48 terms

Honors Biology Chapter 8

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anaphase
sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
asexual reproduction
make new cells without fertilization
autosome
22 non sex chromosome pairs found in humans
benign tumor
noncancerous tumor
cancer
disease of the cell cycle that results in abnormal cell growth
cell cycle
series of events cells grow and divide
cell cycle control
check points that ensure each step of the cell cycle has occurred as scheduled
cell division
cell splits into two new cells
cell plate
forms between plant cells during cytokinesis
centromere
protein disk that holds sister chromatids together
centrosome
functions to organize the microtubules for cell division
chemotherapy
treatment for cancer in which drugs are administered to disrupt cell division of cancer cells.
chiasma
place on chromatids where chromosomes have crossed over
chromatin
unwound DNA during interphase
chromosome
gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of the cell and visible during meiosis and mitosis
cleavage furrow
first sign of cytokinesis in animal cells
crossing over
exchange of genetic material during prophase I of meiosis
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane
diploid
having two sets of chromosomes
Down syndrom
trisomy 21
fertilization
union of sperm and egg in sexual reproduction
gamete
sex cell, sperm or egg
genetic recombination
production of offspring that is genetically different from either parent
haploid
having one set of chromosomes
histone
protein that helps hold DNA together as a chromosome
homologous chromosomes
two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell
interphase
stage of the cell cycle where it grows, copies its DNA, and prepares for cell division (normal life function of cell)
karyotype
image that reveals an orderly arrangement of chromosomes
life cycle
sequences of stages leading from the adults of one generation of the the adults of the next
malignant tumor
cells break off and spread to other parts of the body, interrupts normal functions of cells
meiosis
process of making four haploid gamete cells
metaphase
chromosomes align along the equator of the cell on the spindle fibers
metastasis
spread of cancer from their original site
mitosis
process of dividing the nucleus of a cell into 2 daughter nuclei
Mitotic Phase
mitosis (division of nucleus) and cytokinesis (division of the plasma membrane)
mitotic spindle
microtubles that guide chromosomes during mitosis
nucleosome
DNA wound around histones
nondisjunction
members of a chromosome pair fail to separate at anaphase
prophase
chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope disappears, and spindle fibers form
radiation therapy
damages DNA and disrupts cell division
sex chromosome
chromosomes that determine sex of offspring X and Y
sexual reproduction
produces offspring that are genetically different from the parents
sister chromatid
two copies of DNA containing identical DNA
somatic cell
normal body cell (diploid)
telophase
sister chromatids arrive at the poles, nuclear envelopes reform around each new nuclei, and spindle fiber dissolves
trisomy 21
condition where an individual has an extra 21st chromosome--Down syndrome
tumor
abnormally growing masses of body cells
zygote
fusion of sperm and egg to make a diploid cell