levels are frequently normal, yet the target cells are less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This suggests that the target cells have
a. adequate internal supplies of glucose
b. cannot convert insulin to an active form
c. may lack enough insulin receptors
d. are impermeable to insulin
e. ALL OF THE ABOVE are possibilities
c. may lack enough insulin receptors
Iodine may be needed in the human diet in order to prevent _______.
a. graves disease
b. hoshimotos disease
c. hyperthyroidism
d. hypothyroidism
e. BOTH A and C are correct
d. hypothyroidism
In class, it was suggested that goliath may have suffered from what affliction?
a. cretinism
b. acromegaly
c. hyperthyroidism
d. hypothyroidism
e. BOTH A and D are correct
b. acromegaly
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to rise is
a. insulin
b. cortisol
c. glucagon
d. erythropoietin
e. growth hormone
c. glucagon
Hormones can exert their actions through all of the following routes below EXCEPT:
a. changing quantities of enzymes
b. changing reactivities of enzymes
c. altering structures of proteins
d. interacting though intracellular substances
e. None of the above (i.e. A-D are all possibilities)
e. None of the above (i.e. A-D are all possibilities)
Hormones 1 & 2 have effects "A" and "B". Synergistic effects might have ____.
a. (A + B) x 10
b. (A + B) / 10
c. A + B
d. A -B
e. (A + 10)- (B+10)
a. (A + B) x 10
The structure that overlies the organ of Corti is the
a. tectorial membrane
b. basilar membrane
c. vestibular duct
d. endolymph
e. malleus
a. tectorial membrane
Low pitch sounds are detected by ____ hair cells in the ____ membrane.
a. special; apex of the tympanic
b. special; base of the tectorial
c. standard; apex of the tectorial
d. special; base of the basilar
e. standard; apex of the basilar
d. special; base of the basilar
Which below depicts the correct sequence of vibration transfer?
a. incus, malleus, stapes
b. malleus, incus, stapes
c. incus, stapes, malleus
d. malleus, stapes, incus
e. none of the above are correct
b. malleus, incus, stapes
the ciliary muscle helps to
a. control the amount of light reaching the retina and control the shape of the lens
b. control the production of aqueous humor
c. control the amount of light reaching the retina
d. control the shape of the lens
e. move the eyeball
d. control the shape of the lens
Yellow is perceived by humans by using input from _____that respond best to _____ light.
a. rods; yellow
b. cones; yellow
c. cones; blue and red
d. cones; green and blue
e. cones; red and green
e. cones; red and green
Which of the following is NOT a type of retinal neuron in humans?
a. bipolar cells
b. vertical cells
c. horizontal cells
d. amacrine cells
e. interplexiform cells
b. vertical cells
When viewing an object close to you, your lens should be more
a. convex
b. flattened
c. rounded
d. lateral
e. medial
c. rounded
Which eye condition is best associated with a too horizontally elongated or deep eyeball?
a. myopia
b. presbyopia
c. hyperopia
d. emmetropia
e. non of the above (what was described was perfectly normal vision)
a. myopia
The vitreous humor is associated with which below?
a. anterior chamber
b. medial chamber
c. posterior chamber
d. anterior cavity
e. posterior cavity
e. posterior cavity
Stem cells that will form T cells are modified in the
a. bone marrow
b. kidneys
c. thymus
d. spleen
e. kupffler cells in the liver
c. thymus
An inflammatory response is triggered when
a. mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin
b. red blood cells release pus-forming agents
c. neutrophils phagocytize bacteria
d. blood flow to a area increases
e. T cells release interferon
a. mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin
BLocking the antigen receptors on the surface of lymphocytes would interfere with its ability to
a. produce antibodies
b. present the antigen
c. phyagocytose the antigen
d. agglutinize the antigen
e. recognize the antigen
e. recognize the antigen
Immunoglobulins that are the largest class and are mainly responsible for resistance against viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are
a. IgG
b. IgA
c. IgM
d. IgE
e. IgD
a. IgG
Blood flow through a capillary is most directly regulated by the
a. circular muscles within the tunica externa
b. heart action
c. endothelial valves
d. capillary bed itself
e. precapillary sphincter
e. precapillary sphincter
The following hormones are involved in the regulation of blood flow (Q) EXCEPT:
a. atrial natrutetic peptide (ANP)
b. oxytocin
c. aldosterone
d. ADH
e. EPO
b. oxytocin
The muscular layer of blood vessels is in the
a. tunica adventitia
b. tunica externa
c. tunica interna
d. tunica media
e. tunica intima
d. tunica media
What would happen if Capillary Osmotic P is GREATER than Capillary Hydrostatic P (P=Pressure)?
a. Kwashiorkor edema
b. elephantiasis edema
c. pulmonary edema
d. reduced fluid flow into lymph vessels
e. none of the above would occur
d. reduced fluid flow into lymph vessels
Each of the following affect or make up peripheral resistance EXCEPT:
a. blood flow turbulence
b. blood viscosity
c. blood pressure
d. blood vessel constriction
e. blood vessel dilation
c. blood pressure
Baroreceptors that function in the regulation of blood pressure are located in the
a. brain stem
b. carotid sinus
c. left ventricle
d. right ventricle
e. common iliac artery
b. carotid sinus
Which event is happening turing the T wave of the ECG (EKG)?
a. systole
b. first heart sound (lub)
c. ventricular filling
d. atrial depolarization
e. AV valves close
a. systole
The cardioacceleratory center in the medulla oblongata activates ______ neurons.
a. ganglionic
b. sympathetic
c. preganglionic
d. postganglionic
e. parasympathetic
b. sympathetic
All of the following is correct about the Bainbridge Reflex EXCEPT:
a. triggered by venus blood return
b. causes increase in SA node firing
c. causes increase in heart rate
d. stretching of ventricle triggers it
e. causes increase in sympathetic activity
d. stretching of ventricle triggers it
DEpolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the
a. P wave
b. T wave
c. PT complex
d. S wave
e. QRS complex
e. QRS complex
Cardiac muscle cells exhibit ______, which is the SAME as with skeletal muscle cells.
a. a prolonged AP as compared with nerve fibers
b. an external source for Ca++ entry into the cytoplasm (or sarcoplasm)
c. a typical resting potential of between -80mV to -90mV
d. so-called :white: muscle fiber types
e. stretch receptors embedded within the muscle fibers
c. a typical resting potential of between -80mV to -90mV
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