AP World History 20th Century
Terms in this set (46)
sepoy - indian troops who served the British East India Company, recruited from various warlike people of India. 1857; angry they had to tear open cartridges with cow and pig fat
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muslim Nationalist leader in India; originally a member of the National Congress Party; became leader of the Muslim League; traded Muslim support for British during World War II for promises of a separate Muslim state after the war; first president of Pakistan. links between British and Jinnah and other league leaders became key factor in struggle for decolonization in south asia. Gathered a mass following by playing on majorities anxiety about being dominated by Hindu majority and being targets of discrimination = Pakistan with Muslim majority.
Founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for separate electorates and legislative seats in Hindu dominated India; represented division within Indian nationalist movement. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah
One of Gandhi's disciples; governed India after Independence in 1947; committed to program of social reform and economic development; preserved civil rights and democracy. India's first prime minister. succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. negotiated end of british rule in India
Indian political leader who led India's drive for independence against Britain in British ruled India; used methods of passive resistance, boycotts, and hunger strikes; assassinated in 1948
Successor to Gamal Abdul Nasser as ruler of Egypt; acted to dismantle costly state programs; accepted peace treaty with Israel in 1973; opened Egypt to investment by western nations. Favored private rather than state initiatives, middle class emerged as powerful force, moved to end confrontation with Israel and Egypts support for revolutionary movement in Arab world. Expelled Russians. Succeeded by Hosni Mubarak
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from Suez Canal zone in 1956. Along with establishment of Free Officers, Egyptians ruled themselves since 6th century BCE. At head of Free Officers Movement and military government dedicated to revolution(military nationalist movement, often allied with Muslim Brotherhood, coup to overthrow Egyptian government); used dictatorial powers to pass reforms - only state had power to carry out social and economic reforms; intervened in Egyptian life; land redistribution, state funded college, gov. became main employer, 1956 - rallied international opinion to oust British and French rom Suez Canal zone. Backed by United States and Soviet Union. Aswam Dam project - caused more issues. 6 Day War with Israel
Issues: bureaucratic corruption, lacked funding, mismanagement, lost foreign investment funds.
Egyptian Nationalist movement founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928; committed to fundamentalist movement in Islam; fostered strikes and urban riots against the khedival government. Focused on social uplift and sweeping reforms - promoted trade unions and building medical clinics to educate women and pushed land reform.
al-Banna fomented strikes and urban riots and established militant youth organizations and paramilitary assassination squads - expanded influence to middle class youths and impoverished masses. disbanded in 1954, suppressed after attempt on Nasser's life.
John Maynard Keynes
influential British economist; founder of macroeconomics; state intervention was necessary to regulate the boom and bust cycles of economic activities; advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions; for a government to fully recover from a depression the government had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption.
Italian fascist leader after World War I; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories; former socialist and soldier, "union for struggle" in Italy; corporate state that would replace capitalism and socialism with a national unity; called on by Italian king to form a new government; eliminated opposition while suspending elections, seeking greater state direction of the economy and propaganda about military conquest;
Spanish dictator and general of Spain from 1939 to 1975; youngest general in Europe; strong conservative, shocked when monarchy removed and replaced with a republic in 1931; staged a coup to overthrow republic which started the Spanish Civil War; received support from fascist groups including Nazi Germany and Italy; won war (3 years long) and named himself head of state and government; established fascist dictatorship in 1939
successor to lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with western Europe and the United States; died in 1953. concentrated on Russian developments, "socialism in one country"; instituted police repression - peasants to intellectuals and rival leaders; accelerate industrial development and attacked peasant land ownership with collectivization plan.
Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician and founder and first leader of the Red Army; joined Bolsheviks and became leader alongside Lenin; major figure in victory of Bolsheviks in civil war (Bolshevik Revolution); led a struggle of the left opposition against policies and rise of Joseph Stalin (failed) and increasing role of bureaucracy in Soviet Union - removed from power in 1927, expelled from communist party and exiled from Soviet Union n 1929; exiled in Mexico - opposed Stalinist bureaucracy and non aggression pact with Hitler - assassinated by Ramon Mercader in 1940
man of bureaucratic family; innovations to the Marxist theory; due to international capitalism, a proletariat was developing in advance of industrialization; could have proletarian revolution without middle class phase; insisted on disciplined revolutionary cells that could maintain doctrinal purity and effective action; led Bolshevik group (majority party, most radical branch of russian marxist movement)
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s culminating in long march in 1934; seized control of all of mainland China 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958, lost power after. hostile towards merchants and commerce, angered by China's betrayal by imperialist powers, wanted system committed to social reform and social welfare; authoritarian state that could intervene in peoples lives; Long March (march of communists to establish center at Shaanxi province) established him as head of communist party. Established cultural revolution to restore dominance over pragmatists and Deng Xiaoping. Gave more rights to women - hold up half the heavens.
A military officer who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as the leader of the Guomindang in China in the mid 1920s; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s; Nationalist forces defeated and driven from China by the communists after World War II. head of the Whampoa military Academy (founded with soviet help and staffed partially by Russian instructors, founded in 1924, military wing of Guomindang) received some training in Japan, son of salt merchants, worked way into Sun yat-sen inner circle; not happy with the communist alliance; seized control in 1925 after Sun Yatsens death; eliminated military in canton area, seized Yangzi River Valley and Shanghai in 1927, captured Beijing and Yellow river basin; "new president of China", brutal massacre of communists in Shanghai in 1927, long march, support from wester Europe and US. Had to ally with communists against Japanese
One of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China; joined the part as a young man in the 1920s, survived the Long March and Persecution during the cultural Revolution in 1960s; emerged as China's most influential leader in the 1980s. Scale back communes and promote peasant production and push economic growth over political orthodoxy. Imprisoned during cultural revolution. Opened china to western influences and capitalist development after Mao Zedongs death; private peasant production for market encouraged, farming communes discontinued; private enterprise in industrial sector.
Chinese Nationalist Party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated Chiang Kai-shek after 1925. Attempted to unify political organizations struggling for political influence in China by reorganizing and renaming. prove communists great rival for the mandate to rule in China. Failed to impose domestic reforms, focused on international relations with the United States and Japan. built power on support by urban business people and merchants in coastal cities. 1924 - forged alliance with communists; Bolsheviks gave advisors and material assistance. Abandoned capital at Nanjing and moved to chongqing
The Long March
Communist escape from Hunan province during the civil war with the Guomindang in 1934; center of communist power moved to Shaanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist Party in China. Gave them a sense they couldnt be defeated.
The Great Leap Forward
Economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed industrialization of small-scale projects integrated into peasant communes; led to economic disaster; ended in 1960. Effort to revitalize revolution by restoring mass and rural base, efforts to use labor, not machines, joys of mass involvement, wanted to get rid of bureaucracy, self reliance within peasant communities, regulated by commune leaders and heads of local labor brigades. Peasant resistance to collectivizations, abuse of commune leaders, little output of backyard factories, drought, worst famine of communist era, had to import rice. Rejected Western and United Nations proposals for family planning; Mao Zedong lost position as state chairman. Population increase, decrease in productivity.
The Cultural Revolution
Movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists; used mobs to ridicule political rivals; campaign was called off in 1968. Red Guard and Peoples Liberation Army- student brigades publicly ridiculed opponents. Supported by students, peasants, and military. pulled down bureaucrats, professors, plant managers, children of elite forced to confess to crimes against people, forced to do manual labor, centralized state and technocratic elites torn apart by workers and people. rank and file put back in line, students disbanded and suppressed.
The Rape of Nanking
1937 Japanese attacked China proper, bombed cities while soldierse overran Eastern China and set up puppet government; raided cities, raped women,
December 7 1941; American naval base in Hawaii; attack by Japanese on this facility in December 1941 crippled American fleet in the Pacific and caused US to enter World War II; after Pearl Harbor, 1/3 Japanese remained bogged down in China
japanese Marshal Admiral and commander in chief of combined Fleet during World War II; responsible for Pearl Harbor; defeated by US at Midway Island (decisive victory over powerful carrier force);
First Japanese city do be bombed in 1945 August; three days later, bombed Nagasaki; 200,000 died as a result in 1 year; hastened the end of the war
island of the japanese volcano islands that form the ogasawara Archipelago (Bonin Islands); 1945 February -March Battle of Iwo Jima between US and empire of Japan during World War II; Us captured island and 3 airfields, part of island hopping; one of the bloodiest battles; needed to get close to Japan for aerial bombings
124th emperor of Japan; Emperor Showa; At the start of his reign, Japan was one of the great powers and five permanent powers of the League of Nations; head of state under the limitation of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during imperial expansion, militarization, and involvement in World War II; not prosecuted for war crimes; symbol of a new state; became constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following the defeat of French armies by the Germans; collapse of France due to divided and weak leadership of the republic; demoralized citizens, defenses outdated and susceptible of blitzkrieg offensives; nazi puppet regime
Treaty of Versailles ordered Germany to pay fines to Allies to repay costs of the war, opposed by the US, led to severe depression in Germany
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hope of avoiding a war; associated with Neville Chamberlains policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler
1938 a union between Austria and Germany; prohibited by Treaty of Versailles but Hitler sent army to Austria and annexed it; France and Britain did nothing to stop it despite supporting Austrian independence
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1943; allies agreed invasion of Nazi- occupied France; soviet forces could move through smaller eastern nations of Europe and push nazis back; Britain negotiated separately with soviets to ensure western preponderance in postwar Greece as well as equality in Hungary and Yugoslavia with soviet control of Romania and Bulgaria
Meeting among the leaders of the United States Britain and Soviet union, in 1945 in soviet Crimea;agreed to soviet entry into the pacific war in return for return for possessions in Manchuria, organization of the United Nations, disputed the division of political organization in Easter European states to be reestablished after the war. Franklin Roosevelt wanted soviet assistance against Japan divided Germany into four occupation zones which would be disarmed and purged of nazi influence, Britain wanted Germany as an industrial ally, Stalin agreed to included no communist leaders in soviet controlled government in Poland - violated
Meeting among United States, Britain, Soviet Union before und of World War II in July 1945; allies agreed upon soviet domination in Eastern Europe; Germany and Austria to be divided among victorious allies. Soviets got eastern Germany and Poland and Eastern Europe. Austria divided and gained independence in 1956;
Program of substantial loans initiated by the United States in 1947; designed to aid western nations in rebuilding from the wars devastation; vehicle for American economic dominance. Intended to beat back domestic communist movements in countries like France and Italy by promoting economic growth
North Atlantic treaty organization; created in 1949 under the United States leadership to groups most of the wester European powers plus Canada in a defensive alliance against possible soviet aggression; legitimated some rearmament of west Germany in the context of resistance to communism and maintenance of US military presence in Germany
In response to NATO; Alliance roster by Soviet Union with its Eastern European satellites to balance formation of NATO by western powers
The Berlin Blockade (1948-1949) was one of the first major international crises in Cold War; Soviet Union blocked the western allies railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control; force western powers to allow the soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food, fuel, aid thereby giving control over the entire city; US and Britain attempt to fly food and supplies into Berlin
House Un-American Activities Committee; investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda; originally created to uncover Nazi ties 1938
1947; United States policy to stop soviet expansion during the cold war; pledged to contain communism in Europe and elsewhere and impelled the US to support any nation with both military and economic aid is its stability was threatened; global policeman - actions in Vietnam, Korea, and Egypt; feeling of personal responsibility
Cuban revolutionary; overthrew dictator Fulgencio Batsita in 1958; initial series of socialist reforms; came to depend almost exclusively on Soviet Union; originated as a lawyer in leftist university politics; ills of Cuban society; 1953 launched unsuccessful attack on military barracks; return of democracy social justice and establishment of a less dependent economy; field to Mexico and gathered military force with Che Guevera; foreign parties expropriated, farms collectivized, central economy put in place; US relations broke off in 1961, dependent on Soviet Union;
Dictator of Cuban from 1934 to 1944; returned to the presidency in 1952; ousted from the government led by revolution led by Fidel Castro; authoritarian reformer; democratic constitution of 1940 - promised land reforms, full employment, nationalization of natural resources; when he returned to presidency, corrupt and dictator.
Ernesto Che Guevara
Argentine Revolutionary; aided by Fidel Castro in overthrow of Batista regime in Cuba; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967;
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Religious leader of Iran following the revolution of 1979 to expel Pahlavi shah of Iran; emphasized religious purification; tried to eliminate Western influences and establish purely Islamic government; claimed to be divinely inspired deliverers, promised followers magical protection and instant paradise should they join fall during the holy war against heretics and infidels; sought to build a lasting state and social order on Islamic precedents; Shi'ite philosopher; determined to destroy Saddam Hussein and punish Iraqis; outnumbered, Iraq had US support, better armed, agreed to armistice in 1988
Shah Reva Pahlavi
dictatorial and repressive regime deeply offended middle classes; neglect of islamic worship and religious institutions enraged ayatollahs or religious experts; alienated mullahs or local prayer leaders and mosque attendants; half hearted land reforms, favoritism of shahs; neglected military; fled without a fight.
Bay of Pigs
1961; failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA sponsored paramilitary group Brigade; counter revolutionary military trained and funded by the government CIA intended to overthrow Communist Government of Fidel castro; launched from guatemala and defeated by cuban forces within three days