Chapter 1 — The Persistence of Religion
Terms in this set (87)
Christians of the Radical Reformation of sixteenth-century Europe, including the Amish, the Hutterites, and the Mennonites, who practice rebaptizing converts who have already been baptized as infants, arguing for "believer's baptism."
Belief system that sees a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world; sometimes uses horoscopes and human personality to predict future events.
Barth, Karl (1886-1968)
Swiss Reformed theologian, regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian and most prolific theologian of the twentieth century; writings include "Church Dogmatics," a thirteen-volume work, and "The Epistle to the Romans;" emphasized the paradoxical nature of divine truth.
Generally, the "universal" church; specifically, the Roman Catholic Church.
Form of divination, usually by casting lots, bones, stones, or dice, to illuminate the will of God or other supernatural power.
Experience characteristic of individuals acting in cooperation; concept used in social sciences.
Communist Manifesto, The
One of the world's most influential publications; an 1848 work written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that proposes a history of class struggle and the problems of capitalism.
Darwin, Charles (1809-92)
English naturalist who established the notion that all species of life have descended from common ancestors; advocated belief in natural selection as a form of evolution; author of "On the Origin of Species" (1859).
Karl Marx's critique of the political economy of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production; the first volume was published in 1867.
In Hinduism, natural law governing conduct of an individual and a group; duty, custom, degree, vocation, and moral rectitude.
Attempt to foresee; to gain insight into a situation or question; to divine by way of occultic ritual.
Denotes a state of two parts; a binary opposition, usually between good and evil.
Durkheim, Émile (1858-1917)
French sociologist, often considered the father of sociology; wrote about religious life, suicide, the division of labor in society.
Whole household of God; usually refers to Christian unity and cooperation across denominational lines.
Eliade, Mircea (1907-86)
Romanian historian of religion; founder of the "history of religions" approach to studying religion; advocated the study of hierophanies (appearances of the sacred) as the basis of religion.
Insider perspective; an approach to investigation that illuminates how local people think; analysis of cultural phenomena from the perspective of one who participates in the culture being studied.
Emperor Hirohito (1901-89)
124th emperor of Japan, grandson of Emperor Meiji; reigned during Japan's imperial expansion, militarization, and involvement in World War II; today he is referred to as Emperor Showa (abundant benevolence).
Buddhist doctrine of openness, thusness, absence of inherent existence in all phenomena.
Outsider perspective; analysis of cultural phenomena from the perspective of one who does not participate in the culture being studied.
Synthesis of popular beliefs and practices that are developed within a local culture, aimed at handling everyday problems; also referred to as "local religions" or "popular religions."
Frazer, James (1854-1941)
Scottish social anthropologist; an early founder of modern anthropology; wrote The Golden Bough (1890), documenting similarities among magical and religious beliefs worldwide.
Technique created by Sigmund Freud whereby patients speak for themselves freely as a method of unearthing unconscious thinking.
Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939)
Austrian neurologist who became known as the founder of psychoanalysis, a way of treating psychopathologies; major influence on Western thinking, with concepts of Oedipus complex, libido, dreams, ego, superego, and id.
Geertz, Clifford (1926-2006)
American anthropologist who advocated the approach of symbolic anthropology, investigating patterns of symbols and "thick description"; wrote "The Interpretation of Cultures" (1973).
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770-1831)
German idealist philosopher; argued that the human mind is the highest expression of the Absolute; developed the concept of the dialectic, in which contradiction between a the- sis and its antithesis is resolved at a higher level of truth (synthesis).
Hiebert, Paul (1932-2007)
Mennonite professor of mission and anthropology; born in India, taught at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Appearance of the sacred; used by Mircea Eliade for his analyses of religion.
history of religions
Written record of human religious experiences and ideas; this approach considers common patterns of religion throughout history.
Shinto notion of spiritual being, for example, natural forces, spirits.
Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804)
German philosopher who argued that reason was the source of morality; sought to unite reason with experience in his book "Critique of Pure Reason" (1781).
New religion of Japan; type of Shinto sect that worships God under the name of Tenchi Kane No Kami; God is seen as present within this world and the universe as the body of the Parent God (No Kami).
"Teachings of Kurozumi," a Japanese Shinto sect; believes that Amaterasu is the source
of light and life, and human beings can gain access to her divine power to perform miracles.
Freedom from an unwelcomed condition (e.g., as experienced in salvation, nirvana, moksha).
Marx, Karl (1818-83)
German philosopher and revolutionary socialist; had a profound influence on understanding labor in relation to capital; wrote "The Communist Manifesto" (1848) and "Das Kapital" (1867-94).
Transition of Japan under Emperor Meiji from a feudal system to a constitutional monarchy (1868-1912); led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structures.
Notion that reality is composed of two types of underlying substances in the world.
Notion that reality is composed of only one ultimate substance.
Belief in the existence of one God; sometimes, belief in one personal and transcendent God (e.g., as in Judaism, Christianity, Islam).
Müller, Friedrich Max (1823-1900)
German philologist; a founder of the Western academic discipline of Indian studies and comparative religion.
Sacred narrative that usually explains the origins of the world, humankind, or the first creation; refers to any traditional story that can be allegorical but has an explanatory function.
Emptiness; forms of reality that do not have substance, particularly important in Buddhism and Taoism.
Major deity in Shinto religion; the sun goddess; Amaterasu ("shining in heaven") is worshiped at Ise Shrine, Honshu, Japan.
Christian tradition of Eastern Orthodox churches.
That which is considered correct or proper belief as defined by official ecclesiastical bodies; "right belief"; in general, refers to basic Christian beliefs that are accepted by all Christian churches, often seen as expressed in the traditional Apostles' and Nicene Creeds.
Otto, Rudolf (1869-1937)
German theologian and scholar of comparative religion; famous for his book The Idea of the Holy (1917), which defines the concept of holy as that which is numinous ("non-rational, non-sensory experience or feeling whose primary and immediate object is outside the self").
The study of that which appears; study of the structures of subjective experience and consciousness; study of appearances (e.g., of the sacred).
Belief in many deities.
Synthesis of popular beliefs and practices that are developed within a local culture, aimed at handling everyday problems; also referred to as "local religions" or "folk religions."
In the phenomenology of religion, means mundane, ordinary, repeatable and can be applied to anything (e.g., space, time, language, cosmos, bodies, nature).
One of the major branches of Christianity; emerged with Martin Luther in the sixteenth century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and traditions; emphasized salvation by grace alone (sola gratia), faith alone (sola fide), and Scripture alone (sola scriptura).
The Recitation; central religious text of Islam revealed through the angel Gabriel to Prophet Muhammad; guides Muslims in all areas of life and testifies to the one God (Allah).
Redfield, Robert (1897-1958)
American anthropologist and ethnolinguist; wrote on archeology, linguistics, cultural anthropology, and ethnology; author of "The Primitive World and Its Transformation" (1953) and "Peasant Society and Culture" (1956).
In Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, the concept of moksha; emancipation, liberation, or release from the cycle of death and rebirth; in epistemological and psychological terms, release connotes freedom, self- realization, and self-knowledge.
Formulized actions and behaviors, prescribed by the tradition of a community; includes, for example, various worship practices, rites of passages, purification rites, oaths of allegiance, marriages and funerals, and sports events.
State of being holy, separated; worthy of spiritual respect and devotion; inspires awe among believers.
sacred actions (rituals)
Prescribed actions performed in a sacred context; communicative event between the human and the divine.
"Sacred and the Profane, The"
Book by Mircea Eliade (1961) arguing that understanding religion begins with the distinction between the sacred and the profane; religion concerns hierophany (manifestation of the sacred).
Assembly of religious believers for religious purposes.
Actual experiences of religious believers, distinct according to religious tradition.
Material objects set apart for religious purposes.
Places set apart from ordinary space for religious purposes.
Writings that communicate religious truth or insight that shapes the religious community.
Offerings of food, objects, animals, or the self as an act of worship or propitiation.
Being saved or delivered from a dire situation, the human condition, sin.
Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain cycle of death and rebirth; "continuous flow"; existence; reincarnation.
Sanneh, Lamin (b. 1942)
D. Willis James Professor of Missions and World Christianity and Professor of History at Yale Divinity School; his works include "Translating the Message" (1989) and "Whose Religion Is Christianity?" (2003).
Forms of Shinto that include worship or veneration of founders of Shinto sects, separate from government-owned shrines.
Professor of anthropology and translation, Fuller Theological Seminary, who grew up in India and the Philippines.
In indigenous Chinese religion, "spirit," a beneficient spirit of the dead; a deified person; gods; refers also to supernatural or heavenly beings.
"Way of the Deities"; indigenous spirituality of Japan and the Japanese.
One of thirteen Shinto sects, with approximately forty thousand members.
A form of Shinto religion of Japan that focuses on the worship of kami (spirit beings) in public and private shrines.
Communal feast from Java, Indonesia, symbolizing the social unity of those participating in it; major ritual in Javanese religion.
Identity that is oriented toward or focused on one's own social group.
State religion of the Empire of Japan (1868-1945); used as state ideology in Japan.
Object, word, or action that represents or suggests an idea or belief; takes the form of words, gestures, and sounds that serve as pointers or signs.
Nineteenth-century Japanese religion that originated in revelations to Nakayama Miki, known as Oyasama by devotees.
Dean and professor of theology of missions at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Traditional Japanese gate most commonly found at the entrance of a Shinto shrine.
Refers to past traditions as the basis for current belief and practice.
Japanese word that indicates violation of morality; a divine punishment resulting from the violation of a divine command or taboo; sin.
Tylor, Edward Burnett (1832-1917)
English anthropologist; advocated cultural evolutionism; wrote "Primitive Culture" (1871) and "Anthropology" (1881), in which he argues that animism is the first stage of religious development.
Walls, Andrew (b. 1928)
British historian and missiologist; major thinker and promoter of the study of Christian missions; pioneer in the studies of African church history; wrote "The Missionary Movement in Christian History" (1996), among other works.
Comprehensive orientation of an individual or society and its knowledge; includes natural philosophy, existential and normative affirmations; also, a fundamental orientation of the heart expressed in story or a set of presuppositions.
A form of Shinto religion of Japan that focuses on the worship of kami (spirit beings) in public and private shrines.
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