32 terms

Chp. 20


Terms in this set (...)

well-being- nations have a quest to obtain resources and increase ones well-being
state of being happy, healthy and prosperous
GPI- the genuine progress indicatior
attempts to address this shortcoming by including measures of personal consumption, income distribution, levels of higher education, resource depletion
leapfrogging- occurs whenever new technology develops in such a way that makes the older technology unnecessary or obsolete
developing nations cant take advantage of the expensive research
micro lending- practice of loaning small amounts of money to people who intend to start a small business in less developed countries
it is not a model of charity but a financial report
natural capital- refers to the resources of the planet, such as air water and minerals
Components of Sustainability
human capital- refers to human knowledge and abilities
the sum of the motivation, skills ability and health of people.
manufactured capital- refers to all goods and services that humans produce
what we make
market failure- when the economic system does not appropriately account for all costs
Under allocation of society's scarce resources. Not getting surplus.
environmental economics- a subfield of economics that examines the costs and benefits of various policies and regulations that seek to regulate or limit air and water pollution and other causes of environmental degradation
Study of environmental problems and the incorporation of economic principles into the environmental decision-making process
ecological economics- treats the field of economics as a component of ecological systems rather than as a distinctly separate field of study
method of understanding and managing the economy
valuation- both environmental and ecological economists attempt to assign monetary value to intangible benefits and natural capital
Are unit prices obtained from a pre-approved and restricted master file of unit prices
anthropocentric- human centered worldview considers that human beings have intrinsic value
Regarding the human being as the center of the universe; viewing and interpreting everything in terms of human experience and values.
Stewardship- a subset of anthropocentric worldview, careful and responsible management and care for earth and its resources
An ethic that embodies responsible planning and management of resources
biocentric- life centered world view holds that humans are just one of many species on Earth
all of which have equal intrinsic value
ecocentric- earth centered worldview places equal value on all living organisms and the ecosystems in which they live and it demands that we consider nature free of any associations with our own existence
Purpose: to enable members to select and implement long-range activity which requires group interaction, identify and meet needs of self and other
UN- united nations = a institution dedicated to promoting dialogue amoung countries with the goal of maintaining world peace
192-member org dedicated to the promotion of peace and stability of the world
UNEP- The United Nations Environment programme
gather environmental info conduct research and assess environmental problems
World Bank- provides technical and financial assistance to developing countries to reduce poverty
helps poor countries build their economies by providing grants and loans to help with projects that could provide jobs and wealth
WHO- the World Health organization
created to improve human health by monitoring and assessing health trends and providing medical advice to countries
UNDP- the united nations development programme
works in 166 countries around world to advocate change
EPA- the Environmental Protection Agency made by President Richard Nixon
oversees all governmental efforts related to environment
OSHA- created by Nixon and called the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
fain federal agency responsible for the enforcement of health and safety responsible for the enforcement of health and safety regulations
DOE- created by Jimmy Carter called the Department of Energy
main goal is to advance the energy and economic security of the US
HDI- the human development index
this combines three basic measures of human status; life expectancy knowledge and education
HPI- the Human poverty index
counterpart of the HDI and was developed by UN to investigate the proportion of the population
command-and-control approach- sets regulations for emissions
An approach that involves the government imposing quantitative limits on the amount of pollution firms are allowed to emit or requiring firms to install specific pollution control devices.
incentive-based approach- constructs financial and other incentives for lowering emissions based on profits and benefits
a program that constructs financial and other incentives for lowering emissions, based on profits and benefits
triple bottom line- concept states that we need to take into account three factors
the factors include economic, environmental and social when making decisions about business and the economy
market failure-An economic term that encompasses a situation where, in any given market, the quantity of a product demanded by consumers does not equate to the quantity supplied by suppliers
Under allocation of society's scarce resources. Not getting surplus.
green tax-also called "environmental taxes" or "pollution taxes"
excise taxes on environmental pollutants or on goods whose use produces such pollutants.
technology transfer-the transfer of new technology from the originator to a secondary user
especially from developed to less developed countries in an attempt to boost their economies.
environmental worldview- how the world views topics
How people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior (environmental ethics).