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Quizlet Manhattan Essential GRE Words
Terms in this set (505)
"(v) reduce, diminish / to become less strong or decrease: ""We waited for the storm to abate."" --> rebate: reduce in price from Old French rabattre 'to beat down again' / abate: abattre 'to beat down, kill'"
(v) formally give up the throne (or some other power or responsibility)
(adj) abnormal, deviant
"(v) detest, regard with disgust / (verb) find repugnant; ""I loathe that man""; ""She abhors cats""/ to hate a kind of behaviour or way of thinking, especially because you think it is morally wrong. ""I abhor discrimination of any kind."" --> we hate a *****! "
"(v) give up, renounce; repudiate, recant, or shun (especially formally or under oath) / (verb) formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure; ""He retracted his earlier statements about his religion""; ""She abjured her beliefs""/to state publicly that you will give up a particular belief or way of behaving --> Fazla kilo aldıktan sonra abur-cubur'a tövbe etti, ondan yeminle vazgeçti."
"(adj) rough, suitable for grinding or polishing (such as sandpaper); causing irritation or annoyance / rude or unkind: ""She was a tough girl with rather an abrasive manner."" / having a rough surface, especially one that can be used to clean something or make it smooth: ""Smooth down with a fine abrasive paper."""
"(v) reduce or lessen; shorten by omitting parts throughout while retaining the main idea / an abridged book, play etc has been made shorter but keeps its basic structure and meaning: ""The abridged edition was published in 1988."" -->a+bridge... well bridges are meant to reduce the gap between something... bridges can shorten the transportation time."
"(v) hold back, refrain (especially from something bad or unhealthy); decline to vote: ""Six countries voted for the change, five voted against, and two abstained."", abstain from: ""Pilots must abstain from alcohol for 24 hours before flying."" --> ab+stain= we tend to stay away from stain, hold back"
"(n) summit, peak, highest point: ""Silence of this quality is the acme of chatter."""
"(n) the practice of pursuing political or other goals through vigorous action, often including protests and demonstrations: ""Good progressive political activism is that which engages in the fights that are before us, while also making long-term plans to improve the battlefield itself."""
"(verb) follow through or carry out a plan without deviation; ""They adhered to their plan"""
"(verb) come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation; ""The dress clings to her body""; ""The label stuck to the box""; ""The sushi rice grains cohere"""
"(verb) stick to firmly; ""Will this wallpaper adhere to the wall?"" ""The eggs of these fish adhere to plant leaves."""
"(verb) be loyal to; ""She stood by her husband in times of trouble""; ""The friends stuck together through the war"""
"(verb) be a devoted follower or supporter; ""The residents of this village adhered to Catholicism""; ""She sticks to her principles"""
"(verb) be compatible or in accordance with; ""You must adhere to the rules"" ""We adhere to the principles of equal rights and freedom of expression for all."""
"(v) mildly scold; caution, advise, or remind to do something / to tell someone severely that they have done something wrong: ""The witness was admonished for failing to answer the question."""
"(adj) opposing, harmful: ""The expedition was abandoned because of adverse weather conditions."""
"(v, n) speak or argue in favor of (verb); a person who pleads for a cause or on behalf of another person (noun): ""She's a passionate advocate of natural childbirth.""; ""Those who advocate doctor-assisted suicide say the terminally ill should not have to suffer."""
"(adj, n) concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste, pertaining to the science of what is beautiful (adj); a sense of beauty and taste of a particular time and place (noun): ""From an esthetic point of view, it's a nice design.""; ""There was an aesthetic in place that a lot of people found limiting."""
"(adj) warm and friendly, pleasant, approachable / friendly and easy to talk to [= pleasant]: ""Brown was affable and sympathetic, but also firm and decisive in dealing with the problems presented to him."" --> affection+able= he shows affection to others for being able to be affable, friendly and easy to talk "
"(n) fake behavior (such as in speech or dress) adopted to give a certain impression / a way of behaving, speaking etc that is not sincere or natural: ""Calling everyone 'darling' is just an affectation."" --> 'affection' is natural and true, but 'affectation' is artificial and pretentious"
"(v) make greater; exaggerate / To increase the scope of; extend: ""Does this mean you are admitting there's no media conspiracy to aggrandize Obama's performance?"" --> aggregate + grand= aggregating things...is similar to adding details"
"(v, adj) gather together, amount to (verb): ""A wife's income is no longer aggregated with that of her husband.""; constituting a whole made up of constituent parts (adj): ""But the important thing is the aggregate evidence, which is very conclusive."""
"(n) cheerful or speedy willingness / liveliness and eagerness; ""he accepted with alacrity""; quickness and eagernes: ""No wonder that theism is abandoned with such alacrity by so many of these new philosophers."" --> Duruma 'alaka, ilgi' gösterdiği için, büyük bir 'atiklik, canlılık ve heves' ile kabul etti."
"(v) cause to become unfriendly, hostile, or distant: ""The latest tax proposals will alienate many voters.""; ""He felt that his experiences had alienated him from society."" / (verb) transfer property or ownership: ""The will aliened the property to the heirs"""
"(v) lessen, make easier to endure / (verb) provide physical relief, as from pain; ""This pill will relieve your headaches"""
"(adj) not clear, hard to understand, open to having several meanings or interpretations: ""The language in the Minister's statement is highly ambiguous."""
"(adj) uncertain; unable to decide, or wanting to do two contradictory things at once: ""We are both somewhat ambivalent about having a child.""; ""O'Neill had a genuine ambivalence toward US involvement in the war."""
"(adj) comparable, corresponding in some particular way (making a good analogy) / similar to another situation or thing so that a comparison can be made: ""The report's findings are analogous with our own."""
"(n) absence of law or government; chaos, disorder: ""The classroom was in a constant state of anarchy.""; ""The nation is in danger of falling into anarchy."""
"(v) rub or sprinkle oil on; make sacred, such as by ceremony that includes applying oil to someone / to put oil or water on someone's head or body, usually as part of a religious ceremony: ""He was anointed with sacred oil."" --> an+oil= they use an oil on the people's head as part of a religious ceremony"
"(n) deviation from what is common; inconsistency: ""In those days, a woman professor was still an anomaly."""
"(v) make hostile or unfriendly / to annoy someone very much by doing something that they do not like: ""Do not antagonize your customers.""; ""The White House does not want to antagonize Beijing."""
"deep dislike, aversion, or repugnance, sometimes without reason / a feeling of strong dislike towards someone or something: ""There's always been a certain amount of antipathy between the two doctors."""
"(n) not caring; absence of feeling; lack of interest or concern / the feeling of not being interested in something, and not willing to make any effort to change or improve things: ""The campaign failed because of public apathy."""
"(adj) of questionable authenticity; false / an apocryphal story is well-known but probably not true: ""I am still not sure whether these stories were apocryphal or not, but the danger was clearly present.""; ""The bagel has a rich history, though its origin is somewhat apocryphal."""
"pacify, satisfy, relieve; concede to be belligerent demands, sometimes at the expense of principles / to make someone less angry or stop them from attacking you by giving them what they want: ""They attempted to appease international opposition by promising to hold talks.""; ""Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Hitler in the 30s"" --> if you want somebody not to attack you, you make 'a peace' with them and give them what they want."
"enough to be perceived, considerable / large enough to be noticed or considered important [= significant]: ""There's no appreciable change in the patient's condition."" --> appreciate: farkında olmak, taktir etmek / appreciable: farkedilebilir, taktire değer"
"based entirely on one's discretion; capricious, unreasonable, or having no basis / decided or arranged without any reason or plan, often unfairly: ""The fans complained about the apparently arbitrary distribution of tickets for the next game."" --> arbiter: yargıç, hakem, son söz sahibi / arbitrary: keyfi, isteğe bağlı; based entirely on one's discretion"
"(adj) known or understood by only a few; obscure, secret / secret and known or understood by only a few people: ""the arcane language of the law"" --> those 'are cane', very secret and known or understood by a few."
"(adj) characteristic of an earlier period, ancient, primitive: ""Many smaller radio stations broadcast on archaic equipment."", ""archaic words"""
"(adj) very difficult, strenuous; severe, hard to endure / involving a lot of strength and effort: ""In those days, long-distance travel was slow and arduous.""; ""Today, Corbett will continue his arduous climb to the top of the park's highest peak."" --> it is 'very difficult to accomplish and involving a lot of strength and effort', it is 'hard to do for us'."
"(adj, verb) using language in a clear, fluent way (adj): ""You have to be articulate to be good at debating."" ; speak distinctly or give clarity to an idea (verb): ""Many people are unable to articulate the unhappiness they feel."""
"(n) any object made by humans, especially those from an earlier time, such as those excavated by archaeologists / an object such as a tool, weapon etc that was made in the past and is historically important: ""An artefact from the past can be used to engage interest and awaken curiosity."""
"(adj) free of deceit or craftiness, natural, genuine; lacking skill or knowledge, crude, uncultured / natural, honest, and sincere: ""They had all slept heavily, the sleep if not of the just, of the innocent and artless."" / made or done without any skill: ""The page is a young man of color who raps in crushingly artless rhymes."""
"(v) find out with certainty: ""A postmortem was ordered to try to ascertain the cause of death.""; ""Tests were conducted to ascertain whether pollution levels have dropped.""; ""Police had ascertained that the dead man knew his killer.""; ""You should ascertain the level of insurance cover from the car rental company."""
"(adj, n) abstinent or austere in lifestyle (adj); a person who leads an austere and simple like without material pleasures, esp. someone who does this for religious reasons / living without any physical pleasures or comforts, especially for religious reasons: ""Louis became an extremely devout and ascetic man.""; ""They belonged to an ascetic Jewish sect called the Essenes"" --> Hasidic Jews are ascetic people who are 'living without any physical pleasures or comforts, especially for religious reasons.'"
"(v) make milder, relieve; soothe, pacify, or calm / (verb) satisfy (thirst); ""The cold water quenched his thirst"" / to make an unpleasant feeling less painful or severe [= relieve]: ""Nothing could assuage his guilt.""; ""Debra tried to assuage my fears."" --> as.s usage in toilet 'relieve and satisfy' you."
"(adj) very bold or brave, often in a rude or reckless way; extremely original / showing great courage or confidence in a way that is impressive or slightly shocking: ""It was a breathtakingly audacious solution to an intractable problem, and the results were to be breathtaking as well."""
"(v) make larger / to increase the value, amount, effectiveness etc of something: ""The cream contains ingredients that augment the skin's natural healing processes.""; ""Any surplus was sold to augment their income."" --> when scientist 'increase the volume, amount and effectiveness' of amoxicillin, they called it augment(in)"
"(adj) severe in manner or appearance; someone who is austere is very strict and serious - used to show disapproval: ""an austere expression""; ""Her father is a very austere man."" / very self-disciplined, ascetic; without luxury or ease; sober or serious / severely simple; plain and simple and without any decoration: ""Cuthbert led an austere life of prayer and solitude(yalnızlık)."" --> 'Oz tear' his decorated dress and all jewelaries and decide to start a 'simple, plain and ascetic' life. He became 'strict and serious' in the mean time."
"(adj) self-governing, independent: ""Galicia is an autonomous region of Spain.""; ""These powers will limit the extent to which men and women can be autonomous and equal in love-making."""
"(v) declare or affirm with confidence / to say something firmly and strongly because you are sure that it is true [= declare]: ""His mission, he would later aver, was wholly scientific."" --> By saying ""I 'swear'"" you 'say something very firmly because you are sure that is true', 'a very' confident statement."
"(adj) enthusiastic, dedicated, passionate; excessively desirous. / marked by active interest and enthusiasm; ""an avid sports fan""; doing something as much as possible [= keen]: ""an avid collector of old jazz records""; ""avid for adventure""; ""an avid ambition to succeed"" / (adjective satellite) (often followed by `for') ardently or excessively desirous. --> that guy is always 'enthusiastic, dedicated and passionate' to be in 'avid(a video)'. He is 'excessively desirous'."
"(v) refuse to proceed or to do something / (verb) refuse to comply; to not want to do or try something, because it seems difficult, unpleasant, or frightening; foil(engellemek, işini bozmak): ""Many people would balk at setting up a new business during a recession.""; ""Westerners balk at the prospect of snake on the menu.""; ""Their strategies to balk the enemy had failed."" --> When a dog starts to 'bark', women 'refuse to try to go ahead, because it seems difficult or frightening' for them. / you 'refuse to go ahead' with a 'bulk' of cargo, 'because it seems difficult and unpleasant'."
"(adj) morally low, mean, dishonorable; of little or no value; crude and unrefined; counterfeit / not having good moral principles: ""base attitudes and desires"""
"(v) contradict or misrepresent / to give someone a false idea about something: ""Her pleasant manner belied her true character."" / to show that something cannot be true or real: ""His cheerful smile belied his words.""; ""Two large tears belied Rosalie's brave words.""; ""With a quickness that belied her age, she ran across the road."" --> Her smiling face will 'be lie'; it 'represents falsely' her true character."
"(adj) harmless; favorable; kindly, gentle, or beneficial; not cancerous"
"(adj) fake, fraudulent / not true or real, although someone is trying to make you think it is [= false]: ""The child was taken away from her parents by a bogus social worker.""; ""The government has announced tough new measures to deal with bogus asylum(akıl hastanesi)-seekers."" --> When a magician do his tricks he says 'hokus bogus' first then do it, to show it is 'not true or real, although someone is trying to make you think it is'"
"(v) strengthen or support: ""bolster morale""; to help someone to feel better and more positive: ""he is making a bold attempt to bolster the territory's confidence."" / (verb) to improve something. SYN: boost --> bolster = booster = support and strengthen"
"(n) rude, ill-mannered, or insensitive person; a peasant or country bumpkin / a man who behaves in a rude way: ""Of course, the young man reveals himself as a boor, and pays rather messily for it."". --> He was 'very rude, ill-mannered and insensitive' man, he 'bores' ladies too much."
"(n) something that shields, protects, absorbs shock, or cushions; someone or something that protects one thing or person from being harmed by another: ""Eastern Europe was important to Russia as a buffer against the West."" / (verb) to reduce the bad effects of something: ""Consumer spending is buffering the effects of the recession."""
"(n) government characterized by many bureaus and petty administrators or by excessive, seemingly meaningless requirements / a complicated official system which is annoying or confusing because it has a lot of rules, processes etc [? red tape]: ""The company's huge bureaucracy limits creativity and independent thinking.""; ""We need less bureaucracy in the school system - teachers should be allowed to make more decisions"""
"(v) grow or flourish rapidly; put forth buds or shoots (of a plant) / to grow or develop quickly: ""the burgeoning market for digital cameras"" --> If you eat a lot of BURGers you will BrinG ON the weight, you will 'grow, flourish'. / 'bird pigeons' 'grow, develop quicly'"
"(v, n) support or encourage / to support a system, idea, argument etc, especially by providing money: ""The evidence seemed to buttress their argument."" (verb); a support or prop, esp. projecting from and supporting the wall of a building / a brick or stone structure built to support a wall (noun) --> your butt 'support' you when you sit and rest / butt rests when you 'support' it while sitting"
"(adj, n) past, former / bygone age/era/days etc a period of time in the past: ""The buildings reflect the elegance of a bygone era."" (adj); that which is in the past (usually plural noun)"
"(n) harsh, discordant, or meaningless mixture of sounds / a loud unpleasant mixture of sounds: ""A cacophony of violins, clarinets and trumpets fills the air."""
"(adj) open, sincere, honest / telling the truth, even when the truth may be unpleasant or embarrassing [= frank]: ""She was quite candid about the difficulties the government is having.""; ""He was remarkably candid with me.""; ""It struck me as an unusually candid confession for a politician."" -->candidates in a interview are recommended to be candid, straight forward,outspoken and honest in an interview for best result....."
"(adj) authorized, recognized; pertaining to the canon, or body of accepted rules, standards or artistic works / Conforming to orthodox or well-established rules or patterns, as of procedure: ""If one looks to sources other than the canonical scriptures, Thomas's role assumes larger proportions.""; ""Those listening are often left speechless, because no such support exists within canonical Islamic texts."""
"(adj) acting on impulse, erratic / likely to change your mind suddenly or behave in an unexpected way: ""She was as capricious as her mother had been."""
"(n) mapmaking: ""The effect of computer mapping techniques on traditional cartography has already been considerable."""
"(v) criticize severely; punish in order to correct: ""He castigated those who had become wealthy by exploiting their political standing for private gain.""; ""He even castigated himself for not being a better example, more patient, gentler."" --> The man was a rapist, he was 'criticized severely and punished'. He was 'castrated' "
"(n) causer of change / something or someone that causes an important change or event to happen: ""They hope his election will act as a catalyst for reform."""
"(adj) capable of corroding metal or burning the skin; very critical or sarcastic / a caustic remark criticizes someone in a way that is unkind but often cleverly humorous: ""Hayward made some pretty caustic comments about your poetry.""; ""Some of his students were alienated by his caustic wit."" --> When you look at Turkey's 'chaostic' situation you can't keep yourself from being 'severely critical or sarcastic'"
"(n, v) strong disapproval or official reprimand(resmi kınama) / the act of expressing strong disapproval and criticism: ""The governor could be pressured to resign by a vote of censure."" (noun); to issue such disapproval or reprimand / to officially criticize someone for something they have done wrong: ""He was officially censured for his handling of the situation."" (verb) --> when something gets 'strong disapproval' it gets 'censored' and it is 'officially criticized for doing wrong'"
"(n) fanatical patriotism or blind enthusiasm for military glory; undue or biased devotion to any group, cause, etc.; a strong belief that your country or race is better or more important than any other: ""This sense is often identified with nationalism and patriotism which can be dangerously close to racism, chauvinism and xenophobia."" / a belief that your own sex is better or more important than the other sex, especially if you are a man: ""The academy was labeled a stronghold of male chauvinism."""
"(adj) arranged in or relating to time order: ""We arranged the documents in chronological order."" / chronological age: a person's chronological age is how old they actually are, rather than how old their mind or body seems"
"(v) noisy uproar or protest, as from a crowd; a loud, continuous noise / to demand something loudly: ""The audience cheered, clamoring for more.""; ""All his friends were clamouring to know where he'd been."" / to talk or shout loudly: ""Children clamored excitedly."" / (noun) a very loud noise made by a large group of people or animals: ""He shouted over the rising clamour of voices.""; the expression of feelings of anger and shock by a large number of people - used especially in news reports: ""Trouillot disregarded the growing public clamour for her resignation."" --> CLAIM+MORE: So when you claim for more or demand more there is a loud noise, protest or complain from a crowd"
"(v) make final or settle conclusively; to fasten or hold together / to finally agree on something or get something after trying very hard: ""a young salesman eager to clinch the deal"" / if an event, situation, process etc clinches it, it makes someone finally decide to do something that they were already thinking of doing: ""We'd talked about moving, and the burglary clinched it for us."" / (noun) a situation in which two people who love each other hold each other tightly [= embrace]; if two people clinch, they hold each other's arms tightly, especially when fighting --> sarılmak, kucaklamak, perçinlemek, halletmek, çözümlemek; coming from clench"
"(v) come together, unite; fuse together / if objects or ideas coalesce, they combine to form one single group: ""Gradually the different groups of people coalesced into one dominant racial group."" --> verb form of coalition"
"(adj) very convincing, logical / if a statement is cogent, it seems reasonable and correct: ""The court will require clear, cogent evidence before its decision can be changed.""; ""On the threshold of war there is always cogent justification for entering it."""
"(adj) the same in size, extent, etc., equivalent; proportional (uygun, orantılı, eşit)/ matching something in size, quality, or length of time: ""Salary will be commensurate with age and experience.""; ""Reward should be commensurate with effort."" --> 'Mensure' and Umit's lenghts should be 'matching and be proportional' / common+ensured+rate= company ensured common rate among their personels, everybody's salary will be proportional."
"(adj) self-satisfied, smug; overly content (and therefore lazy, neglectful, or some other bad quality) / pleased with a situation, especially something you have achieved, so that you stop trying to improve or change things - used to show disapproval: ""There's a danger of becoming complacent if you win a few games.""; ""We simply cannot afford to be complacent about the future of our car industry."" --> come+pleasant= after a good work he was PLEASANT where he COME, so he stopped working."
"(adj) completing; fitting together well; filling mutual needs / complementary things go well together, although they are usually different: ""Bain and McCaskill have complementary skills - she is creative while he is highly organized.""; ""The computer and the human mind have different but complementary abilities."" / complementary colours of light are very different and combine to make white"
"(adj) obeying, submissive; following the requirements / willing to obey or to agree to other people's wishes and demands [? comply]: ""For years I had tried to be a compliant and dutiful wife."" / made or done according to particular rules or standards [? comply]: ""Future versions will be fully compliant with the industry standard."""
"(v) give in, admit, yield; acknowledge reluctantly; grant or give up (such as giving up land after losing a war) / something is true or correct, although you wish it were not true [? concession]: ""'That's the only possible solution.' 'Yes, I suppose so,' Charles conceded.""; ""I conceded that I had made a number of errors."" / to admit that you are not going to win a game, argument, battle etc [? concession]: ""The Georgian forces defended the capital but were finally obliged to concede.""; ""In May 1949, Stalin conceded defeat and reopened land access to Berlin.""; ""The team has conceded only 19 goals in 28 games."" / to give something to someone as a right or privilege, often unwillingly [? concession]: ""The king finally agreed to concede further powers to Parliament.""; ""Finally the company conceded wage increases to their workers."""
"(adj) reconciling, appeasing, attempting to make the peace / doing something that is intended to make someone stop arguing with you: ""Perhaps you should adopt a more conciliatory approach.""; ""Brooks felt in no mood to be conciliatory."" -->"
"(v) approve, agree / to agree with someone or have the same opinion as them: ""The committee largely concurred with these views."" / to happen at the same time [= coincide]: ""Everything concurred to produce the desired effect."" --> when a king 'conquers(concur)' a state then the people in the state have to 'approve' him and 'agree' with him."
"(v) overlook, tolerate, regard as harmless / to accept or forgive behaviour that most people think is morally wrong: ""I cannot condone the use of violence under any circumstances."" --> if you use 'condom', health and family welfare department will 'tolerate and forgive' your child quantity."
"(v) consult, compare views; bestow or give / to discuss something with other people, so that everyone can express their opinions and decide on something: ""Franklin leant over and conferred with his attorneys."" / confer a title/degree/honour etc: to officially give someone a title etc, especially as a reward for something they have achieved: ""An honorary degree was conferred on him by the University."" --> People make conferance to confer ideas with each other."
"(n) expert, especially in the fine arts; person of educated, refined tastes / someone who knows a lot about something such as art, food, or music: ""Fry was a connoisseur of Renaissance art.""; ""Lord Burlington was a great collector and connoisseur of paintings."" --> people who are expert of a fine art or knows a lot about something are ""kind of Sir"" (kinda Sir)"
"(v, n) lessen the suffering or grief of (verb); a control panel, or small table or cabinet (noun) / to make someone feel better when they are feeling sad or disappointed [? consolation]: ""No one could console her when Peter died.""; ""She consoled herself with the fact that no one else had done well in the exam either.""; ""He consoled himself that he would see Kate again soon."""
"(v) unite, combine, solidify, make coherent / to strengthen the position of power or success that you have, so that it becomes more effective or continues for longer: ""The company has consolidated its position as the country's leading gas supplier.""; ""The team consolidated their lead with a third goal."" / to combine things in order to make them more effective or easier to deal with: ""We consolidate information from a wide range of sources.""; ""They took out a loan to consolidate their debts.""; ""The company is planning to consolidate its business activities at a new site in Arizona."""
"(v) squeeze, compress; restrict the freedom of / to make something narrower or tighter, or to become narrower or tighter: ""Linda's throat constricted and she started to cry."" / to limit someone's freedom to do what they want: ""Fear of crime constricts many people's lives."""
"(v) interpret or translate / to understand a remark or action in a particular way [? misconstrue]: ""The term can be construed in two different ways."" --> rom Latin, 'to construct', from com- ( ? COM-) + struere 'to build'"
"(adj) controversial; prone to causing arguments, especially gratuitous or petty ones / causing a lot of argument and disagreement between people: ""Animal welfare did not become a contentious issue until the late 1970s.""; ""Abortion has always been a contentious subject."" / someone who is contentious often argues with people. --> Contentious- (Contender+Serious) One who takes competition too serious always fights and quarrels) / if CONTENT is MALİCİOUS then it will cause a lot of argument and disagreement between people."
"(v) place in context, such as by giving the background or circumstances / to consider something together with the situation, events, or information related to it, rather than alone: ""The essays seek to contextualise Kristeva's writings."" --> "
"(n) riddle, the answer to which involves a play on words; any mystery / a confusing and difficult problem: ""The administration is facing a familiar conundrum""; ""King remains a conundrum, a man of both major strengths and serious character flaws.""; ""After discoveries of many genes, ALS remains to be a conundrum"" -->"
"(v) move towards one another or towards a point; unite: ""The two rivers converge into one near Pittsburgh.""; ""Reporters converged on the scene."" / if different ideas or aims converge, they become the same [? diverge]: ""Cultural beliefs about the role of women converge with government policies.""; ""The member states should start to have more convergent policies."""
"(adj) knowledgeable about or experienced with / having knowledge or experience of something: ""Staff members are conversant with the issues."" / able to hold a conversation in a foreign language, but not able to speak it perfectly: ""Kim was conversant in Russian."" --> Through conversations you can gain more knowledge and thus become conversant."
"(adv) in an opposite way; on the other hand: ""American consumers prefer white eggs; conversely, British buyers like brown eggs."""
"(adj) twisted; very complicated / complicated and difficult to understand: ""He always uses a lot of convoluted arguments to support his theories, but no one's ever impressed.""; ""James's books are full of long paragraphs and convoluted sentences, which many people do not find appealing."" --> volve is root which means to roll. con is prefix which means together.If you roll something completely (within it self) it becomes complicated!! and difficult to entangle it, complicated!"
"(adj) plentiful, bountiful / existing or being produced in large quantities: ""He could drink copious amounts of beer without ill effect.""; ""She listened to me and took copious notes."" --> copiosus, from copia 'large amounts'"
"(v) support, add evidence to / to provide information that supports or helps to prove someone else's statement, idea etc: ""We now have new evidence to corroborate the defendant's story.""; ""Experiments elsewhere corroborate these results."" --> if you collaborate with others, they will provide information to support your hypothesis, your collaborations corroborate your work."
"(adj) belonging to the entire world, at home globally; free from local or national prejudices or attachments. / a cosmopolitan person, belief, opinion etc shows a wide experience of different people and places: ""Brigitta has such a cosmopolitan outlook on life.""; ""Alexander, who speaks six languages, had a very cosmopolitan upbringing.""; ""Istanbul is a great cosmopolitan city, situated between East and West.""; ""She grew up in an apartment in a cosmopolitan district of Chicago."""
"(n, v) facial expression or face (noun): ""All colour drained from her countenance."" / approve or tolerate (verb): ""I will not countenance you being rude to Dr Baxter."" -->(count+ten) A ten year old kid is learning how to count upto 10 and his dad's smiling countenance gave kid a lot of encouragement, he 'tolarate' her mistakes."
"(adj) against what one would intuitively expect; contrary to intuition or to common-sense expectation (but often nevertheless true). / Something which is not really the way it seemed when you were a kid, but appears to be, or something which on first glance is one thing, but on close examination is quite unexpected, is called ""counter-intuitive."" My example is the way you expect a snake to be slimy because it is shiny. Shiny things are wet, right? That's your intuition. But the fact is, the snake's scales are shiny but smooth and dry. Counter-intuitive. / The sun goes around the earth, right? It rises in the east, and sets in the west. Do you feel like you are moving? But of course, we all know it's counter-intuitive -- the earth goes around the sun, the sun is moving too, and our whole galaxy is spinning while we sit here and look at pretty lights. That's a pretty big counter-intuitive. / intuitive: an intuitive idea is based on a feeling rather than on knowledge or facts [= instinctive]: ""He seemed to have an intuitive awareness of how I felt."""
"(n) contrasting item, opposite; a complement; the use of contrast or interplay in a work of art / the combination of two or more tunes played together so that they sound like one tune: ""The viola is exactly in counterpoint to the first violin."" / when two things that are different are compared in an interesting or pleasant way: ""I have used my interviews with parents as a counterpoint to a professional judgement."""
"(adj) defeating the purpose; preventing the intended goal: ""Sending young offenders to prison can be counterproductive.""; ""Constant correction by a teacher is often counterproductive, as the student may become afraid to speak at all."""
"(adj) secret, veiled, undercover: ""A covert investigation was conducted to catch the drug-smuggling ring.""; ""The abuse of residents in the home was confirmed by covert video surveillance.""; ""Usually it is covert and can only be diagnosed by specifically measuring blood lipids."""
"(adj) cunning, skillful in deception or underhanded schemes / good at getting what you want by clever planning and by secretly deceiving people [= cunning, sly]: ""Jerry and Tony had worked out a crafty way of avoiding paying tax."""
(adj) very cowardly, lacking courage
"(n) believability, trustworthiness / the quality of deserving to be believed and trusted: ""The scandal has damaged his credibility as a leader.""; ""There are serious questions about the credibility of these reports.""; ""Predictions of economic recovery have now lost all credibility."" / credibility gap: the difference between what someone says and what they do: ""a credibility gap between the Government's promises and their achievements"""
"(adj) gullible; prone to believing or trusting too easily or without enough evidence / always believing what you are told, and therefore easily deceived [= gullible]: ""Quinn charmed credulous investors out of millions of dollars.""; ""If he hadn't adored her he would have treated her as a credulous imbecile."" --> gives 'credit' to everything one hears or reads - credulous"
"(n) steady increase in force, intensity, or the loudness of a musical passage; a climactic moment or peak: ""The shouting rose to a deafening crescendo.""; ""The curtains opened as the music reached a crescendo."" / ""The campaign reached its crescendo in the week of the election."""
"(v) reach the highest point or final stage / if a process culminates in or with a particular event, it ends with that event: ""A series of events for teachers and students will culminate in a Shakespeare festival next year."""
"(adj) thinking the worst of others' motivations; bitterly pessimistic / unwilling to believe that people have good, honest, or sincere reasons for doing something: ""The public is cynical about election promises."" / not caring that something might not be morally right, might hurt someone etc, when you are trying to get something for yourself: ""They're using sex in a cynical attempt to sell more books."""
"(v) discourage, dishearten, lessen the courage of / to make someone feel afraid or less confident about something: ""He felt utterly daunted by the prospect of moving to another country.""; ""Don't be daunted by all the technology.""; ""The threat of lightning did little to daunt local golfers."" / nothing daunted: (old-fashioned) used to say that someone continues or starts to do something in spite of difficulties: ""It was steep but, nothing daunted, he started climbing."" --> when you say 'don't' to somebody, you 'make them feel afraid or less confident about something', discourage them."
"(v) degrade; lower in quality, value, rank, etc.; lower in moral quality / to make someone or something lose its value or people's respect: ""The medical profession has been debased by these revelations.""; ""actors who debased themselves by participating in the show"""
"(v) expose, ridicule, or disprove false or exaggerated claims / to show that an idea or belief is false: ""His claims were later debunked by fellow academics.""; ""Pointing out that he consistently had voted against strengthening antipollution legislation, reporters debunked the candidate's claim that he was a fervent environmentalist."" --> He used to think that 'the bank' is necessary for a prospective life, but time 'showed that the idea is false'"
"(adj) behaving with propriety and good taste; polite / having the correct appearance or behaviour for a particular occasion: ""The man had never behaved towards her in other than a friendly and decorous way; nevertheless, she burned.""; ""Two days later a more decorous visitor called."" --> decor. DECORS: before the party if you use decors for your room, it will be 'having the correct appearance or behaviour for a particular occasion'."
"(v) judge; consider / to think of something in a particular way or as having a particular quality [= consider]: ""They deemed that he was no longer capable of managing the business.""; ""They were told to take whatever action they deemed necessary.""; ""They were deemed to be illegal immigrants.""; ""UK plans were deemed to infringe EU law."" --> ne 'sayarsam, zannedersem, sanarsam, düşünürsem' onu 'diyim' hep"
"(v) vandalize, mar the appearance of / to spoil the surface or appearance of something, especially by writing on it or breaking it: ""Most of the monuments had been broken or defaced.""; ""Several of the gravestones had been defaced and were impossible to read.""; ""There was a bust of Miguel de Unamuno at the bottom of the staircase, and it seemed to have been defaced."" --> ""DE-FACE"".. deforming the face"
"slanderous, injurious to someone's reputation / defame (v): to write or say bad or untrue things about someone or something, so that people will have a bad opinion of them: ""Religious leaders say the novel defames Islam.""; ""They had been successfully denied, defamed and ridiculed."""
"(n, v) failure to act, neglect; if you win a game, competition etc by default, you win it because your opponent did not play or because there were no other competitors; if something happens by default, it happens because you did not do anything to change it; failure to pay money that you owe at the right time: ""The company is in default on its loan agreement.""; ""The bank can seize the asset in the event of a default in payment.""; ""Loans are often refused to poorer borrowers because the risk of default is greater."" (noun) / fail to fulfill an obligation, esp. a financial one; to fail to pay money that you owe at the right time: ""He defaulted on his child support payments.""; to not do something that you are supposed to do, especially that you are legally supposed to do (verb)"
"(n) respectful submission; yielding to the authority or opinion of another / polite behaviour that shows that you respect someone and are therefore willing to accept their opinions or judgment: ""Lewis was annoyed that Adam did not show enough respect and deference to him.""; ""They were married in church out of deference to their parents' wishes.""; ""Visiting officials were treated with great deference"" --> ductus deference"
"(v) cause to curve; turn aside, esp. from a straight course; avoid / if someone or something deflects something that is moving, or if it deflects, it turns in a different direction: ""He deflected the blow with his forearm.""; ""The Stealth bomber is designed to deflect radar waves, making it invisible / to do something to stop people paying attention to you, criticizing you etc: ""The committee is seeking to deflect criticism by blaming me."" / to take someone's attention away from something: ""Nothing can deflect me from reaching my goal."""
"(adj) harmful, unhealthy; amaging or harmful: ""Parental divorce has often been assumed to have deleterious effects on children.""; ""Therefore it appears that hypertension has an additive deleterious effect on overall prognosis in the diabetic."""
"(v) mark the outline of; sketch; describe in detail / to describe or draw something carefully so that people can understand it: ""The document delineates your rights and your obligations."" / to make the borders between two areas very clear: ""The boundaries of these areas should be clearly delineated."" --> To describe or draw something carrefully for people to understand it, you should draw 'the line of it'"
"(v) belittle, attack the reputation of / to say things to make someone or something seem less important or good: ""Government statements have also made a point of denigrating the achievements of the 1980 Literacy Crusade.""; ""Attempts to denigrate his playing simply because of his popularity are misplaced but regrettably widespread."" --> When you say '******' to black people you denigrate them, you 'say things to make someone or something seem less important or good'"
"(v) be a name or symbol for / to mean something [? connote]: ""What does the word 'curriculum' denote that 'course' does not?"" / to represent or be a sign of something [= indicate]: ""Crosses on the map denote villages.""; ""The dotted line on the graph denotes profits."""
"(v) mock, scoff at, laugh at contemptuously / to make remarks or jokes that show you think someone or something is silly or useless [= mock]: ""You shouldn't deride their efforts.""; ""The party was derided as totally lacking in ideas."" --> de-ride -- riding a horse upside down.. people will make fun of you, mock you ( ridicule) / Okula kırmızı timsah derisi montla gelenle herkes 'alay ediyordu', sorun 'deride' idi."
"(adj) derived from something else; not original / not new or invented, but copied or taken from something else - used to show disapproval: ""This relatively new style of music is derivative of ragtime and blues.""; ""This season's TV shows are all pretty dull and derivative."" / (n): ""Heroin is a derivative of morphine."""
"(v) thoroughly dried up, dehydrated / desiccated(adj): desiccated food has been dried in order to preserve it; completely dry: ""Mixing it with water, wind, and memory, I reconstitute the desiccated fact as a full-blown experience pulsing with life.""; ""Scratched into this desiccated earth is an environmental warning."" --> They 'thoroughly dry and dehydrate' the cake to make 'desi cake'. / desi cake is always dried up."
"(adj) impartial, disinterested; unconcerned, distant, aloof / not reacting to or becoming involved in something in an emotional way [? involved]: ""He appeared totally detached from the horrific nature of his crimes.""; ""She described what had happened in a cold and detached manner.""; ""Try to take a more detached view."""
"(n) something that restrains or discourages / something that makes someone less likely to do something, by making them realize it will be difficult or have bad results: ""The small fines for this type of crime do not act as much of a deterrent.""; ""Window locks are an effective deterrent against burglars.""; ""Experts do not agree about whether the death penalty acts as a deterrent.""; ""The special paint is meant to be a deterrent to graffiti artists."" --> Deter+rent= high 'rent' is always 'discouraging' for tenants. / If you put 'detergent' in front of 'ant'-hill, it will 'discourage' them to go out and steal foods."
"(n) bitter, abusive attack or criticism; rant / a long speech or piece of writing that criticizes someone or something very severely: ""a diatribe against contemporary American civilization"" --> After his long speech or piece of writing that criticizes old tribes very severely, he said 'die a tribe' and finished it."
"(adj) intended to instruct; teaching, or teaching a moral lesson / speech or writing that is didactic is intended to teach people a moral lesson: ""His novel has a didactic tone."" / someone who is didactic is too eager to teach people things or give instructions"
"(v) go off-topic when speaking or writing: ""Do you mind if I digress for a moment?""; ""After several long digressions he finally reached the interesting part of the story."""
"(n) loud, confused noise, esp. for a long period of time / a loud unpleasant noise that continues for a long time: ""The din of the engines was deafening.""; ""Ged was trying to make himself heard above the din."" / (verb): (din something into somebody)to make someone learn and remember something by saying it to them many times: Respect for our elders was dinned into us at school. --> Din is sometimes 'a loud unpleasant noise that continues for a long time', and it 'makes someone learn and remember something by saying it to them many times'."
"(v) free someone from a mistake in thinking / to persuade someone that what they believe is not true: ""I tried to disabuse him of that notion.""; "
"(adj) having good judgment or insight; able to distinguish mentally / showing the ability to make good judgments, especially about art, music, style etc [= discriminating]: ""The book will charm discerning readers.""; ""You don't have to be wealthy to develop a discerning palate.""; ""Discerning investors will find the guide useful.""; ""the discerning eye/ear (=someone who can make good judgments about art or music)"" / discern (v): to notice or understand something by thinking about it carefully: ""Officials were keen to discern how much public support there was.""; to be able to see something by looking carefully [= perceive]: ""We could just discern a town in the distance."" --> This CERN scientists 'notice or understand something by thinking about it carefully'"
"(v) injure the reputation of, destroy credibility of or confidence in / to make people stop respecting or trusting someone or something: ""The company's lawyers tried to discredit her testimony.""; ""His theories have now been discredited.""; ""His theories have now been discredited."" / (n): (to somebody's discredit): ""To his discredit, he knew about the problem but said nothing.""; (bring discredit on/upon/to somebody/something): ""The behaviour of fans has brought discredit on English football."""
"(n) difference or inconsistency / a difference between two amounts, details, reports etc that should be the same: ""Police found discrepancies in the two men's reports.""; ""There is a large discrepancy between the ideal image of motherhood and the reality.""; ""She always refused to discuss the discrepancies in her biography."" --> break into dis+creep+fancy= this is creep and this is fancy what an 'inconsistency and difference' with this item .i.e fancy and creep are different"
"(adj) judicious, discerning, having good judgment or insight / able to judge what is of good quality and what is not [= discerning]: ""As film audiences get older, they will become more discriminating."""
"(adj) insincere, not genuine / not sincere and slightly dishonest [? ingenuous]: ""Keeping the details of the tax changes vague is disingenuous.""; ""It's disingenuous of politicians to blame journalists for leaks that appear in the press."""
"(adj) unbiased, impartial; not interested / able to judge a situation fairly because you are not concerned with gaining any personal advantage from it [= objective, impartial, unbiased]: ""A lawyer should provide disinterested advice.""; ""The transaction is subject to approval by a panel of disinterested directors.""; ""Find a financial consultant who can offer completely independent and disinterested advice."""
"(adj) disconnected, not coherent, jerky; having the joints separated / something, especially a speech or piece of writing, that is disjointed has parts that do not seem well connected or are not arranged well: ""Rambling, disjointed notes found in Brady's apartment gave no clues as to his disappearance."" / a disjointed activity or system is one in which the different parts do not work well together: ""Burley was critical of his team's disjointed performance."""
"(v) allow to disperse or leave; fire from a job; put aside or reject, esp. after only a brief consideration / to refuse to consider someone's idea, opinion etc, because you think it is not serious, true, or important: ""The government has dismissed criticisms that the country's health policy is a mess.""; ""He just laughed and dismissed my proposal as unrealistic.""; ""It's an idea that shouldn't be dismissed out of hand (=dismissed immediately and completely)."" / to remove someone from their job [= fire, sack]: ""Bryant was unfairly dismissed from his post.""; ""Employees can be dismissed for sending obscene emails."" / to tell someone that they are allowed to go, or are no longer needed: ""The class was dismissed early today."" / if a judge dismisses a court case, he or she stops it from continuing: ""The case was dismissed owing to lack of evidence."""
"(adj) unbiased, not having a selfish or personal motivation; calm, lacking emotion / not influenced by personal emotions and therefore able to make fair decisions [= impartial]: ""Weber's report provides a dispassionate analysis of the conflict.""; ""The blue eyes searched her face with a dispassionate curiousity."""
"(n, v) speed, promptness; send off or deal with in a speedy way / (verb):to send someone or something somewhere for a particular purpose: ""A reporter was dispatched to Naples to cover the riot.""; ""Goods are normally dispatched within 24 hours.""; to deal with someone or to finish a job quickly and effectively: ""She dispatched (=beat) her opponent 6-2, 6-1."" / (noun): a message sent between military or government officials: ""a dispatch from headquarters""; a report sent to a newspaper from one of its writers who is in another town or country; the act of sending people or things to a particular place: ""the dispatch of warships to the region""; if you do something with dispatch, you do it well and quickly"
"(v) scatter, spread widely, cause to vanish / if a group of people disperse or are dispersed, they go away in different directions: ""Police used tear gas to disperse the crowd."" / if something disperses or is dispersed, it spreads in different directions over a wide area: ""The clouds dispersed as quickly as they had gathered."""
"(n) a person's general or natural mood; tendency / a particular type of character which makes someone likely to behave or react in a certain way [= temperament]: of a nervous/sociable/sensitive etc disposition (=having a nervous etc character): ""The film is not suitable for people of a nervous disposition."" / a tendency or willingness to behave in a particular way [= inclination]: ""Neither side shows the slightest disposition to compromise.""; ""Most children have a disposition towards obedience."" / the position or arrangement of something in a particular place: ""a map showing the disposition of American forces"" / the way in which something is dealt with or used: ""A solicitor advised him as to the disposition of the money."" / the act of formally giving property to someone: ""the disposition of assets on death"""
"(adj) disturbing, causing anxiety: ""He found Jean's manner disquieting."" / disquiet (n): anxiety or unhappiness about something [uneasiness]: ""His appointment caused disquiet among members.""; ""The union has voiced its disquiet about the way the protest was handled."" --> something quiet is out of anxiety and disturbance, and if something becomes disquieting it is causing anxiety and disturbing"
"(v) scatter, spread about, broadcast / to spread information or ideas to as many people as possible: ""Her findings have been widely disseminated.""; ""Racist messages are being widely disseminated via the Internet.""; ""The Health Education Council is the central agency for disseminating information about disease prevention."""
"(v, n) (verb)disagree or take an opposing view, esp. in relation to a formal body such as a government, political party, or church; such a view; to say that you disagree with an official decision or accepted opinion: ""Few historians would dissent from this view.""; ""There are some dissenting voices (=people who do not agree) among the undergraduates.""; if a judge dissents, they say formally that they do not agree with the other judges in a law case / (noun) refusal to agree with an official decision or accepted opinion: ""These voices of dissent grew louder."" --> ASSENT, ACCORD etc mean, to agree and DISSENT, DISCORD etc mean to disagree. / If you don't agree with an idea you don't send that idea to people for spreading it, you dissent it."
"(n) harsh, inharmonious sound; cacophony; disagreement / a combination of notes that sound strange because they are not in harmony [? consonance]"
"(v) purify; extract the essential elements of / to make a liquid such as water or alcohol more pure by heating it so that it becomes a gas and then letting it cool. Drinks such as whisky are made this way: ""distilled water"" / to remove a chemical substance from a plant, for example by heating or pressing it / to get the main ideas or facts from a much larger amount of information: ""The notes I had brought back were waiting to be distilled into a book.""; ""My task has been to simplify the subject without oversimplifying, to distill without losing essence.""; ""But it does distill the issue to the question on which tax policy should stand or fall: fairness."""
"(v) differ, deviate; branch off or turn aside, as from a path / if similar things diverge, they develop in different ways and so are no longer similar: ""The two species diverged millions of years ago.""; ""Global growth rates are diverging markedly."" / if opinions, interests etc diverge, they are different from each other: ""Here his views diverged from hers."" / if two lines or paths diverge, they separate and go in different directions [? converge]: ""divergence between the US and Europe"""
"(v) deprive or strip of rank, title, etc., or of clothing or gear; to sell off holdings (opposite of invest) / if a company divests, it sells some of its assets, investments etc: ""The operations that will be divested include factories in New Hampshire.""; ""pressure on hospitals to divest tobacco-related stocks"" / (divest yourself of something) to sell or give away something you own: ""Dad had long since divested himself of anything valuable.""; to remove something you are wearing or carrying: ""Pedro divested himself of his overcoat.""; to take something away from someone: ""The king was divested of all his wealth and power."" --> opposite of 'invest' / from Latin vestire 'to dress', so people strip and put their clotes to 'vestire'"
"(v) discover through divination or supernatural means; perceive by insight; to discover or guess something: ""Somehow, the children had divined that he was lying.""; ""He had apparently divined from my expression that I was not prepared.""; ""Money experts now begin the tricky business of divining the fate of the economy."""
"(v) support with evidence, cite sources in a detailed way, create documentary evidence of / to write about something, film it, or take photographs of it, in order to record information about it: ""His research documents how the crisis occurred."" / to support an opinion, argument etc with recorded facts: ""It is well documented that men die younger than women."""
"(n) a system of principles laid down by an authority; established belief / a set of firm beliefs held by a group of people who expect other people to accept these beliefs without thinking about them: ""The dogma of the free market should be re-examined."""
"(adj) asleep, inactive, on a break / not active or not growing at the present time but able to be active later [? active]: ""The seeds remain dormant until the spring.""; ""Wait to prune your roses until they are fully dormant in January.""; ""Dan's arrival had aroused all her dormant sexuality."""
"(adj) doubtful, questionable, suspect / probably not honest, true, right etc: ""The firm was accused of dubious accounting practices.""; ""Many critics regard this argument as dubious or, at best, misleading.""; ""The assumption that growth in one country benefits the whole world is highly dubious."" / not sure whether something is good or true [= doubtful]: ""I can see you are dubious; take some time to think about it.""; ""Some universities are dubious about accepting students over the age of 30.""; ""'Are you sure you know what you are doing?' Andy said, looking dubious."" / (the dubious honour/distinction/pleasure (of doing something)): a dubious honour etc is the opposite of an honour - used about something unpleasant that happens: ""The Stephensons had the dubious honor of being the 100th family to lose their home in the fire."": ""I have the dubious honor of being in charge of fundraising for roof repair on the town youth gymnasium."": Meaning, it's an honor to be tasked yet something unwanted.; ""The big league athlete had the dubious honor of being voted 'Most Difficult to Interview' by the sportswriters."" An ironic honor, so to speak. / not good or not of good quality: ""The room was decorated in dubious taste."" --> Scooby-doo's courage is suspicious and doubtful, dubious. / dubious - opposite of obvious. so it is doubtful and questionable."
(abbre.) for example, such as --> exempli gratia
"(adj) peculiar, odd, deviating from the norm esp. in a whimsical way / behaving in a way that is unusual and different from most people: ""His eccentric behaviour lost him his job.""; ""Aunt Nessy was always a bit eccentric."" / eccentric circles do not have the same centre point [? concentric] / (n):someone who behaves in a way that is different from what is usual or socially accepted: ""I was regarded as something of an eccentric."""
"(adj) selecting the best of everything or from many diverse sources / including a mixture of many different things or people, especially so that you can use the best of all of them: ""The album features an eclectic collection of old blues, jazz, and romantic pop standards.""; ""The pub has one of those eccentrically eclectic menus that you might associate with lesser pub food."" / (n): someone who chooses the best or most useful parts from many different ideas, methods etc"
"(n, v) the obscuring of one thing by another, such as the sun by the moon or a person by a more famous or talented person; a situation in which someone or something loses their power or fame, because someone or something else has become more powerful or famous: ""Many people expected the growth of television to mean the eclipse of radio.""; in eclipse: less famous or powerful than you should be: ""Mrs Bosanquet's novels are now in eclipse."" (noun) / to obscure, darken, make less important; to become more important, powerful, famous etc than someone or something else, so that they are no longer noticed [? overshadow]: ""The economy had eclipsed the environment as an election issue."" (verb)"
"(n) the quality of being able to produce the intended effect / the ability of something to produce the right result [= effectiveness]: ""Each is adorned with silken cloths and has its tusks shod with iron for the greater efficacy of killing criminals.""; ""Evaluate vaccine efficacy and the costs and benefits of vaccination programs for emerging infections."""
"(adj) related to the belief in the equality of all people, esp. in political, economic, or social spheres / based on the belief that everyone is equal and should have equal rights: ""Clearly the egalitarian society remains a dream.""; ""It is a network for the elite, yet it is very egalitarian.""; ""Humanist psychology's familiarity to egalitarian feminist psychologists makes the division between humanist egalitarian, and woman-centred, theories difficult to draw."" -->from égalité 'equality'"
"(adj) extraordinarily or conspicuously bad; glaring / an egregious mistake, failure, problem etc is extremely bad and noticeable: ""The situation at Zefco was one of the most egregious examples of discrimination we have seen.""; ""The legal system currently punishes the most egregious forms of child abuse and neglect, but such crimes are difficult to prove.""; ""Why should people who do something truly egregious be protected by an arbitrary limit on their punishment?"" -->Egg+ reach+us=EGREGIOUS: During one of our stage performance, we made 'extremely bad an noticable' mistakes that people started throwing eggs at us and a rotten 'EGG REACHes US' (sounds like egregious)"
"(adj) very happy, in high spirits / extremely happy and excited, especially because of something that has happened or is going to happen: ""He felt elated and mildly drunk.""; (elated at/by): ""She was elated at the prospect of a holiday."" --> seems like 'elected'; so if you are elected by a good university surely you will be 'overjoyed and excited', elevated in happiness"
"(v) raise, lift up: ""Lie down and elevate your feet.""; ""Store owners hope to elevate the mall's image to help improve business."" / lift the spirits of: ""We need candidates who can elevate and inspire the American people.""; move up to a higher rank or status or raise up to a higher spiritual or intellectual plane"
"(v) call forth, bring out, evoke / to succeed in getting information or a reaction from someone, especially when this is difficult: ""When her knock elicitted no response, she opened the door and peeped in.""; ""The test uses pictures to elicit words from the child.""; ""Short questions are more likely to elicit a response."" --> "
"(adj) marked by forceful, fluid, apt speech; expressive, emotionally moving / able to express your ideas and opinions well, especially in a way that influences people: ""Few will forget his eloquent defence of individual freedom.""; ""He gave an eloquent speech after dinner.""; ""The poem is full of eloquent phrases about the beauty of nature."" --> Alok+fluent= 'Alok' was 'fluent' in speach and expressing ideas in a way that influences people'"
"(v) decorate, add ornamentation; enhance (a story) with fictional or fanciful details / to make something more beautiful by adding decorations to it: ""The dress was embellished with gold threads."" / to make a story or statement more interesting by adding details that are not true: ""She gave an embellished account of what had happened."" --> emBELLish--we add BELL to the Christmas tress to adorn it / embellish=a+belly+ring: Girls usually use a belly ring to add decorations in their belly to enhance its beauty."
"(adj) prominent, distinguished, of high rank / an eminent person is famous, important, and respected: ""She's an eminent psychiatrist at the Harvard Medical School.""; ""While he lived Nehru remained the most eminent spokesman for the Third World.""; ""A politician, however eminent or popular, who lacks that base will not reach or survive at the top.""; """""
"(adj) coming from, based on, or able to be verified by experience or experimentation; not purely based on theory / based on scientific testing or practical experience, not on ideas [? theoretical, hypothetical]: ""His theory is inconsistent with the empirical evidence.""; ""Theoretical ideas are connected to the world by a translation into an empirical language more closely attuned to the observable world."""
"(v) copy in an attempt to equal or be better than / to do something or behave in the same way as someone else, especially because you admire them [= imitate]: ""He hoped to emulate the success of Wilder.""; ""Davis was encouraged to emulate the style of trumpet player Bobby Hackett.""; ""There is much in Cheng's work that we can admire and emulate.""; ""Procomm can connect with and emulate virtually any computer terminal."" --> Grandma gave me an 'Amulet' so that one day I can 'Emulate' AmyLee."
"(v) weaken, tire / to make you feel tired and weak: ""The hot sun enervated her to the point of collapse.""; ""David felt too enervated to resist.""; ""He seems at first laconic and enervated, loathe to put a sentence together aloud."" --> ENERV(w)asTE: when something wastes your energy it 'makes you weak'"
"(v) raise to a higher value, desirability, etc.: ""Good lighting will enhance any room.""; ""he publicity has enhanced his reputation.""; ""Low lighting and soft music enhanced the atmosphere in the room.""; ""We're using technology to enhance our levels of service.""; ""You can enhance the flavour of most dishes with the careful use of herbs."""
"(n) puzzle, mystery, riddle; mysterious or contradictory person / someone or something that is strange and difficult to understand [= mystery]: ""The neighbours regarded him as something of an enigma.""; ""Lorraine remains an enigma who is easy to admire but impossible to get to know.""; ""As I studied more about their past, I became more puzzled, and the enigma expanded."""
"(n) having the right to certain privileges; believing, sometimes without cause, that one deserves or has a right to certain privileges / the official right to have or do something, or the amount that you have a right to receive (ad verme, yetki verme): ""Do you need advice on your entitlement to state benefits?""; ""The paid holiday entitlement is 25 days.""; ""Many people are still not aware of the entitlements they may be able to receive.""; ""The amount of money you earn does not affect your entitlement to child benefit for your children."" / entitlement program: a US government programme or system that gives money or help to people who need it."
"(v) count or list; specify one-by-one / to name a list of things one by one: ""Hunt said things looked bad, and went on to enumerate the reasons why.""; ""Describe briefly the basic function of the reception office, enumerating the services it provides."""
"(adj) lasting only a short time, fleeting / existing or popular for only a short time: ""Fashion is by nature ephemeral.""; ""Hopes of political unity in the region have proved ephemeral.""; ""No dictionary can really capture something as fleeting and ephemeral as slang.""; ""The ephemeral nature of fluid flow belies the rigid rules which govern its behaviour.""; ""Likewise, those that thought they were too ephemeral and effervescent, began to appreciate them."""
"(adj) fair, equal, just / treating all people in a fair and equal way [? inequitable]: ""The work should be shared more equitably.""; ""We need a more equitable tax system.""; ""Competition that is structured carefully, however, can produce more equitable results than service delivery by a public monopoly."""
"(adj) inconsistent, wandering, having no fixed course / something that is erratic does not follow any pattern or plan but happens in a way that is not regular: ""His breathing was becoming erratic.""; ""The erratic winds made fighting the fire more difficult.""; ""The company's erratic performance is a cause for some concern.""; ""Heating was difficult owing to erratic supplies of gas, electricity and water."""
"(adj) mistaken, in error; improper, morally incorrect / erroneous ideas or information are wrong and based on facts that are not correct: ""His economic predictions are based on some erroneous assumptions.""; ""Ricci's book tries to correct this erroneous view of ancient China.""; ""At least 15 million Americans still hold the erroneous view that cancer is contagious.""; ""There were erroneous reports that the company had issued false statements."" --> Sounds like: ""Error+in+us"": Something that is full of errors and mistakes."
"(adj) scholarly, knowledgeable; possessing a deep, often systematic, knowledge / showing a lot of knowledge based on careful study [= learned]: """"The Cunning Man"" is an intricate and erudite work.""; ""These are biographers who are imposingly erudite but never pedantic."""
"(v) shun, avoid, abstain from / to deliberately avoid doing or using something: ""I had eschewed politics in favour of a life practising law.""; ""Quintera was a man who eschewed violence.""; ""In school, Crowell stood out as the girl who eschewed the blandness of fashion in favor of personal style."" --> as I chew gum in the class, teacher was looking at me. so I should avoid chewing gum in the class / If he wants a better life, he should avoid using tobacco and EScape CHEWing tobacco."
"(adj) understood by or intended for only a few; secret / known and understood by only a few people who have special knowledge about something: ""The Bible is no academic tome with an esoteric appeal to those with scholarly minds who can handle abstract concepts.""; ""Pop art directly challenged what was increasingly seen as abstract art's esoteric retreat from the world."""
"(adj) worthy of esteem, admirable; able to be estimated / deserving respect and admiration [? inestimable]: ""Before long, the estimable Dick Cheney took over the top job."""
"(n) speech of praise or written work of praise, esp. a speech given at a funeral / a speech or piece of writing in which you praise someone or something very much, especially at a funeral: ""The minister delivered a long eulogy.""; ""He ended this eulogy by asking Leopold's blessing on the marriage.""; ""All the eulogies he offered seemed to be for the men who had been the cornerstones of the neighborhood."""
"(v) make worse (more violent, severe, etc.), inflame; irritate or embitter (a person) / to make a bad situation worse: ""The recession has exacerbated this problem.""; ""I don't want to exacerbate the situation."""
"(adj) very severe in making demands; requiring precise attention / demanding a lot of effort, careful work, or skill [= demanding]: ""She was an exacting woman to work for.""; (exacting standards/demands/requirements etc): ""He could never live up to his father's exacting standards."""
"(v) clear from guilt or blame / to prove that someone is not guilty of something: ""The grand jury exculpated local authorities for their handling of the riots."" --> Ex+culprit= he is an 'ex culprit', jury 'proved that he is not guilty of that event' / Latin culpa 'blame'"
"(adj) comprehensive, thorough, exhausting a topic or subject, accounting for all possibilities; draining, tending to exhaust / extremely thorough and complete: ""The list is by no means exhaustive.""; ""As a result of exhaustive inquiries the police are at last able to issue a description of the murderer.""; ""The rescue team made an exhaustive search of the area."" --> The list was 'extremely thorough and complete', it was 'exhausting' to read"
"(adj) direct, clear, fully revealed; clearly depicting sex or nudity / expressed in a way that is very clear and direct [? implicit]: ""The contrast could not have been made more explicit.""; ""The kidnappers gave us explicit instructions not to involve the police.""; ""Be explicit when you talk about money with your family.""; ""He made the rules without being explicit about them."" / language or pictures that are explicit describe or show sex or violence very clearly: ""The film contains some very explicit love scenes."""
"(n) person who expounds or explains; champion, advocate, or representative / an exponent of an idea, belief etc tries to explain it and persuade others that it is good or useful / an exponent of a particular skill, idea, or activity is someone who is good at it: ""The most famous exponent of this approach to art was probably Charles Rennie Mackintosh."" / a sign written above and to the right of a number or letter to show how many times that quantity is to be multiplied by itself --> Advocates or representatives of ideas meet in an Expo"
"(adj) irrelevant; foreign, coming from without, not belonging / not belonging to or directly related to a particular subject or problem [= irrelevant]: ""Such details are extraneous to the matter in hand.""; ""Her report contains too many extraneous details.""; ""He knows a plethora of extraneous facts about the arctic and the tropics."" / coming from outside: ""extraneous noises"" --> There is a new channel called EXTRA+NEWS... They always show irrelevant and foreign news, not belonging to a particular subject. They give extraneous news."
"(v) conjecture about an unknown by projecting information about something known; predict by projecting past experience / to use facts about the present or about one thing or group to make a guess about the future or about other things or groups: (extrapolate (something) from something): ""It is possible to extrapolate future developments from current trends.""; ""You're extrapolating from your own feelings to mine.""; (extrapolate (something) to something): ""These results cannot, however, be extrapolated to other patient groups."" --> Scientist who can 'predict future events by projecting from the past experiences' are so mature and 'extra polite' people"
"(adj) joking, humorous, esp. inappropriately; not serious, concerned with frivolous things / saying things that are intended to be clever and funny but are really silly and annoying: ""t the risk of sounding facetious, I have to ask who really cares about all this?""; ""The speech saying drug users should be shot was clearly facetious, but it contained a serious point.""; ""In one facetious article he promised to show the government how to double the number of jobs in the railroad industry.""; ""Unfortunately, there's only room to quote the most pertinent, ie least facetious.""; ""We can be facetious about the examples that I am using."" --> someone who makes funny, silly and annoying jokes and his 'Face is not Serious'"
"(v) make easier, help the progress of / to make it easier for a process or activity to happen: ""Computers can be used to facilitate language learning.""; ""Both centers are electronically linked to facilitate communication.""; ""Dividing students into small groups usually helps facilitate discussion.""; ""Legislation is urgently needed to facilitate police counterterrorist operations."""
"(ad) containing a fallacy, or mistake in logic; logically unsound; deceptive / containing or based on false ideas: ""Such an argument is misleading, if not wholly fallacious."""
"(adj) excessively devoted, enthusiastic, or zealous in an uncritical way: ""He was fanatical about tidiness.""; ""Her religious fanaticism has alienated most of her old friends."""
"(adj) whimsical, capricious; imaginary; freely imaginative rather than based on reason or reality / imagined rather than based on facts - often used to show disapproval: ""The suggestion that there was a conspiracy is not entirely fanciful.""; ""I dismissed the rumors as fanciful.""; ""The notion of some man on a white horse saving the party with a late candidacy is fanciful."" / full of unusual and very detailed shapes or complicated designs. --> fancy: an idea or opinion that is not based on fact: ""Oh, that was just a fancy of his.""; imagination or something that you imagine: (flight of fancy): thoughts, ideas etc that are full of imagination but that are not practical or sensible"
"(v,n) measure the depth of (usually of water) as with a sounding line (noun): ""At the moment I'd guess we're in two to three hundred fathoms."" / penetrate and discover the meaning of, understand; to understand what something means after thinking about it carefully [= work out]: ""I still can't fathom out what she meant.""; ""Mark couldn't fathom why she resented him so much."" --> Eğer bir konuyu 'derinliğine kavrarsan ve anlarsan', o konuyu 'fethet'miş olursun / 'Fat Em' had a lot of issues, her psychiatris 'understand what was the problem after thinking about it carefuly'"
"(adj) possible; logical or likely; suitable / a plan, idea, or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work: (economically/technically/politically etc feasible) ""It was no longer financially feasible to keep the community centre open.""; ""It is not feasible to have security cameras in every part of the building.""; ""Solar heating is technically and economically feasible."""
"(n) faithful, loyalty; strict observance of duty; accuracy in reproducing a sound or image / when you are loyal to a person, an organization, or something that you believe in [= loyalty]: ""Kip was beginning to doubt Jessica's fidelity."" / how much a film, a piece of written work etc remains unchanged from an earlier piece of work, or the facts that are known: ""The sound fidelity of CDs is much better than that of records."""
"(n, v) extreme delicacy, subtlety, or diplomacy in handling a sensitive situation or in a performance or skill; if you do something with finesse, you do it with a lot of skill and style: ""Dario played the sonata with great finesse.""; ""The game was a hard slog with no finesse, despite the promotion aspirations of both sides.""(noun) / use tact or diplomacy; employ a deceptive strategy; to handle a situation well, but in a way that is slightly deceitful: ""Kemp uses his creativity to find excuses which are meant to finesse problematic moments.""; ""Roberts finessed his arrival, speaking to Fernandez privately about their shared responsibilities."" (verb) --> Fine-ness of handling of a situation is being highly skilfull while handling and doing it a little deceptive."
"(v) get tired, lose enthusiasm; hang limply or droop / to become tired or weak: ""By the end of the meeting we had begun to flag.""; ""Japan's economic growth was beginning to flag.""; ""Jenny taught for four hours straight without flagging."" / flag somebody/something ? down: to make the driver of a vehicle stop by waving at them: ""I flagged down a taxi."" / to make a mark against some information to show that it is important: ""I've flagged the parts I want to comment on."" "
"(adj) passing quickly, transitory / lasting for only a short time [= brief]: ""For one fleeting moment, Paula allowed herself to forget her troubles.""; ""I caught a fleeting glimpse of them as they drove past.""; ""Carol was paying a fleeting visit to Paris."" --> fleet is usually used for a group of airplanes/ship/cars which can be seen for short period of time, so short lived, fleeting"
"(adj) metaphorical, based on figures of speech; containing many figures of speech (as fancy-sounding writing); related to portraying human or animals figures / a figurative word or phrase is used in a different way from its usual meaning, to give you a particular idea or picture in your mind [? literal]: ""He's my son, in the figurative sense of the word.""; ""The essence of realism, it is not merely figurative but meticulously mimetic.""; / figurative art shows objects, people, or the countryside as they really look [? abstract]: ""Where he is abstract and geometric, she is figurative and expressionist."""
"(v) incite (kışkırtmak, teşvik etmek), instigate, stir up, promote the growth of; to cause trouble and make people start fighting each other or opposing the government [= stir up]: ""They were accused of fomenting rebellion."" / apply medicated liquid to a body part (sıcak kompres yapmak) --> if you foment rebellion, people's temper starts to boil and foam meant to be happened."
"(v) indicate or suggest beforehand, presage / to show or say that something will happen in the future: ""The revolution foreshadowed an entirely new social order."""
"(v) surrender or lose as a result of an error, crime, or failure to fulfill an obligation / to lose a right, position, possession etc or have it taken away from you because you have broken a law or rule: ""By being absent from the trial, he forfeited the right to appeal.""; ""She was fined £3,000 and ordered to forfeit her car."" / be forfeit (adj): to be legally or officially taken away from you as a punishment: ""The company's property may even be forfeit."" --> because of the crime you committed they 'take your right and property' 'for fit'ting the situation."
"(v) strengthen, invigorate, encourage / to encourage an attitude or feeling and make it stronger [= strengthen]: ""Her position was fortified by election successes and economic recovery."" / to make someone feel physically or mentally stronger: ""We fortified ourselves with a breakfast of bacon and eggs."" / to make food or drinks more healthy by adding vitamins to them: ""foods fortified with vitamin B"" / to build towers, walls etc around an area or city in order to defend it: ""The town was heavily fortified.""; ""Concrete blocks were piled high to fortify the government center."""
"(n, adj) on the margin, periphery; a group, event etc that is less important or popular than the main group etc, or whose opinions are not accepted by most other people involved in the same activity [? mainstream] (adj): ""He used a party conference fringe meeting to defend terrorism.""; ""Few attendees doubted that some fringe groups would respond violently."" / the people in a group who hold the most extreme views; not completely belonging to or accepted by a group of people who share the same job, activities etc; on the fringe: at the part of something that is farthest from the centre [= on the edge of something]: ""Nina remained on the fringe of the crowd.""; ""The terrorist fringe condemned the decision and threatened to use force.""; ""a lunatic fringe of cranks and reactionaries, who probably still believe that the earth is flat"" (noun) / to be around the edge of something: ""A line of trees fringed the pool."" (verb)"
"(adj) economically, thrifty, not wasteful with money; inexpensive / careful to buy only what is necessary [? extravagant]: ""As children we were taught to be frugal and hard-working.""; ""He led a remarkably frugal existence.""; ""The monks lead a frugal life, allowing themselves only the bare essentials.""; ""Hidden hotel costs can be a source of frustration to the frugal traveler.""; ""He was very frugal, and would often use a tea bag three or four times over."" / a frugal meal is a small meal of plain food [= simple; ? extravagant; ? prodigal]: ""a frugal breakfast"" --> sounds like fru(threw) gal(girls)=>if no girl friends . no wastage of money / frugal..that is opposite to prodigal...which means wasteful / guru eat fruit and live frugal, an inexpensive life."
"(adj) producing no useful result, ineffective; trivial unimportant / actions that are futile are useless because they have no chance of being successful [= pointless]: ""My efforts to go back to sleep proved futile.""; ""It was futile to continue the negotiations.""; ""This sums up Owen's thoughts on the futility of war."" --> erişkin bir insana fitil yapmak boşu boşunadır. / futile is not fertile.. hence not fruitful / futile sounds like foot oil ..spending 1000$ on foot oil is WASTE..and UNPRODUCTIVE bcoz even then hair will not grow on your foot ..haha seems funny but works.."
"(v) declare false, deny; oppose / to say that something is not true, or to disagree with someone [= contradict]: ""No one dared to gainsay him.""; ""It may be very difficult to gainsay the claim.""; ""Few could gainsay that such growth poses an unprecedented challenge to mankind."" --> gain- 'against' (13-16 centuries) (from Old English gegn) + say"
"(adj) talkative, wordy, rambling / always talking a lot [= talkative]: ""Ian isn't normally this garrulous!""; ""And now that it was all over, Mr Linley became quite garrulous."""
"(adj) tactless, lacking social grace, awkward, crude / doing or saying wrong or impolite things, especially because you do not know the right way to behave: ""I never discuss money. It's gauche.""; ""It would be gauche to mention the price.""; ""But she could not move away without appearing gauche and childish."" --> he was so gauche, he would say anything improper in a group and you would just say ""oh gosh"" out of your surprise."
"(adj) physically awkward (esp. of a tall, skinny person, often used to describe teenagers) / someone who is gawky moves or behaves in an awkward way [= clumsy (sakar, hantal --> clumsy smurf)]: ""Despite the fact that he was tall for his age, he was gawky and skinny.""; ""Not even the gawky years of adolescence would alter it.""; ""There are, of course, a few physically awkward, gawky, uncoordinated drivers."" --> sakar, beceriksiz çocuk bekleme yaptığından arkasındaki adamı kızdırdı, adam da alaylı bir sesle ""e hadi go ki biz de gidelim hadii"" dedi"
"(adj) relevant and appropriate, on topic / an idea, remark etc that is germane to something is related to it in an important and suitable way [= relevant]: ""an article which is germane to the subject being discussed""; ""These questions are especially germane in comparative research, where the analyst attempts to specify how the structure-function patterns vary between states."" --> german people always talk about relevant and appropriate subjects, they don't like to digress the topic."
"(n) main idea, essence / the main idea and meaning of what someone has said or written: ""The gist of his argument is that full employment is impossible.""; ""Don't worry about all the details as long as you get the gist of it"" --> gist..sounds very similar to list.....SO your lecturer is asking you to LIST OUT THE MAIN POINTS of the paragraph. / bir parçanın anafikiri o parçanın en öz 'kesit'idir (gist ~ kesit)"
"(adj) fluent and easy in a way that suggests superficiality or insincerity / said easily and without thinking about all the problems involved - used to show disapproval: ""The doctor made some glib comment about my headaches being ""just stress.""""; """" / speaking easily but without thinking carefully - used to show disapproval: ""All of those glib egotistical talk show hosts annoy me.""; ""I know this will sound glib, but don't pretend you aren't feeling what you feel."" --> "
"(n) the bumps created by hairs standing up on the skin in response to cold, fear, etc.: ""She's never experienced an earthquake so the whole thing gave her goose bumps.""; ""The thought of it is enough to give you goose bumps.""; ""It's refreshing and kind of fun to have goose bumps on your arms again."""
"(n) a progression, a process taking place gradually, in stages; one of these stages / a small change or difference between points on a scale: ""There are many gradations of colour between light and dark blue.""; ""The film can display over 4000 gradations of color.""; ""The only illusion, if it could be called that, comes from the fact that there is a gradation.""; ""Often, aggregate from more than one source is required to meet gradation requirements."""
"(adj) sociable, pertaining to a flock or crowd / friendly and preferring to be with other people [= sociable; ? solitary]: ""Kim is gregarious and fun-loving.""; ""She can be as engaging at public events as her gregarious husband."" / gregarious animals tend to live in a group [? solitary] (sürü halinde yaşayan): ""Dolphins were happy, gregarious surface dwellers.""; ""Away from the territories the birds remain gregarious."" --> remember AGGREGATION means gathering something together... similarily AGGREGATION -> GREGATION ->GREGARIOUS / Greg was really sociable and preferring to be with other people. He was garrulous in the crowd since he was sociable, they called him 'greg garrulous'"
"(n) clever deceit, cunning, craftiness / the use of clever but dishonest methods to deceive someone [= cunning]: ""With a little guile she might get what she wanted.""; ""By guile and skill, they managed to escape."" --> SOME GUYS guile GIRLS"
"(adj) so commonplace as to be stale; not fresh or original / a hackneyed phrase is boring and does not have much meaning because it has been used so often: ""All those slogans we used to chant sound so hackneyed now.""; ""Politicians tend to repeat the same hackneyed expressions over and over again."" --> when a software is hacked, it becomes hackneyed because then all people are able to use that program without paying for"
"(adj) bold, brave, capable of enduring hardship, fatigue, cold, etc. / strong and healthy and able to bear difficult living conditions: ""A few hardy joggers were out running in the cold.""; ""Charolais cattle do not like rain or too much cold. They are not hardy animals.""; ""Red deer are hardy, adaptable animals.""; ""The people who lived in the hills were a hardy and hard- working race."" / a hardy plant is able to live through the winter: ""A hardy and easy plant to grow in the aquarium.""; ""It is an excellent, hardy plant, which is also easy to grow."""
"(adj) harbor or port; refuge, safe place / a place where people or animals can live peacefully or go to in order to be safe: ""The riverbanks are a haven for wildlife.""; ""St Ives, a haven for artists and hippies""; a haven of peace/tranquillity/calm: ""In the middle of the city, this garden is a haven of tranquillity(sükünet, huzur)."""
"(v) listen, pay attention to / to listen: ""There was uncertainty in his voice, though, and later Theresa hearkened to this."""
"(n) person devoted to pleasure / someone who believes that pleasure is the most important thing in life: ""Almodovar is the happiest, most entertaining hedonist in the world today.""; ""She was going to live every minute of the next three weeks like a hedonist."""
"(adj) different in type, incongruous; composed of different types of elements"
"(n) a ranked series; a classification of people according to rank, ability, etc.; a ruling body; ""She worked her way up through the corporate hierarchy to become president."" / the most important and powerful members of an organization: ""the church hierarchy""; ""Smith has the backing of the Republican hierarchy."""
"(n) mixture of different kinds of things, jumble / a number of things mixed up without sensible order or arrangement: ""Here half a dozen hotels soon sprang up along with a hodge-podge of other shops, booths, and taverns."""
"(adj) of the same kind; uniform throughout: ""Computers check whether each text is stylistically homogeneous."""
"(n) deliberate exaggeration for effect / a way of describing something by saying it is much bigger, smaller, worse etc than it actually is [= exaggeration]: ""It was not hyperbole to call it the worst storm in twenty years.""; ""Rick said, with a touch of hyperbole, that it was the best movie he'd ever seen."""
"(n) characteristic or habit peculiar to an individual; peculiar quality, quirk / an unusual habit or way of behaving that someone has: ""Flight crews must become familiar with each airplane's idiosyncrasies."" / an unusual or unexpected feature that something has: ""She's easy to work for, and her employees don't mind her idiosyncrasies."" --> Idiots are in sync with the crazy features and habits; those are their idiosyncrasy."
"(n) narrow-mindedness, bigotry(darkafalılık); strictness or lack of generosity / illiberal: not supporting people's rights to say or do what they want [? liberal]: ""By necessity, the armed forces are illiberal and undemocratic.""; ""In the west it is the Roman Catholic Church that holds the most rigid and illiberal religious beliefs."""
"(adj) ready to occur, impending / an event that is imminent, especially an unpleasant one, will happen very soon: ""He was in imminent danger of dying.""; ""A new trade agreement is imminent.""; ""Some of the buildings were in a state of imminent collapse.""; ""The child was in imminent danger of falling into the water."" --> imminent sounds similar to immediate. so imminent means about to occur immediately. / an unpleasant event will happen very soon, 'in a minnute', it is imminent event"
"(v) make worse, weaken: ""The illness had impaired his ability to think and concentrate.""; ""Alcohol significantly impairs your ability to drive a car or operate machinery.""; ""If a witness is allowed to withhold evidence, it impairs the legal process."""
"(adj) unbiased, fair / not involved in a particular situation, and therefore able to give a fair opinion or piece of advice [= fair; ? biased]: ""We offer impartial advice on tax and insurance.""; ""Our representative attended the peace negotiations as an impartial observer.""; ""Historians try to be impartial, but they cannot free themselves entirely from their own opinions.""; ""The bureau provides impartial advice."" -->There are two PARTS. You don't favor either PART. You are imPARTIAL."
"(v) hold back, obstruct the progress of / to make it difficult for someone or something to move forward or make progress: ""Storms at sea impeded our progress.""; ""In fact, the use of these drugs may even impede the patient's recovery.""; ""Progress has been impeded by a number of economic factors."" --> impedans fizikte direnç demektir"
"(n) act of implying or that which is implied; close connection, esp. in an incriminating way / a possible future effect or result of an action, event, decision etc: ""What are the implications of these proposals?""; ""This election has profound implications for the future of U.S. democracy.""; consider/discuss/examine the implications: ""His talk will examine the wider implications of the Internet revolution."" / a situation in which it is shown or suggested that someone or something is involved in a crime or a dishonest act [? implicate]; the implication of somebody (in something): ""the implication of the former Chief of Staff in a major scandal"" / a suggestion that is not made directly but that people are expected to understand or accept [? imply]: ""They are called 'Supertrams', the implication being that (=which is meant to suggest that) they are more advanced than earlier models.""; ""The law bans organized protests and, by implication, any form of opposition."""
"(adj) implied, not stated directly; involved in the very essence of something, unquestionable / suggested or understood without being stated directly [? explicit]: ""His statement is being seen as implicit criticism of the work of research laboratories.""; ""Her words contained an implicit threat."" / forming a central part of something, but without being openly stated: ""Confidentiality is implicit in your relationship with a counselor."" / complete and containing no doubts; implicit faith/trust/belief: ""They had implicit faith in his powers.""; ""They believed implicitly in their own superiority."""
"(v) burst inward / to explode inwards [? explode]: ""The windows on both sides of the room had imploded.""; ""The jet's engine may have imploded."" / if an organization or system implodes, it fails suddenly, often because of faults that it has [= collapse]: ""Most nations learned their lesson during the 1930s when trade imploded and incomes plunged(batmak, altüst olmak).""; ""And such imploding partnerships can ruin all chances for success for both the people involved.""; "
"(adj) unintentional; characterized by a lack of attention, careless / inadvertently: without realizing what you are doing [= accidentally]: ""Viruses can be spread inadvertently by email users.""; ""Robinson's name was inadvertently omitted from the list.""; ""The construction crew inadvertently cut through a telephone cable.""; ""In a panic, I inadvertently pushed the accelerator instead of the brake.""; ""The problem was caused by a worker who inadvertently contaminated the coffee machine by cleaning it with a toxic substance."" --> in + advertisements...without realizing what you are doing or seeing from the advertisement we end up buying wrong product i.e. inadvertently (dikkatsizce, kazara)"
"(adv) in like manner, considering that (contradiction of ""in as much,"" generally followed by ""as"") / inasmuch as: used to explain the way in which, what you are saying is true; to the extent that; insofar as.: ""Ann is guilty, inasmuch as she knew what the others were planning.""; ""There is additional evidence of bad feeling between you and the prosecuting attorney inasmuch as you personally fired him from his post."""
"(adj) setting on fire, pertaining to(ile ilgili) arson; arousing strife, rebellion, etc.; ""inflaming"" the senses / designed to cause a fire: ""The explosion seems to have been caused by an incendiary device.""; ""An incendiary device exploded setting fire to furniture, but the blaze was brought under control."" / an incendiary speech, piece of writing etc is intended to make people angry: ""The incendiary charges Manolo's experts had set up earlier in the day went up on schedule."""
"(n) something that encourages greater action or effort, such as a reward: ""As an added incentive, there's a bottle of champagne for the best team."" / create/provide/give somebody an incentive: ""Awards provide an incentive for young people to improve their skills."" / incentive to do something: ""Farmers lack any incentive to manage their land organically."" / economic/financial/tax etc incentives: ""a recycling drive backed with financial incentives"" / ""The government is offering special tax incentives to people wanting to start up small businesses."""
"(adj) just begun, undeveloped, unorganized / inchoate ideas, plans, attitudes etc are only just starting to develop: ""Problems in criminal law often start with an inchoate crime - conspiracy, attempt or incitement.""; ""The monarchy established since 1830 was still far from being popular, but opposition to it was inchoate and lacking focus."" --> Proffessor said ""your ideas and plans are only just starting to develop, they are unorganised and inchoate. Incubate them more."""
"(adj) just beginning; in a very early stage / starting to happen or exist: ""The incipient spouses are of course excited by the adventure, the new life, heralded by marriage.""; ""These economic and demographic changes have fueled the incipient debate over immigration policy."" --> present participle of incipere; ? INCEPTION"
"(adj) out of place, inappropriate, not harmonious / strange, unexpected, or unsuitable in a particular situation: ""The new theatre looks utterly incongruous in its setting.""; ""He was dressed in a three-piece suit with an incongruous tie shaped like a fish.""; ""It seemed incongruous having a dance-band at the funeral."" --> In congress of Turkey, everything is inappropriate and not harmonious."
"(adj) insignificant, unimportant; illogical / not important [= insignificant]: ""The boost seemed somewhat inconsequential on most applications.""; ""inconsequential but amusing chatter"" / consequential: happening as a direct result of a particular event or situation / important [= significant; ? inconsequential]: ""The NSC has taken an active and consequential role in providing guidance."" --> consequence means result- we are never worried about the result of inconsequential or worthless things. they don't have important results."
"(v) combine, unite; form a legal corporation; embody, give physical form to; ""We've incorporated many environmentally-friendly features into the design of the building.""; ""Our original proposals were not incorporated in the new legislation."""
"(adj) not fixed or determined, indefinite; vague / impossible to know about definitely or exactly: ""It was indeterminate, the weather, not cold enough to warrant wearing my overcoat, not warm enough for a jacket.""; ""Miss Logan made indeterminate gestures to the priest, then set off in pursuit of her employer."""
"(adj) not caring, having no interest; unbiased, impartial: ""Sarah was absolutely indifferent to him, and it hurt.""; ""His opponents have tried to characterize him as indifferent to the concerns of the working class.""; ""Her father was quite friendly, but her mother seemed somewhat cold and indifferent."""
"(v) inspire, animate; give substance, essence, or context to; be the characteristic quality of / to officially tell someone about something or give them information; inform somebody about/of something: ""Please inform us of any change of address as soon as possible.""; ""We regret to inform you that your application has been rejected.""; ""They decided to inform the police."" / (formal) to influence someone's attitude or opinion: ""Her experience as a refugee informs the content of her latest novel.""; inform on/against somebody: to tell the police or an enemy information about someone that will harm them: ""He denied that he had ever informed on his neighbours."""
"(adj) genuine, sincere, not holding back; naive / an ingenuous person is simple, trusting, and honest, especially because they have not had much experience of life [? disingenuous]: ""The claim is perhaps cagily ingenuous, by a writer often accused of being too cerebral and cool-hearted.""; ""Our children need to think outside the box and be ingenuous to access the vast opportunity to gather information."""
"(adj) deep-rooted, forming part of the very essence; worked into the fiber / ingrained attitudes or behaviour are firmly established and therefore difficult to change: ""The idea of doing our duty is deeply ingrained in most people.""; ""His elegance and diplomatic skills were ingrained early.""; ""There are many elements of popular culture that so ingrained in our society that they require no explanation."" / ingrained dirt is under the surface of something and very difficult to remove --> grain = seed - so if something is firmly established and difficult to change, its establishment goes to the seed, it is established 'in the grain'."
"(adj) existing as a permanent, essential quality; intrinsic / a quality that is inherent in something is a natural part of it and cannot be separated from it: ""I'm afraid the problems you mention are inherent in the system.""; ""Every business has its own inherent risks.""; ""Firefighting is an inherently dangerous occupation."""
"(adj) harmless, inoffensive; not offensive, dangerous, or harmful: ""Someone stood up and asked the professor an apparently innocuous question about his laboratory work.""; ""The interviewer only asked boring, innocuous questions.""; ""The murder suspect was an innocuous-looking man with wire-framed glasses."""
"(adj) able to understood, clear / if speech, writing, or an idea is intelligible, it can be easily understood [? unintelligible]: ""His reply was barely intelligible.""; ""The report needs to be intelligible to the client.""; ""Her English was strongly accented but quite intelligible.""; ""It is rare to find a singer who can make every word fully intelligible."""
"(adj) difficult to control, manage, or manipulate; hard to cure; stubborn / an intractable problem is very difficult to deal with or solve: ""Even rich nations often have intractable poverty.""; ""The disposal of toxic wastes is one of the most intractable problems facing industrialized societies."" / having a strong will and difficult to control --> Intractable: things which can not be brought in the right track... opposite of tractable. / tract: yol; tractable: yola gelir; intractable; yola gelmez, inatçı"
"(adj) fearless, brave, enduring in the face of adversity / willing to do dangerous things or go to dangerous places - often used humorously: ""Intrepid pioneers came to California by wagon train."" --> somebody who is fearless and brave is willing to do dangerous things such as going in trap."
"(adj) belonging to the essential nature of a thing: ""There is nothing in the intrinsic nature of the work that makes it more suitable for women.""; ""Flexibility is intrinsic to creative management.""; ""Science is seen as intrinsically good."""
"(n) vocabulary specific to a group or occupation; convoluted or unintelligible language; ""Keep it simple and avoid the use of jargon."""
"(adj) joking or given to joking all the time; jolly, playful; joking or humorous: ""Moreover, once the cases were distributed to each member, the reactions were jocular.""; ""He sounded in a jocular mood."" --> jocularis, from jocus; ? JOKE / jocular*şakalar"
"(adj) using good judgment; wise, sensible / done in a sensible and careful way: ""You have to be very judicious about how you spend the taxpayers' money."" --> Judi has a good judgment and does everything in sensible and careful way. What can we say? Judi she is!"
"(n) critical point in time, such as a crisis or a time when a decision is necessary; a particular point in an activity or period of time: ""At this juncture, I suggest we take a short break.""; ""The talks are at a critical juncture (=very important point)."" / a place where two things are joined together"
"(adj) sharp, piercing; very perceptive or mentally sharp: ""With her keen mind and good business sense, she soon became noticed.""; ""She was new in the job and keen as mustard (=very keen)."" / intense (of a feeling): ""As she walked away, Joe felt a keen sense of loss."" / eager: ""He told me that he was keen to help.""; ""I wasn't keen on going there on my own.""; ""The government is keen for peace talks to start again.""; ""The chairman is keen that the company should expand its product range."" / to like someone or something: ""She likes Biology, but she's not too keen on Physics.""; ""My flatmates want to have a party, but I'm not keen on the idea.""; ""I'm not keen on cabbage."""
"(n) praise, honor, congratulations / the state of being admired and respected for being important or for doing something important: ""He acquired kudos just by appearing on television."""
"(adj) not shiny; dull, mediocre, lacking brilliance or vitality / not exciting, impressive etc [= dull]: ""The corporation's profits increased dramatically this year, after a rather lacklustre performance last year."" --> if something lacks lust, it is dull, not impressive and not exciting"
"(adj) using few words, concise / using only a few words to say something: ""'She left,' said Pascoe laconically.""; ""When it is so spot on that there can be no reasoned argument against it, the result is inchoate unreasoned laconic anger.""; ""Along the way he made laconic diary notes about things he had seen and done, and places where he ate and slept."""
"(v, n) mourn; express grief, sorrow, or regret: ""The nation lamented the death of its great war leader.""; to express annoyance or disappointment about something you think is unsatisfactory or unfair: ""He lamented that people had expected too much of him too soon.""; ""She lamented the fact that manufacturers did not produce small packs for single-person households.""; lament the lack/absence/decline etc of something: ""Steiner lamented the lack of public interest in the issue."" (verb) / an expression of grief, esp. as a song or poem: ""A lone piper played a lament.""; ""a lament for the dead"" (noun)"
"(n, v) a harsh satire (noun); / ridicule or satirize; to criticize someone or something in a humorous way that makes them seem stupid: ""The Prime Minister was frequently lampooned in political cartoons.""; ""Trudeau regularly lampoons the president in his comic strip."" (verb) --> LAMPOON- if you pour oil for a LAMP with a SPOON people will ridicule and criticize you in a humorous way because for a lamp you should pour a lot of oil!"
"(n, adj) object (such as a building) that stands out and can be used to navigate by: ""One of Belfast's most famous landmarks, the Grosvenor Hall, has been demolished."" / one of the most important events, changes, or discoveries that influences someone or something: ""The discovery of penicillin was a landmark in the history of medicine.""; ""The Supreme Court issued a landmark decision in January 2001."""
"(adj) drooping from exhaustion, sluggish, slow; lacking in spirit / slow or lazy and involving very little energy or activity: ""He greeted Charles with a languid wave of his hand.""; ""We spent a languid afternoon by the pool.""; ""Another couple began turning languid circles on the tiny dance floor."" --> languid sounds similar to language... language classes are slow and involving no energy but at the end you are drooping from exhaustion."
"(n) tiredness, weariness; lazy indifference / tiredness and lack of energy or interest [= weariness]: ""The candidates have been trying to lift voters out of their lassitude."" --> Latin lassitudo, from lassus 'tired' / After a heavy lunch, if you drink a glass of LASSI, you will go into a tiredness, weariness and lack of energy or interest."
"(adj) worthy of praise / deserving praise, even if not completely successful [= praiseworthy]: ""While you may believe your comment to laudable, it is nothing more than a flagrant display of your ignorance.""; ""Also the laudable objective was to restore a natural habitat for many other bird species and this is working well.""; ""Spending a year in graduate school is surely more laudable than buying an expensive sports car."" --> Lovable things are deserving praise and they are praiseworthy"
"(adj, v) abundant or giving in abundance; marked by excess: ""The restaurant has a lavish dessert menu.""; very generous: ""We were always lavish with financial aid in times of crisis.""; ""He was always lavish in his praise of my efforts."" (adj) / give very generously; to give someone or something a lot of love, praise, money etc: ""He lavished attention on her.""; ""Hug your children and lavish them with love."" (verb) --> If you have feeling like lovish, you give everything in abundance, generously to them"
"(n) a person who is not a member of the clergy(ruhban sınıfı) or not a member of a particular profession (such as medicine, law, etc.); bir mesleğin ilmin yabancısı"
"(n) lightness (of mind, spirit, or mood) or lack of seriousness, sometimes in an inappropriate way / lack of respect or seriousness when you are dealing with something serious [? gravity]: ""Dr. Watkins brought some much-needed levity into his lecture on economic theory.""; ""I must resist the temptation to treat so serious a matter with levity."" --> lev(leave)+it+y(.yaar)..you casually leave things with lack of seriousness"
"(v, n) collect tax from, wage war on, or enlist for military service; to officially say that people must pay a tax or charge: ""Taxes should be designed to encourage greater effort and levied only when wealth is achieved.""; ""However it does not levy a general sales tax; sales taxes are the bread and butter of most state governments."" (verb) / act of collecting tax or amount owed, or the drafting of troops into military service; an additional sum of money, usually paid as a tax: ""He wants to impose a levy on landfill waste."" (noun) --> devlet vergi toplamak ve askere insan almak için levyeli adamlar tutmuştu"
"(adj, n) favorable to progress or reform; believing in maximum possible individual freedom: ""n a liberal society you may have the right to express your own beliefs, but not necessarily to cause offence to other people.""; tolerant, open-minded; generous; generous or given in large amounts: ""If only they were as liberal with their cash.""; not exact: ""a liberal interpretation of the original play""; liberal education: a kind of education which encourages you to develop a large range of interests and knowledge and respect for other people's opinions (adj) / a person with such beliefs or practices; someone with liberal opinions or principles [? conservative] (noun)"
"(n) morally or sexually unrestrained person; freethinker (regarding religion); someone who leads an immoral life and always looks for pleasure, especially sexual pleasure: ""For if a libertine knows he can indulge himself with impunity, he will throw all cautions to the winds.""; ""Take one step away from those laws and you become a lecher, a libertine, an assassin."" --> LIBERTINE=liberti+ne=LIBERTY IN Excess can make you irresponsible always looks for pleasure, especially sexual pleasure"
"(adv) also, in addition to; similarly, in the same way: ""Nanny put on a shawl and told the girls to do likewise.""; ""The clams were delicious. Likewise, the eggplant was excellent."" / used to return someone's greeting or polite statement: "" 'You're always welcome at our house.' 'Likewise.' """
"(v, n) keep a record of, write down: ""All phone calls are logged.""; travel for or at a certain distance or speed; to travel a particular distance or for a particular length of time, especially in a plane or ship: ""The pilot has logged 1200 flying hours.""; to cut down trees (verb); a written record: ""The captain always keeps a log.""; a thick piece of wood from a tree: ""a roaring log fire"" (noun)"
"(adj) talkative, wordy: ""The normally loquacious Simpson had nothing to say.""; ""Putnam, persuasively loquacious, was always on the lookout for new adventures and new stories to publish."" --> look how she is, so wordy, talkative"
"(adj) clear, easy to understand; rational, sane: ""You must write in a clear and lucid style.""; ""In her more lucid moments the old lady would talk about her past.""; ""At the moment, Peter is lucid and quite talkative, but his condition is becoming worse."""
"(n, v) soothe or cause to fall asleep (as in a lullaby): lull somebody into (doing) something: ""The hum of the tyres on the road lulled her to sleep.""; quiet down; make to feel secure, sometimes falsely: ""The police lulled me into believing that they did not suspect us.""; ""Earthquakes here are rare and this has lulled people into a false sense of security (=made people think they were safe when they were not)."" (verb) / a period of calm or quiet: ""Managers at Metrocentre have reported a lull in the recession, as takings continue to soar.""; ""For two days there had been a lull in the fighting.""; a short period of time when things are calm that is followed by a lot of activity, noise, or trouble: ""There was a lull, and then the thunder came again."" (noun)"
"(n, adj) a temporary, often improvised, substitute (noun) / improvised for temporary use; made to be used for a short time only when nothing better is available: ""The refugees slept in makeshift tents at the side of the road.""; ""When we reached the river we found that the makeshift bridge had been swept away."" (adj)"
"(adj) able to be bent, shaped, or adapted / something that is malleable is easy to press or pull into a new shape: ""Nature is not inflexible but malleable.""; ""A malleable metal can be beaten into a sheet whereas a ductile metal can be drawn out into a wire."" / someone who is malleable can be easily influenced or changed by other people: ""Passengers are much more malleable when they understand what's going on.""; ""The formation of memories is a malleable process, indeed."" --> relate with meltable; so possible to reshape / Many women believe they can mold their MALE (malle) partners into ABLE-bodied husbands."
"(n) rebel, individualist, dissenter(muhalif) / an unusual person who has different ideas and ways of behaving from other people, and is often very successful: ""He's always been a bit of a maverick.""; ""Programmers are often thought of as the mavericks of the computer business."""
"(adj) lying, habitually dishonest / not truthful: ""But Legasov's reassurance at Vienna was not as mendacious as many believed.""; ""a secretive and mendacious government""; ""mendacious propaganda"" --> mendacious= men + audacious. men who are audacious can LIE easily. They are habitual lier and dishonest as they are audacious."
"(adj) quickly unpredictably changing moods; fickle, flighty / having feelings that change suddenly and without warning: ""an actor noted for his mercurial temperament""; ""His mercurial and fickle temperament left him with few friends."" / quick and clever: """" --> mercury level in the blood pressure testing device fickles a lot and change suddenly when measuring blood pressure"
"(n) a complete change or transformer (in biology, a change such as a caterpillar becoming a pupa and then a butterfly): ""It took me some time to undergo the metamorphosis from teacher to lecturer.""; ""Beetles undergo a complete metamorphosis in their life cycle."" / (v) to change completely and become something different, or to make something change in this way: ""From an easygoing young girl, she had metamorphosed into a neurotic middle-aged woman."""
"(adj) taking extreme care in regards to details; precise, fussy / very careful about small details, and always making sure that everything is done correctly: ""He kept meticulous accounts.""; ""Their planning and preparation were meticulous.""; ""He cleaned the tools with meticulous care.""; ""The book describes his journey in meticulous detail.""; meticulous in: ""He was meticulous in his use of words.""; meticulous about: ""He has always been so meticulous about his appearance.""; ""The attack was meticulously planned and executed.""; ""He was meticulous in checking his accounts and never made mistakes."" --> People approach you to tickle you - me ticklers - and they show care about minute details in tickling every inch of you / "
"(v) make less severe; lessen or moderate (damage, grief, pain, etc.) / to make a situation or the effects of something less unpleasant, harmful, or serious [= alleviate]: ""Measures need to be taken to mitigate the environmental effects of burning more coal."" --> think of MITIGATE as COLGATE(toothpaste).Use of COLGATE alleviate the harms of germs in our teeth."
"(adj) humble; simple rather than showy: ""He was always modest about his role in the Everest expedition.""; ""You're too modest! You've been a huge help to us.""; decent (esp. ""covering up"" in terms of dress); small, limited / not very great, big, or expensive:""She had saved a modest amount of money.""; ""The new service proved a modest success."" / shy about showing your body or attracting sexual interest, because you are easily embarrassed [? immodest]: ""She was a modest girl, always keeping covered, even in summer."""
"(v) calm or soothe (an angry person); lessen or soften / to make someone feel less angry and upset about something [= placate]: ""Mel appeared somewhat mollified by her words.""; """" --> mollify sounds like nullify...so just think of nullifying something...nullifying your temper"
"(n) sameness or repetitiousness to the point of being boring; lack of variation, uniformity, esp. repetition in sound: ""She wanted to escape the monotony of her everyday life.""; ""He suggested a card game to relieve the monotony of the journey."""
"(adv) besides; in addition to what was just stated: ""The rent is reasonable and, moreover, the location is perfect.""; ""The source of the information is irrelevant. Moreover, the information need not be confidential."""
"(n) customs, manners, or morals of a particular group / the customs, social behaviour, and moral values of a particular group: ""Expectations reshaped by mores are no longer so easily affronted.""; ""They stood for the preservation of the mores and folkways that had guided their forebears for generations."" --> plural of mos; ? MORAL"
"(adj) common, ordinary, everyday / ordinary and not interesting or exciting [= boring]: ""Initially, the work was pretty mundane.""; ""The mundane task of setting the table can be fun on holidays.""; ""The play is about the mundane existence of factory workers.""; ""Most of the law cases he deals with are pretty mundane."" / concerned with ordinary daily life rather than religious matters [= worldly] --> Mundane sounds like Monday. After an exciting weekend, Monday is just another mundane day."
"(adj) simple and unsophisticated, unsuspecting, lacking worldly experience and critical judgment; ""It would be naive to think that this could solve all the area's problems straight away.""; ""I had naively imagined that he was in love with me."""
"(adj) coming into existence, still developing: ""A nascent nationalist movement is emerging in the Ukraine.""; ""Nascent entrepreneurs for you to mentor who will also provide feedback on your coaching skills.""; ""Still relatively nascent and amorphous, translation studies needed just such a means of solidification."" --> ""new soul sent"".....to earth, it is the new sent coming to the existence. "
"(v) deny or refute: ""The witness's testimony negated what the defendant had claimed.""; make void or cause to be ineffective / to prevent something from having any effect: ""Efforts to expand the tourist industry could be negated by reports that the sea is highly polluted.""; ""The decision would negate last year's Supreme Court ruling."" -->past participle of negare ?to say no?, from neg- ?no, not?"
"(adj, v) remaining after expenses or other factors have been deducted; ultimate [? gross(before deductions)]: ""The company reported a net loss of $56 million last year.""; ""Vernon estimates the company's net worth at over $8 billion.""; ""The net result will be higher costs to the consumer."" (adj) / to bring in as profit or to catch as in a net: ""I was netting around $64,000 a year.""; ""The company has recently netted several large contracts.""; ""An undercover sweep netted 22 suspects in one evening.""; ""We netted three fish in under an hour.""(verb)"
"(adv) however, even so, despite that / in spite of a fact that you have just mentioned [= nonetheless]: ""What you said was true. It was, nevertheless, a little unkind.""; ""The Sharks played with two men in the penalty box, but nevertheless managed to score."""
"(n) ill fame; the state of being well-known for a disgraceful reason / the state of being famous or well-known for something that is bad or that people do not approve of: ""John is already a writer of some notoriety.""; ""The local church has gained notoriety for being different.""; ""Salem's tourist industry plays on its notoriety for the witchcraft trials.""; ""Stewart, the new quarterback from Colorado, has gained a lot of notoriety for his versatility."""
"(adj) new, fresh, original: ""I spent six months living in a monastery in northern India, which was a novel experience.""; ""Scientists have come up with a novel way of catching fish.""; ""Tonight's TV news will be presented in a novel format."""
"(n) a subtle difference in tone, meaning, and expression / a very slight, hardly noticeable difference in manner, colour, meaning etc [? subtlety]: ""He was aware of every nuance in her voice.""; ""There are layers of nuance and humor in her writing.""; ""Yet the rich nuances of the voice clearly convey the message none the less.""; ""Beauty was communication, each mote of light shaded with one nuance of meaning and each meaning had a colour."""
"(adj) factual, related to reality or physical objects; not influenced by emotions, unbiased: ""It's hard to give an objective opinion about your own children.""; ""Scientists need to be objective when doing research."" / formal existing outside the mind as something real, not only as an idea: ""The world has an objective reality."" / something that you are trying hard to achieve, especially in business or politics [= goal] (noun): ""He vowed to achieve certain objectives before the end of his presidency.""; ""Managers should set specific performance objectives for their teams."""
"(adj) servile, very compliant, fawning(yaltaklanan) / very eager to please or agree with people who are powerful - used in order to show disapproval [= servile]: ""All this obsequious praise for his actions is enough to make most normal people sick.""; ""The salesman's obsequious manner was beginning to irritate me.""; ""The waiter was polite and efficient, but not obsequious."" --> or obse(ssed)-Qui( yes in frech)-ous=always obsessed with saying yes to it all / ob + SEQUI + ous .. sequi means sequence where one thing ""follows"" the other.. and servants follow what their masters say.. / seq = Suck, uio = Your, us = Ass. He sucks your ass, therefore he's obsequious. // obsequiosus, from obsequium ?willingness to obey?, from obsequi ?to do what people want?, from sequi ?to follow?"
"(adj) out of date, no longer in use / no longer useful, because something newer and better has been invented [? out-of-date]: ""Will computers render (=make) books obsolete?""; ""new antitank missiles, particularly when used from helicopters, are making main battle tanks obsolete."""
"(adj) stubborn or hard to control; determined not to change your ideas, behaviour, opinions etc, even when other people think you are being unreasonable [= stubborn]: ""He was the most obstinate man I've ever met.""; ""How do you deal with an obstinate teenager who always says she isn't hungry?"" --> obs+tin(ate), obsessive teens,they are stubborn,hard to control / He is so stubborn and hard to control he OBS(truck) to TIN(y) details for MINates"
"(v) prevent, eliminate, or make unnecessary / to prevent or avoid a problem or the need to do something [= eliminate]: ""The new treatment obviates the need for surgery.""; ""He also expressed optimism that an acceptable constitutional arrangement could be agreed which would obviate the need for Quebec to seek independence.""; ""The goal is simply to raise serum sodium enough to obviate the risk of seizures."" --> OBVIously she ATE poison, to OBV?ATE the death we need to give antidote. So Obviate : A-void-it"
"(n, adj, v) the supernatural; mysterious practices and powers involving magic and spirits: ""He was a strange man who dabbled in the occult."" (noun) / pertaining to magic, astrology, etc.; mysterious, secret or hidden: ""Behavioral technology does not escape as easily as physical and biological technology because it threatens too many occult qualities.""; ""Chanting magic spells is an example of practices that would be described as occult activities."" (adj); to hide, to shut off from view --> diffiCULT to understand / occult is belong to a cult, so it is secret and mysterious, involving magic"
"(adj) casual, informal; done without preparation or forethought; rude in a short way, brusque / not very friendly towards someone when you are talking to them: ""She said you were a bit offhand with her this afternoon.""; ""The store manager was rather offhand with us at first.""; ""I didn't like his offhand manner.""; said or done without thinking or planning: ""an offhand remark"" (adjective) / immediately, without time to think about it or find out about something: ""I can't remember offhand where the file is."" --> offhand - hands on means experience, you have prepared for that , so off hands means something without preparation / offhand = off + hand = Not take in hand ( work ) = unimportant work = casual work"
"(adj) excessively eager in giving unwanted advice or intruding where one is not wanted; meddlesome, pushy / too eager to tell people what to do - used to show disapproval: ""I got held up by an officious receptionist who wouldn't let me in until I'd answered all her questions.""; ""The people at the tax department were very officious, and kept everyone waiting for hours while they checked their papers."" --> OFFICIOUS,the first part of the word sounds similar to office. Imagine a government office where people poke their nose in other's affairs, they are INTERFERING, and giving unwanted advices about their life."
"(v, n, adj) counteract, compensate for; if the cost or amount of something offsets another cost or amount, the two things have an opposite effect so that the situation remains the same: ""Cuts in prices for milk, butter, and cheese will be offset by direct payments to farmers.""; offset something against something: ""He was able to offset his travel expenses against tax.""; ""Profits in GM's computer services were not enough to offset the huge losses in its automotive operations.""; ""$3000 was spent in US schools to offset the disadvantages of about 6 million school children.""; to make something look better by being close to it and different: ""His blonde hair offset a deep tan."" (verb) / a counterbalance (noun) / relating to a method of printing in which ink is put onto rollers and the paper then passes between the rollers (adjective)"
"(adj) burdensome, oppressive, hard to endure / work or a responsibility that is onerous is difficult and worrying or makes you tired: ""But this does put an exceedingly onerous burden on women who are required to bear, rear and look after the offspring.""; ""In the western part of the country, onerous taxes have depressed investments and slowed the introduction of modern technology."" --> it sounds like on+er+us.. that is ON US.. when something is ON US ..we feel burdensome / If u assign much work on ONE person it will be ONErous for him"
"(adj) not translucent; not allowing light, hear, etc. to pass through; dark, dull, unclear or stupid / opaque glass or liquid is difficult to see through and often thick [? transparent]: ""Keep herbs and spices in opaque glass bottles to protect them from sunlight."" / formal difficult to understand: ""an opaque style of writing""; ""Cats aren't so easy - more opaque, you could say."""
"(adj) best, most desirable or favorable: ""This design makes the optimum use of the available space."""
"(adj) adhering to a traditional, established faith, or to anything customary or commonly accepted / orthodox ideas, methods, or behaviour are accepted by most people to be correct and right [= conventional]: ""He challenged the orthodox views on education.""; ""Orthodox economists believe that a recession is now inevitable."""
"(v) swing back and forth; waver, change one's mind / to keep changing between two extreme amounts or limits or between one feeling or attitude and another: ""The stock market is oscillating wildly at the moment.""; ""His income oscillated between ?1500 and ?2000 a month.""; ""Her attitude towards me oscillated between friendship and hostility.""; ""The needle on the dial began to oscillate."""
"(v) surpass, exceed; be larger or better than; leave behind / to do something better than someone else or be more successful: ""We outstripped all our competitors in sales last year."" / to be greater in quantity than something else: ""Demand for new aircraft production is outstripping supply."" / to run or move faster than someone or something else: ""Speeding at 90 mph, Denny outstripped police cars for an hour."" --> strip ?to move fast? (15-18 centuries) / getting stripped in a colloquial language means being insulted, which is also felt if ur defeated or outdone.. hence try relating outstrip it.."
"(v) cast a shadow over, darken; dominate, make to seem less important / to make someone or something else seem less important: ""Her interest in politics began to overshadow her desire to be a poet.""; ""The achievement of the men's team was overshadowed by the continuing success of the women's team.""; ""The achievement of the men's team was overshadowed by the continuing success of the women's team."" / to make an occasion or period of time less enjoyable by making people feel sad or worried: ""The threat of war overshadowed the summer of 1939."" / if a tall building, mountain etc overshadows a place, it is very close to it and much taller than it: ""a dark valley overshadowed by towering peaks"""
"(n) model or pattern; worldview, set of shared assumptions, values, etc. / technical a model or example that shows how something works or is produced: ""the basic paradigm of the family tree"" / formal a very clear or typical example of something: ""Pius XII remained the paradigm of what a pope should be.""; ""Community interaction of this kind could be a paradigm for race relations in the future.""; ""The needs of today's children cannot be met by our old educational paradigms.""; ""The Vietnam War has become a powerful anti-war paradigm."""
"(n) contradiction, or seeming contradiction that is actually true: ""It's a paradox that in such a rich country there can be so much poverty.""; ""The paradox is that fishermen would catch more fish if they fished less.""; ""Isn't it a paradox that the airline with the lowest fares is the one with the most customer satisfaction?"""
"(n) social outcast, untouchable / someone who everyone hates and avoids [= outcast]: ""After the accusation, they are worried-sick parents, small-town pariahs, amateur lawyers, sometime sleuths, etc.""; ""Because Dad left the tribe to marry an outsider, however, he was considered a pariah.""; ""The traditional outcast or pariah becomes the hero in this new age."""
"(adj) biased, prejudiced, favoring one over the others; having a special liking for something or someone (usually partial to) / be partial to something: formal to like something very much: ""I'm very partial to cream cakes."" / unfairly supporting one person or one group against another [? impartial]"
"(adj, n) devoted to a particular group, cause, etc.: ""British newspapers are highly partisan.""; ""Gore was speaking before a partisan crowd of about 500 Democrats."" (adj) / fervent supporter of a group, party, idea, etc.; guerilla fighter: ""a media campaign to represent Democrats as angry partisans""; ""The commended approach to teaching strategies was highly partisan in respect of the particular kinds of practice which were endorsed."" (noun)"
"(adj, n) obvious, apparent, plain to see; formal used to emphasize that something is clearly a lie etc [= obvious]: ""The treatment is patently not working.""; patently false/untrue: ""To say that the proposal has no disadvantages at all is patently untrue.""; ""It's patently obvious that you're in love with her.""; ""Her reluctance to go made her heart ache, but the truth was patent."" (adj) / a letter from the government guaranteeing an inventor rights to his or her invention: ""He applied for a patent for a new method of removing paint."" (noun)"
"(adj) relating to or caused by disease; relating to compulsive bad behavior"
"(adj) condescending, having a superior manner, treating as an inferior; ""To its critics, ""affirmative action"" is seen as patronizing to women and minorities.""; ""While a few felt that the social workers, were helpful and supportive an equal number considered them to be patronizing and authoritarian."""
"(n) scarcity, the state of being small in number / less than is needed of something [= lack]: ""This paucity of information arises from the role that uncertainty has in quantum mechanics.""; ""there was a paucity of buyers."" --> They will pause city because of scarcity."
"(n) small sin or fault / something bad which someone does, especially involving sex, which is not regarded as very serious or important: ""The public is willing to forgive him for his peccadillos."""
"(adj) ordinary, dull, commonplace / ordinary and uninteresting and without any imagination: ""On the main wall was a rather pedestrian portrait of his wife.""; ""He is a very pedestrian writer and Ovid is far from that."" --> being a pedestrian is ordinary, dull and commonplace"
"(n) liking or inclination / a/somebody's penchant for something: if you have a penchant for something, you like that thing very much and try to do it or have it often (tutku, eáilim, meyil): ""He had a penchant for violence.""; ""Anyone who has ever read anything about hackers will probably be aware of the particular penchant they have for pretense.""; ""Her strong penchant for adventure and conquest will drive her to have countless relationships.""; ""I miss her intellect, her passion, her courage and her penchant for mainlining our nerves.""; ""Their defense played superbly, but they still showed an astonishing penchant for careless mistakes."" --> Benim pen ?evirmeye kar?? bir tutkum, eáilimim, meyilim var"
"(adj) disloyal, treacherous, violating one's trust / someone who is perfidious is not loyal and cannot be trusted [= treacherous]: ""The air was thick with paranoia as the conversation turned to the perfidious question of appearance money.""; ""Perfidious role of the Popular Front was very strikingly revealed."" --> perfidious --- perfume relate to perfume which reminds us of a beautiful lady who could be disloyal to you / woman carrying to much perfume in use may be disloyal, treacherous"
"(adj) relating to or making up an outer boundary or region; not of primary importance / formal not as important as other things or people in a particular activity, idea, or situation: ""a diplomat who had a peripheral role in the negotiations""; ""Her involvement in the case was peripheral.""; ""The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie."" / formal in the outer area of something, or relating to this area: ""the city's peripheral suburbs"" / peripheral vision: your ability to see things to the side of you when you look straight ahead / technical peripheral equipment can be connected to a computer and used with it"
"(v) spread or penetrate throughout / if ideas, beliefs, emotions etc permeate something, they are present in every part of it: ""Racism continues to permeate our society.""; ""An emotional intensity permeates every one of O'Connor's songs.""; ""There is a culture of racism that permeates the entire organization."" / if liquid, gas etc permeates something, it enters it and spreads through every part of it: ""The smell of diesel oil permeated the air.""; ""Toxic chemicals may permeate the soil, threatening the environment.""; permeate through/into: ""Rain permeates through the ground to add to ground water levels."""
"(adj) tending to spread throughout / existing everywhere: ""Alcohol is still a pervasive problem with high - school students.""; ""She argues that sexual discrimination remains a pervasive element in corporate culture.""; ""Violence and crime are pervasive features of city life,."" --> sounds like invasive, so tending to spread throughout (pervade - verb from. it is also similar with invade)"
(n) efforts to improve the well-being of humankind, generally through giving money / the practice of giving money and help to people who are poor or in trouble --> phil - 'loving' + anthropos - ?human being?
"(adj) fake, counterfeit; insincere, not genuine / someone who is phoney is insincere and pretends to be something they are not: ""It is election year, and a phoney war is being waged between the two main parties.""; ""He's a complete phoney!""; ""a phoney American accent"" --> phone+money--think if someone calls u on phone and asks for money..surely is a fraud. / a pony always seems to me as a fake horse, phoney horse"
"(adj) devout; religiously reverent and dutiful / having strong religious beliefs, and showing this in the way you behave [? piety]: ""He was a quiet, pious man."" / if you describe what someone says as pious talk, words etc, you mean that they are trying to sound good or moral but you do not believe that they are sincere or will really do what they say: ""pious speeches by politicians about 'family values'"" / pious hope/wish: something that you want to be true or to happen, but that is very unlikely: ""All these agreements and ideas remain little more than pious hopes in the present climate.""; ""There are 613 commandments required of a pious Jew.""; ""She reminded Corbett of a sweet, pious young nun he once knew.""; ""Ethelred was not the most pious of kings, and his clashes with the church were stormy and frequent."" --> Latin - pius; Pius XII: an Italian priest who became Pope in 1939. He was Pope during World War II. He was a pious man"
"(n) core, essence; substantial quality (as of meaning): ""finally got to the pith of the discussion""; significance or weight / a white substance just under the outside skin of oranges and similar fruit: ""Peel the oranges with a sharp knife to remove all pith."" -->think of brad pitt he's a very important part of hollywood, he is the core, essence of hollywood."
"(v) satisfy or calm down (angry or dissatisfied person), esp. by conciliatory gestures / to make someone stop feeling angry [= appease][OPP rile]: ""These changes did little to placate the unions.""; ""The noise control law could placate airport neighbors, who oppose growth because of the noise."" --> Dernek, profesor³ yat²?t²rmak i?in ona 'plaket' verdi."
"(adj) peaceful, calm, tranquil / a placid person does not often get angry or upset and does not usually mind doing what other people want them to: ""She sat still, placid and waiting."" / calm and peaceful: ""The lake was placid and still under the moonlight.""; ""Though the earth was cold and wet, the sky was clear, and the sun rose bright, placid, and beautiful"" --> a student well PLACED in his college will sit calmly and peacefully...as compared to those who did not get placed."
"(adj) able to be shaped or formed; easily influenced / something that is plastic looks or tastes artificial or not natural: ""I hate that plastic smile of hers."""
"(n) believable; having the appearance of truth: ""His story certainly sounds plausible.""; ""His explanation sounds fairly plausible to me.""; ""I need to think of a plausible excuse for not going to the meeting.""; ""Langham's story sounded plausible at the time."" / Someone who is plausible is good at talking in a way that sounds reasonable and truthful, although they may in fact be lying: ""a plausible liar"" // ""Although she is pretend-reading and she guesses what the print probably says rather than decoding the print, her story sounds plausible.""; ""But it is quite possible to think of plausible cases.""; ""In any plausible way of forming Jupiter the hydrogen and helium are initially well mixed at a molecular level.""; ""In comparison with fabliaux like that, the misbehaviour of the monk and the wife is all too deliberate and plausible.""; ""Students may well differ in how plausible they find efficient-market theory.""; ""The most plausible explanation of this observation is an abrupt, massive, global acidification of rainwater.""; ""Where the medium is not continuous on the scale of the measurement being made the assumption is not so plausible."""
"(v) plunge, fall straight down / to suddenly and quickly decrease in value or amount [= plunge]: plummet from something to something: ""Profits plummeted from ?49 million to ?11 million.""; ""House prices have plummeted down."" / to fall suddenly and quickly from a very high place [= plunge]: ""The plane plummeted towards the earth."" --> Plummet sounds like Planet (something very very heavy) .. a heavy thing will fall or drop sharply. / Planets suddenly and quickly decrease in value or amount, e.g. Pluton. And also they fall suddenly and quickly from a very high place"
"(adj) divided into sharply opposed groups / to divide into clearly separate groups with opposite beliefs, ideas, or opinions, or to make people do this: ""The issue has polarized the country."""
"(adj) heavy; bulky and unwieldy; dull, labored / slow or awkward because of being very big and heavy: ""Holyfield had a considerable advantage over his ponderous opponent.""; ""The only other downside I noticed was that the car tended to be a little ponderous in lower gears around town.""; ""The old lady's footsteps could be heard, ponderous and threatening, on the front steps.""; ""an elephant's ponderous walk"" / boring, very serious, and seeming to progress very slowly: ""The system, though ponderous, works.""; ""His films are ponderous, occasionally dull, always intriguing and kind of great.""; ""Inquiry is a serious matter and should be done boldly, whether applied to innovation or ponderous theoretical matter.""; ""Woolley released three loud chords, and started on a ponderous version of the Sailors' Horn pipe."" --> That book is really heavy and so dull, not fluent. It has 'pounds of weights'."
"(adj) happening or continuing after death / happening, printed etc after someone's death: ""a posthumous collection of his articles""; ""Bentley's relatives are demanding a posthumous pardon from the government.""; ""He was posthumously awarded the Military Cross.""; ""Making sense of his status as a postmodern social icon is as difficult as understanding his posthumous deification by millions of fans.""; ""But good conduct now can bring posthumous promotion or vice versa."" --> post + humous ~ post + human; after death ~ not considered as human ~ post human"
"(n) ruler, person of great power / (literary) a ruler in the past, who had great power over his people: ""Like any Eastern potentate he was celebrated for his wives.""; ""About the only way to be a harem-guarding potentate nowadays is to start a cult and brainwash potential concubines about your holiness.""; ""Obviously we would have to be prepared to see the potentates who control the club to obtain permission to work in it.""; ""Rather than defending society, the young men attack it and exalt macho foreign potentates and desperadoes.""; ""Sources say Gumbel was summoned there by none other than the potentate of Microsoft himself, Bill Gates."" --> potent - present participle of potere æto be powerfulÆ; as in impotent: powerless man"
"(adj) practical; dealing with actual facts and reality / dealing with problems in a sensible, practical way instead of strictly following a set of ideas [? dogmatic]: ""Williams took a more pragmatic approach to management problems.""; ""Pragmatic considerations led the government to abandon pure Marxist policies.""; ""Our nation needs to take a pragmatic approach to lowering trade barriers.""; ""We need a pragmatic approach to sex education in schools.""; ""Corporate and commercial law seemed a pragmatic choice, an important place to start."""
"(n) introductory statement, preface / formal a statement at the beginning of a book, document, or talk, explaining what it is about: preamble to: ""Harding gave him the news without preamble (=without saying anything else before it).""; ""the preamble to the American Constitution""; ""There's a big difference between the document's lengthy preamble and the actual content.""; ""Even religion and politics were subjects he covered in his preamble in relation to local inhabitants such as George Fox.""; ""Given such preambles, it seems natural to adopt a teleological approach to interpretation.""; ""The first paragraph of your speech after the preamble should be designed to hold everyone's attention.""; ""We broadly agree with the analysis outlined in the preamble to Threshold 21."" --> prÚambule, from Late Latin praeambulus æwalking in frontÆ / PRE(before) + AM (i) + BOL(tell): in a meeting political leaders will say: what I want to say before I start my lecture is bla bla bla. All this will take 1 hour. :) . This is what preamble is. / Pre(Before) + amble(moving)...i.e. A speaker before heading to main topic,starts with an INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT and then elaborates the topic."
"(adj) unstable, insecure, dangerous / a precarious situation or state is one which may very easily or quickly become worse: ""Her health remained precarious, despite the treatment.""; ""No one would lend money to a company in such a precarious position.""; ""His political position has become extremely precarious."" / likely to fall, or likely to cause someone to fall: ""The bottle was in a precarious position on the edge of the table.""; ""Are you sure he's safe on that ladder? It looks very precarious up there."" --> PRE+CARE+IOUS -> We have to take CARE while doing something risky so that it does not go wrong. .. / sounds like curious, Being curious ahead of time(pre) is risky, cause we all know curiosity killed the cat! :P"
"(n) something that comes before, esp. something that also announces or suggests something on its way / (formal) something that happened or existed before something else and influenced its development: ""The abacus was the precursor of the modern electronic calculator.""; ""The Office of Strategic Services was the precursor of the CIA.""; ""Basic education remains a necessary precursor to behavior change, especially for the young and those just becoming sexually active.""; ""Many of these animals, rather than being simple precursors of sophisticates yet to come, were quite unlike anything ever seen elsewhere."""
"(adj) having an inclination or tendency beforehand; susceptible: ""genetically predisposed to gain weight""; ""I was predisposed not to like him; maybe he sensed this.""; ""The twentysomethings of the X generation may be more predisposed to quitting a job and drifting."" /// predispose (verb): to make someone more likely to suffer from a particular health problem: predispose somebody to something: ""Diabetes predisposes patients to infections."" / to make someone more likely to behave or think in a particular way: predispose somebody to something: ""Parents who smoke predispose children to smoking."""
"(v) prevent; take the place of, supplant; take before someone else can / to make what someone has planned to do or say unnecessary or ineffective by saying or doing something first: ""The deal pre-empted a strike by rail workers."" / (American English) to replace a television show with a special programme or report: ""Regular programming was preempted by a report on the war."" --> pre-empt = pre + employ / empty the argument before (empt) everybody"
"(adj) based on inference or assumption; providing reasonable grounds for belief / based on a reasonable belief about what is likely to be true: ""A presumptive diagnosis of gout can often be made on the basis of hyperuricemia and the clinical presentation.""; ""An erect abdominal x ray showed no free gas but a presumptive diagnosis of perforation was made.""; ""These are the considerations justifying a presumptive privilege for Presidential communications."" --> olası muhtemel; presumption(noun), presumptive(adjective)"
"(adj) too bold or forward; going beyond that which is proper / doing something that you have no right to do and that seems rude: is it presumptuous (of somebody) to do something: ""Would it be presumptuous of me to ask why you are so miserable?""; ""It would be presumptuous of me to speak on behalf of my colleagues.""; ""How presumptuous my claims to knowledge based only on what I see, leaving out what I fail to see.""; ""I have found the way I have been treated by qualified and unqualified people patronising and presumptuous and deeply offensive.""; ""If not, perhaps he should before making such presumptuous statements."" --> ""presumptive choice"" is too bold and seems rude. You have no right to do that, you need to be sure"
"(adj) claiming or demanding a position of importance or dignity, esp. when unjustified; showing off creating deceptive, false show of worth / if someone or something is pretentious, they try to seem more important, intelligent, or high class than they really are in order to be impressive [? unpretentious]: ""He has a pretentious style of writing, using four very difficult words where one simple one would do.""; ""I found Susie unbearably pretentious.""; ""The restaurant is stuffy, pretentious, and ridiculously expensive.""; ""He complained that my titles were vague and pretentious, and smelt of the blue-stocking.(A bluestocking is an educated, intellectual woman.)""; ""So Princeton looked good for college until I met their pretentious admissions rep(representative)."""
"(adj) having high moral standards / someone who is principled has strong opinions about what is morally right and wrong: principled stand/opposition/objection etc: ""He took a principled stand against the legislation.""; ""If Pyongyang refuses, the allies will at least have taken a principled stand."" / based on clear and definite ideas: ""an attempt to reduce prison sentences in a principled way"", ""principled opposition to the idea of lower taxation""; ""Setting aside any principled notions that I have, which I do have, you know, it is purely pragmatic business."" / ""They substitute character attack and personal diatribe for principled debate and discussion of the issues."""
"(adj) in an original, pure state; uncorrupted / extremely fresh or clean: ""He passed her a pristine handkerchief and waited.""; ""He wore a charcoal-grey business suit, with a pristine white shirt and maroon silk tie.""; / something that is pristine is in the same condition as when it was first made: ""The car has been restored to pristine condition."" / not spoiled or damaged in any way: ""pristine African rainforest"" --> sounds like priest(ine) means pertaining to priests which is to 'remain in pure state, uncorrupted, clean'. / pristine; fresh teen,a virgin!!! which is 'remain in pure state, uncorrupted, clean'. "
"(n) honesty, integrity / (formal) complete honesty: ""I have always found Bentner to be a model of probity in our dealings.""; ""Politicians are not known for their probity or punctuality.""; ""Anglo-Saxon probity is hardly seen as a virtue here.""; ""The boundary between probity and fraud was much more difficult to draw in this area.""; """" --> Origin: probitas, from probus 'honest' / Probe is done to verify probity.So probity=neccessity (or reason ) for probe. --- when you probe a patient, you should be in a complete honesty about his ailment"
"(adj) wasteful, extravagant; giving abundantly, lavish / prodigal son/daughter: someone who leaves their family and home without the approval of their family, but who is sorry later and returns: ""The prodigal son had returned to Parkhead.""; ""The play, very moral in tone throughout, is a reworking of the theme of the return of the prodigal son."" / spending money, wasting time etc in a careless way [= extravagant]: ""a prodigal lifestyle""; ""There was the prodigal scene at the door."""
"(adj) extraordinarily large, impressive, etc. / very large or great in a surprising or impressive way: prodigious amounts/quantities of something: ""Some galaxies seem to release prodigious amounts of energy.""; ""Building the bridge was a prodigious feat of engineering and finance.""; ""This was written in 1824 when the prodigious composer was only 15.""; ""The prodigious amount of water from the storm caused the entire golf course to flood.""; ""The TV show ""American Idol"" is designed to discover prodigious musical talent.""; ""His prodigious talent for negotiations consistently saved the company large amounts of money. "" --> prodigy (noun): a young person who has a great natural ability in a subject or skill / Pro Djs are impressive and great in a surprising way."
"(adj) completely and shamelessly immoral, or extremely wasteful / wasting money or other things in a careless way [= wasteful]: ""profligate spending of the taxpayer's money""; ""the profligate use of energy resources""; ""The man loved his wife but hated her profligate spending habits.""; ""His business partner was a profligate waster who spent all the company's profits. ""; ""The virtuous man turned into a profligate after he won the lottery."" / behaving in an immoral way and not caring that your behaviour is bad, reckless: ""His profligate activities eventually landed him in jail.""; ""The implication of this is that the more profligate councils will not be re-elected."" --> Kendini 'savurganlığı ve hovardalığı' konusunda uyaran PROFesore 'utanmaz ve ahlaksızca' ""prof le get işine"" dedi. Müsrif, hovarda, utanmaz ve ahlaksız adam"
"(adj) very insightful, penetrating deeply into a subject; pervasive intense, ""down to the very bottom;"" at the very bottom / having a strong influence or effect: profound effect/influence/impact/consequence etc: ""Tolstoy's experiences of war had a profound effect on his work.""; ""The mother's behaviour has a profound impact on the developing child.""; ""profound changes in society"" / showing strong, serious feelings [= deep]: ""a profound sense of guilt"" / showing great knowledge and understanding [= deep]: ""a profound question""; ""Jenner is a profound thinker."" / literary deep or far below the surface of something [= deep]: ""Her work touches something profound in the human psyche."" / complete: ""profound deafness"""
"(adj) abundant, extravagant, giving or given freely / produced or existing in large quantities: ""He made profuse apologies.""; ""Profuse sweating is one of the symptoms of heat exhaustion.""; ""The wound was bleeding profusely."" --> Prof+ use= PROFessors USE ABUNDANT resources to research what they want."
"(adj) tending to forbid something, or serving to prevent something / prohibitive costs are so high that they prevent people from buying or doing something (exorbitant, restrictive): ""The cost of land in Tokyo is prohibitive.""; ""The cost of renovating the old buildings would be prohibitive."" / a prohibitive rule prevents people from doing things: ""The high-class nightclub maintained a prohibitive dress code. (exclusive, restrictive)""; ""We want this product to be considered high-end, but we don't want to price it so high that it becomes prohibitive for most people to purchase it. (restrictive)"""
"(v) increase or spread rapidly or excessively / if something proliferates, it increases quickly and spreads to many different places: ""Computer courses continue to proliferate.""; ""Child pornography is proliferating due to the increased use of computer chat rooms.""; ""Fast-food restaurants have proliferated in the area.""; ""The HIV virus is able to proliferate at an astonishing rate.""; ""Towns proliferate in civilizations: in cultures they remain embryonic."""
"(n) introductory part to a book, play, etc. / the introduction to a play, a long poem etc [? epilogue->that is added to the end of a book]: ""In his prologue to 'Faust', Goethe said some very interesting things about art.""; ""The brief prologue sets the scene for what is to follow."" / literary an act or event that leads to a more important event: prologue to: ""a prologue to the final abandonment of trams in London""; ""The past is the prologue to the future.""; ""These quick distinctions are prologue to a crucial point."""
"(adj) distinct, strong, clearly indicated / very great or noticeable: ""This disability is more pronounced in men.""; ""Her Polish accent is very pronounced.""; ""Mrs. Jones walks with a pronounced limp.""; ""Sam was a complete countryman, with a pronounced affinity with nature in all its forms.""; ""Leese had a pronounced anti-authoritarian streak in his behaviour and a quarrelsome personality."" --> which is pronounced, makes it noticeable, distinct."
"(n) conforming to good manners or appropriate behavior; justness / correctness of social or moral behaviour [? impropriety]: propriety of: ""They discussed the propriety of treating ill children against the wishes of the parents.""; with propriety: ""They conducted themselves (to behave) with propriety.""; ""Kids today have no sense of propriety.""; ""Are Charles and I really so susceptible to propriety, to the conventional?""; ""Religions classically struggle with this same divided consciousness about order and chaos, balance and exuberance, propriety and spontaneity."" / the proprieties: (especially British English) the accepted rules of correct social behaviour: ""strict in observing the proprieties"" --> divide the word as propr+iety ..propr(sounds like PROPER)..hence it refers to being PROPER or CORRECT IN CONDUCT.. / PROPER + APPROPRIATE = PROPRIETY / When learning the word propriety, think of the related word proper, ""appropriate"" or ""correct."" Propriety denotes proper character and behavior, while impropriety is rudeness or unacceptable behavior."
"(adj) dull, ordinary: ""The furniture is prosaic and modern.""; ""The furniture is prosaic and modern.""; ""My diary entries are filled with prosaic happenings.""; ""He is so absurd that he adds a note of humor to an otherwise dry, tedious, prosaic play.""; ""Even something as prosaic as a roast chicken Jasper could transform into something nearly lyrical."" --> Her diary entries are filled with ordinary and dull happenings, she got into a depression. She had prozac to overcome her dull and ordinary life."
"(v) prohibit, outlaw; denounce; exile or banish / (formal) to officially say that something is not allowed to exist or be done [= forbid, prohibit]: ""The Act proscribes discrimination on the grounds of race.""; ""Many Shiite clergymen maintain that birth control is proscribed by Islam.""; ""It should be remembered, however, that Gaelic was proscribed by the authorities for many years.""; ""She therefore proscribed all religious, philosophical, or psychological books for village libraries.""; ""It prescribes and proscribes the behavior and even the thoughts of its population in virtually every domain of existence."" --> OPP prescribe (v): to state officially what should be done in a particular situation: ""What punishment does the law prescribe for this crime?""; so proscribe is prohibiting an action, prescribe is allowing for an action."
"(adj) potential, in the future / prospective employee/candidate/buyer etc: someone who is likely to do a particular thing or achieve a particular position: ""Pre-service preparation initiates the prospective teacher into the basics of professional activity."" / likely to happen: ""My mother keeps introducing me to men she considers to be prospective husbands.""; ""the prospective costs of providing pensions""; ""They made their living hanging around police stations, paying policemen to alert them to prospective customers.""; ""Writing a resume of your achievements that will make a prospective employer want to meet you requires practice."" --> (müstakbel, gelecekteki, muhtemel) / prospectus, from the past participle of prospicere 'to look forward' / spect is the root for 'to see, to watch' so it is looking to future... / The word prospect is often heard in business, in relation to a prospective (potential, liklely) client: ""He/she is a prospect."" The plural noun prospects refers to the likelihood of being successful or prosperous in the future, especially in a job or career: ""My career prospects look good."" As a verb, prospect is used when trying to find new opportunities or clients."
"(adj) wise in practical matters, carefully providing for the future / sensible and careful, especially by trying to avoid unnecessary risks: ""As every prudent driver knows, Big Gulps are served only at the 7-Eleven.""; it is prudent (for somebody) to do something: ""It might be prudent to get a virus detector for the network.""; ""I told him I thought it would be prudent for both of us to keep our conversation between ourselves.""; ""Because pasteurization kills bacteria, it is most prudent to offer only pasteurized juices."" --> PRUDENT can be thought of as being related to the word PRESİDENT and a president is person who is wise, sensible and careful."
"(adj) inclined to fight, combative / very eager to argue or fight with people: ""The professor had been pugnacious and irritable.""; ""When drinking, he becomes pugnacious and rude.""; ""A man of great personal charm, he was yet stubborn and pugnacious towards those with whom he disagreed.""; ""Congressmen have been less pugnacious since then, and in exchange Mr Borja has stopped trying to reform things much.""; ""A caustically witty and pugnacious man, Wade is a charismatic speaker who can keep a crowd spellbound."" --> Pugnacious is probably the only word in English that starts with the sound pug other than that breed of dog. Great. My pug is nasty... you might even say pugnacious. / I have a pug dog and he is very eager to fight with people."
"(adj) modified, limited, conditional on something else / limited in some way [? partial]: qualified approval/support: ""The proposal received qualified approval.""; ""The program was considered a qualified success.""; ""Is it worth the money? The answer is a qualified yes."" / having suitable knowledge, experience, or skills, especially for a particular job: ""Dawn is well qualified for her new role.""; qualified to do something: ""The guides are qualified to lead groups into the mountains.""; ""If you don't speak German, you're not qualified to comment."" --> Qualify (v): to add to something that has already been said, in order to limit its effect or meaning: ""Could I just qualify that last statement?"" / if a word or phrase qualifies another word or phrase, it limits or adds to the meaning of it"
"(n) uncertainty or confusion about what to do, dilemma / a difficult situation or problem, especially one in which you cannot decide what to do: ""Kate was in a quandary over whether to go or not."" --> quantary relates to quantum physics,which is so complex that it leaves you in DILEMMA about the UNCERTAINITY of photon / Quandry=quants+vocabulary - what to study for gre a dilemma, a difficult situation in which you cannot decide what to do."
"(v) make trivial arguments or criticisms, find faults in a petty way, esp. to evade something more important / to argue about small unimportant details: ""Let's not quibble over minor details.""; ""She said I owed her twenty dollars. I thought it was twenty-five but I wasn't going to quibble.""; ""Why quibble over whose turn it is to buy lunch? Split it, and forget about it."" --> E er '«nemsiz konular ?zerine tart??mak' istiyorsan, bi 'kuyu bul' ve ona ba ?r."
"(adj) daily; everyday, ordinary / ordinary, and happening every day: ""Quickly they piled into the car, which sped noisily and dangerously off through the quotidian traffic.""; ""There are quotidian bumps and creases and noteworthy spills all along the way that need attention."" --> Quotidian=Quoted every day / split it as ""quote+indian"".QUOTE AN INDIAN. Newspapers quote an Indian's opinions everyday.. so its ordinary and happening every day"
"(n, adj) personnel; a group of people considered all together: in/within ... ranks: ""There were splits in the party ranks on this issue.""; ""The Democrats now face opposition from within their own ranks.""; the ranks of: ""Most are recruited from the ranks of people who studied Latin and Greek at university.""; ""That summer I left school and joined the ranks of (=became one of) the unemployed.""; ""He rose from the ranks to become a Field Marshal (=he became an officer after starting as an ordinary soldier)."" / break ranks: to behave in a way which is different from other members of a group, especially when they expect your support: ""He was the first to break ranks with Ceausescu and publicly criticise his policies."" / a rank of people or things is a line or row of them: ""Silently, ranks of police edged closer to the crowds.""; ""Everyone lines up in ranks, all facing the instructor.""; rank after rank/rank upon rank (=a lot of things or people in a row): ""On the shelves were rank after rank of liquor bottles."" / pull rank (on somebody) informal: to use your authority over someone to make them do what you want, especially unfairly: ""You may just have to pull rank and tell them."" (noun) //// if something is rank, it has a very strong unpleasant smell: rank smell/odour: ""the rank odour of sweat and urine"" / used to emphasize a bad or undesirable quality [= total]: ""They make us look like rank amateurs (=not at all good or professional).""; ""an example of this government's rank stupidity"" (adjective)"
"(v) harvest, such as by cutting; gather; get as a result of one's effort / to get something, especially something good, as a result of what you have done: reap the benefit/reward/profit (of something): ""Those who do take risks often reap the rewards.""; ""But it was Margaret Thatcher who reaped all the benefits.""; / you reap what you sow: used to say that if you do bad things, bad things will happen to you, and if you do good things, good things will happen to you / old-fashioned to cut and collect a crop of grain [? harvest] --> (ekin bi?mek, toplamak, elde etmek, sa lamak)"
"(n) person who lives in seclusion / someone who chooses to live alone, and does not like seeing or talking to other people: ""She became a recluse after her two sons were murdered.""; ""Hudson became a recluse after her husband's death.""; ""If you don't get out more, you're going to turn into a recluse.""; ""Old Mr Grimes was a bad-tempered recluse, rarely seen in the town."" --> you got in a car WRECK and LOSE your teeth. You're so embarassed you hide in your house, live alone, and don't like seeing or talking to other people."
"(v) prove to be false / to prove that a statement or idea is not correct [= rebut]: refute a hypothesis/a claim/an idea etc: ""an attempt to refute Darwin's theories"" / to say that a statement is wrong or unfair [= deny]: refute an allegation/a suggestion etc: ""She refuted any allegations of malpractice."" --> refute rhymes with refuse: when you refuse an idea you try to prove that a statement or idea is not correct, or you deny the statements."
"(v) send or commit to an inferior place, rank, condition, etc.; exile, banish; assign (a task) to someone else / formal to give someone or something a less important position than before: relegate somebody/something to something: ""Women tended to be relegated to typing and filing jobs."" / if a sports team is relegated, it is moved into a lower division [? promote]: ""We were relegated to the Fourth Division last year."" --> Being a delegate is an important position. Take care of it. Don't let anyone relegate you. / delegate: to give part of your power or work to someone in a lower position than you:"
"(adj) providing a remedy, curative; correcting a deficient skill / remedial course/class/teacher etc: a special course etc that helps students who have difficulty learning something / intended to improve something that is wrong: ""Some remedial work needs to be done on the foundations."" / intended to cure a problem with someone's health: ""remedial mental health therapies"" --> remedy(n): solution, cure"
"(v) give, submit, surrender; translate; declare formally; cause to become"
"(adj) supplied in abundance, filled, gorged (used with with) / formal. full of something: replete with: ""Literature is replete with tales of power.""; ""Judgments frequently consist of long paragraphs and convoluted sentences replete with subordinate clauses."" / old-fashioned very full of food or drink --> deplete: t?ketmek, t?kenmi? -- replete: dopdolu, doymu?"
"(n, v) blame, disgrace; criticism, blame, or disapproval: "" 'You don't need me,' she said quietly, without reproach.""; ""He argued that the reproaches were unfair.""; above/beyond reproach: impossible to criticize [= perfect]: ""His behaviour throughout this affair has been beyond reproach.""; a reproach to somebody/something: something that should make a person, society etc feel bad or ashamed: ""These derelict houses are a reproach to the city."" (noun) / criticize, express disappointment in; formal to blame or criticize someone in a way that shows you are disappointed at what they have done: reproach somebody for/with something: ""He publicly reproached his son for his behavior.""; reproach yourself: to feel guilty about something that you think you are responsible for: ""You've got nothing to reproach yourself for - it was his own decision."" (verb) --> when you see wrapped roaches in a kitchen it is a blame and disgrace and you criticize them"
"(v) reject, cast off, deny that something has authority / to refuse to accept or continue with something [= reject]: ""He repudiated all offers of friendship."" / to state or show that something is not true or correct: ""The book repudiates the racist stereotypes about black women.""; ""Government officials were urged to repudiate the treaty.""; ""The book repudiates all the racist stereotypes about black women."" --> he ate the PUDDING AGAIN.. When his mother asked him if he ate the pudding, he tried to REPUDIATE (deny eating it)... "
"(v) reciprocate, repay, or revenge / formal: to give or do something in return for something done or given to you: ""What if she should requite his longing?""; ""Shall I thus requite the Lord for the innumerable mercies bestowed upon me?"" --> re+QUITE one would be quiet again only after REPAY, taking his REVENGE, ."
"(v) annul, repeal, make void / to officially end a law, or change a decision or agreement: ""And so, for the first time, a federal entitlement has been rescinded.""; ""The case increased pressure on President-elect Bill Clinton to rescind the ban on homosexual service members.""; ""The court has power to rescind a bankruptcy order under this section.""; ""This plan was later rescinded, however, after it was revealed to be without legal foundation."" --> rescind reminds us of ""resign"", where resign is to cancel your appointment and rescind is to cancel an agreement. / rescind sounds like resend. So you cancel an official agreement doc and resend for correction."
"(n) 1) the quality of being firmly determined; strong belief and determination: ""Then, with sudden resolution, she stood up."" / 2) a promise to yourself to do something [? resolve]: ""Carol made a resolution to work harder at school."" / 3) resolving to do something; when someone solves a problem, argument, or difficult situation: ""a forum for the resolution of commercial disputes"" / 4) a formal decision or statement agreed on by a group of people, especially after a vote: ""The resolution was passed by a two-thirds majority.""; ""They have failed to comply with the resolution.""; ""a resolution calling for a ban on dumping nuclear waste"" // ""At time he was able to feel and convey the immediate resolution of the various tensions and contradictions of his life.""; ""Moreover, there had been six votes against the resolution and thirteen abstentions.""; ""Republican leaders had hoped for a resolution of the ethics case before the new Congress convened."""
"(v, n) find a solution to, to find a satisfactory way of dealing with a problem or difficulty [= solve; ? settle]: ""The crisis was resolved by negotiations.""; ""Barnet was desperate for money to resolve his financial problems."" / firmly decide to do something: ""After the divorce she resolved never to marry again.""; ""Mary resolved that she would stop smoking."" / decide by formal vote: ""The Senate resolved to accept the President's proposals."" / resolve (itself) into something: formal to gradually change into something else [= become]: ""The argument resolved itself into an uneasy truce."" (verb) // firmness of purpose; strong determination to succeed in doing something: ""Recent events strengthened her resolve to find out the truth."" (noun)"
"(adv) in the order given; in the same order as the things you have just mentioned: ""The cups and saucers cost ?5 and ?3 respectively."""
"(adj) impatient or uneasy under the control of another; resisting being controlled / dissatisfied or bored with your situation, and impatient for it to change: ""dissatisfied or bored with your situation, and impatient for it to change:""; ""The southern region was growing increasingly restive.""; ""In the driving mirror I saw the driver of the estate-car was growing restive.""; ""Another person joined the queue and the old lady immediately behind him began to look restive.""; ""Her restive fingers toyed with the battered keys."" --> Restive is actually restless. Like factitious is actually factless :)"
"(adj) not talking much; private (of a person), restrained, reserved / unwilling to talk about what you feel or what you know [= reserved]: reticent about: ""She's strangely reticent about her son.""; ""Irma was a shy and reticent child.""; ""John always was more reticent than his sister.""; ""Auster was somewhat reticent about it at first, but finally admitted he was working on a new book."" --> 50Cent talks too much.. on the contrary.. reticent: talk less, Cent'i red ediyor"
"(adj, n) looking to the past or backward: ""a retrospective study of 110 patients""; applying to the past, retroactive; a law or decision that is retrospective is effective from a particular date in the past [= retroactive]: ""Teachers settled for a 4.2% pay rise with retrospective effect from 1 April.""; ""retrospective legislation"" (adj) / an art exhibit of an artist's work over a long period of time; a show of the work of an artist, actor, film-maker etc that includes examples of all the kinds of work they have done: ""a Hitchcock retrospective""; ""a retrospective of painter Hans Hofmann"" (n)"
"(adj) feeling or expressing very deep respect and awe / showing a lot of respect and admiration [? irreverent]: ""Jacobs' tone becomes reverent when he speaks of Salzer.""; ""They called him Uncle, their attitude reverent yet familiar.""; ""Long, reverent newspaper obituaries were produced."" --> reverent=river+end : Hindus bath in the river end as a part of worship, with showing a lot of respect"
"(n) the art or study of persuasion through speaking or writing; language that is elaborate or pretentious but actually empty, meaning little / language that is used to persuade or influence people, especially language that sounds impressive but is not actually sincere or useful: ""The speech was dismissed by some people as merely political rhetoric.""; ""Don't try to fool us with all those facts and bureaucratic rhetoric.""; ""Indeed, since the Dec. 24 election Mr Erbakan has been backpedaling on much of his campaign rhetoric.""; rhetoric of: ""the rhetoric of socialism"" / the art of speaking or writing to persuade or influence people: ""Emanuel Shinwell's rhetoric, and the arguments which Crosland himself had developed in his writing, could not be brushed aside."" --> rhetoric = ""right oral"" skills. If you have the right oral skills, you can communicate well, ""right oral"" skills is key to the art of persuasion through speaking or writing"
"(adj) happening frequently, abundant, currently being reported / if something bad or unpleasant is rife, it is very common: ""Violent crime is rife in our inner cities."" / rife with something: full of something bad or unpleasant: ""The crowded factories are rife with disease."" / run rife: to spread quickly in an uncontrolled way: ""No one knew exactly what he had done, but speculation ran rife."" --> rife is like wife... in our time child wifes are happening frequently and common, it is also abundant that they are shot by a rifle."
"(adj) elementary, relating to the basics; undeveloped, primitive / a rudimentary knowledge or understanding of a subject is very simple and basic [? sophisticated]: ""Gradually, I acquired a rudimentary knowledge of music.""; ""I have a rudimentary understanding of computer programming."" / rudimentary equipment, methods, systems etc are very basic and not advanced: ""The classroom equipment is pretty rudimentary.""; ""subsistence farming in its most rudimentary form""; ""The system has a rudimentary Internet browser, but it's very slow.""; ""The boys had built a rudimentary two-way radio."""
"(adj, n) relating to country life, unsophisticated; primitive; made of rough wood; simple, old-fashioned, and not spoiled by modern developments, in a way that is typical of the countryside: ""The village had a certain rustic charm.""; ""American tourists are fascinated by the village's rustic charm.""; ""The picture showed a typical rustic scene.""; ""We stayed in a rustic old lodge."" (adj) / someone from the country, especially a farm worker; a rural or uncultured person: ""He had a large square head, strong features, the worried look of a rustic crossing streets in the capital.""; ""Indeed the language which Wordsworth has in mind is certainly not the real language of rustics."" (noun) --> Think of RUST, which reminds us of something which is old or has worn out, hence country people are old fashioned, rural or slightly backwards / Picture an old RUSTING tractor."
"(adj) sacred, inviolable, not to be trespassed on or violated; above any criticism / something that is sacrosanct is considered to be so important that no one is allowed to criticize or change it [= sacred]: ""Weekends are sacrosanct in our family.""; ""Marriage is no longer sacrosanct - in fact, it isn't even seen as necessary."""
"(adj) wise; showing good judgment and foresight / able to understand and judge things very well [= wise]: ""However, his deeply felt and meticulously researched rhetoric conveyed in all his books is hard hitting, provocative and sagacious.""; ""This intense peering into nature had been consciously practiced by Redon and his sagacious words on the subject are worth repeating. "" --> sagacious look like ""suggest+us"".....and we always ask WISE PEOPLE to suggest us, whenever we are in trouble."
"(adj) healthful, promoting health / a salubrious area or place is pleasant and clean, especially compared to other places - often used humorously: ""the salubrious climate of northern Italy""; ""I believe helping others is one of the most positive, salubrious forms of social calisthenics.""; ""The street was residential, not very salubrious, with the worn-down air of a shoe which has had too much use."" --> salubrious sounds like= SALad+U+BRIng+US then we will be clean&healthful, because salad is healthful and promoting health"
"(n, v) permission or approval, something that gives support or authority to something else; formal: official permission, approval, or acceptance: ""Apparently, the aide had acted without White House sanction."" / a form of punishment that can be used if someone disobeys a rule or law: ""the harshest possible sanction which could be imposed"" / official orders or laws stopping trade, communication etc with another country, as a way of forcing its leaders to make political changes: ""The UN security council may impose economic sanctions.""; ""Any talk about lifting sanctions (=ending them) is premature.""; ""US sanctions against Cuba"" (noun) //// to allow, confirm, ratify; to officially accept or allow something [= approve]: ""The church refused to sanction the king's second marriage.""; be sanctioned by something: to be made acceptable by something: ""a barbaric custom, but one sanctioned by long usage"" (verb) / OR a legal action against another country to get it to comply (noun); to place sanctions or penalties on (verb) --> I- SAY-ACTION, slang for I give you permission, approval or an action against somebody/something / Latin sanctio, from sancire; ? SAINT and Saint is from Late Latin sanctus, from Latin, ?holyÊ, from the past participle of sancire ?to confirm, make holyÊ"
"(adj) cheerfully optimistic, hopeful; reddish, ruddy (as in rosy-red cheeks indicating health or vitality) / happy and hopeful about the future [= optimistic]: ""Other economists are more sanguine about the possibility of inflation.""; ""Traders are taking a sanguine view of interest-rate prospects."" --> Singing penguins are looking happy and hopeful about the future."
"(n, v) the inner fluid of a plant or any essential body fluid (bir besinin ®zsuyu sap?ndad?r); energy, vitality; /a stupid person who is easy to deceive or treat badly; a person taken advantage of (noun) /// undermine, weaken, tire out / to make something weaker or destroy it, especially someone's strength or their determination to do something [= weaken]: sap somebody's strength/courage/energy: ""Her long illness was gradually sapping Charlotte's strength."" (verb) --> Sap insanlar avanak ve aptal olurlar, aldat?lmas? kolay olurlar. / biri seni ortada sap gibi koyarsa, seni zay?flat?r, enerjini al?r."
Satiate or Sate
"(v) to fully satisfy; to go beyond satisfying to the point of excess (possibly inducing disgust, tiredness, etc.) / to satisfy a desire or need for something such as food or sex, especially so that you feel you have had too much: ""Every year 40 or 50 idols appear to satiate pre-teen musical tastes.""; ""It appears to be almost impossible to satiate those seeking recognition in large doses.""; ""More than 27 shops and nine restaurants will satiate your appetite for consumption."" / feeling that you have had enough or too much of something, especially food or pleasure [= full]: ""He had sated his lust."" --> satiate=sat&ate - I sat & ate till I fully satisfy myself, then I decided I had too much!"
"(v) soak or imbue thoroughly: ""Water poured through the hole, saturating the carpet.""; cause a substance to unite with the greatest possible amount of another substance; ""Our culture is saturated with television and advertising."" / saturate the market: to offer so much of a product for sale that there is more than people want to buy"
"(v, n) appreciate fully, taste or smell with pleasure / to fully enjoy the taste or smell of something: ""She sipped her wine, savouring every drop."" / to fully enjoy a time or experience: ""She savoured her few hours of freedom.""; ""He hesitated, savouring the moment.""; savour of something(tad?nda olmak, and?rmak): to seem to involve something bad or to have some of a bad quality: ""We must avoid anything that savours of corruption."" (verb) /// a pleasant taste or smell: ""the sweet savour of wood smoke"" / interest and enjoyment: ""Life seemed to have lost its savour for him."" --> SAVOR and FLAVOR are rhyming words. You savor (feel the taste) the flavor (taste) of the food you eat. / SAVE+HER .. so u ll ENJOY as u will get a kiss from her . u can also smell and feel her flavor and taste!! LOL!!"
"(adj) not enough or barely enough: ""The story has received scant attention in the press.""; ""They produce goods with scant regard for quality."" / a scant cup/teaspoon etc: a little less than a full amount of a particular measurement"
"(adj) severe, injurious; bitterly harsh or critical (as a remark) / a scathing remark criticizes someone or something very severely: ""a scathing attack on the Government's planned tax increases""; ""He's always been so scathing about psychiatrists.""; ""Bloom paints a scathing portrait of Meinke in her memoirs.""; ""The health department issued a scathing report on conditions in local hospitals."" --> his remarks were severe and bitterly harsh. it's a SCARY + THING / sounds like SKATING...when I said I will do skating on highway, my mother started scathing"
"(adj) not religious or holy; pertaining to worldly things: ""Knowledge is no longer sacred but secular."""
"(adj) persevering, persistent, diligent in one's efforts --> to seduce a woman, man needs to be diligent and persistent and off course Hardworking ;) / The sedulous young woman received promotion not for her seducing looks but for her sedulous work."
"(adj) conscious; experiencing sensation or perceiving with the senses / able to experience things through your senses: ""Man is a sentient being.""; ""there was no sign of any sentient life or activity.""; ""Vologsky was like a zombie, existing on the outermost fringe of sentient life""; ""Here, the patient, though chronically dependent on the ventilator is a conscious, sentient person."" --> Sentimental people are sentient. / Sentient -> SENTI + ENT(Ear Nose Throat) .. Capable of sensation, Aware, Sensitive .."
"(adj) at the same time: ""They grabbed each other's hands in simultaneous panic.""; ""Up to twenty users can have simultaneous access to the system.""; simultaneous with: ""The withdrawal of British troops should be simultaneous with that of US forces.""; ""The speeches will be broadcast live, with simultaneous translation (=immediate translation, as the person is speaking) into English.""; ""The opera will be broadcast simultaneously on television and radio."""
"(adj) person inclined to doubting or questioning generally accepted beliefs / a person who disagrees with particular claims and statements, especially those that are generally thought to be true: ""Sceptics argued that the rise in prices was temporary.""; ""Some skeptics question whether the Pell program would cause colleges to raise fees even more.""; ""The believer is not required to establish his belief, but the skeptic is required to prove his doubt."""
"(v) border, lie along the edge of , go around; evade / to go around the outside edge of a place or area: ""The old footpath skirts around the village."" / o avoid talking about an important subject, especially because it is difficult or embarrassing - used to show disapproval: ""a disappointing speech that skirted around all the main issues"" --> Skirt steak is cut from via going around the edge of the animal."
"(adj, v, n) loose, negligent, lazy, weak / hanging loosely, or not pulled tight [? taut]: ""Keep the rope slack until I tell you to pull it.""; ""I let the rope go slack as the boat came closer."" / with less business activity than usual: ""Business remained slack throughout the day.""; ""Corporate profits have been hurt by slack demand."" / not taking enough care or making enough effort to do things correctly - used to show disapproval: ""Slack defending by Real Madrid allowed Manchester United to score.""; ""The report criticized airport security as ""disgracefully slack."" "" (adj) /// neglect to so one's duties; loosen up, relax / to make less effort than usual, or to be lazy in your work: ""He was accused of slacking and taking too many holidays.""; ""This is no time to be slacking off!""; "" ""You start tomorrow at nine,"" he told them, ""and no slacking, or there'll be trouble."" "" (also slack off) (verb) /// period of little work / part of a rope that is not stretched tight / money, space, people, or time that an organization or person has available, but is not using fully: ""There is still some slack in the budget."" / take up/pick up the slack: to make a system or organization as efficient as possible by making sure that money, space, or people are fully used: ""Without another contract to help pick up the slack, employees may face job losses."" / cut/give somebody some slack: (spoken) to allow someone to do something without criticizing them or making it more difficult: ""Hey, cut me some slack, man, I'm only a few bucks short."" / trousers: ""a pair of slacks"" (noun)"
"(n, v) a large number or quantity / a slew of something: (informal) a large number of things: ""It may embody a slew of things.""; ""Online services like Napster helped generate interest in a slew of new computer products in recent months.""; ""The festive gala features a slew of activities for all ages."" (noun) /// (extra)***to turn or slide in a different direction suddenly and violently, or to make a vehicle do this: slew around/sideways: ""I lost control of the car and it slewed sideways into the ditch."" (verb) --> His typing was ""slow"", yet there were a slew of errors. / Slew is opposite small and few."
"(adj, v, n) small, not very important, slender or delicate / small in degree [? big]: ""He was a good friend - always available to help at the slightest sign of need.""; ""Officials reported a slight increase in inflation."" (adj) /// treat as though not very important; snub, ignore / to offend someone by treating them rudely or without respect: ""Derek felt slighted when no one phoned him back."" (verb) /// an act of treating in this way, a discourtesy(kabal?k): ""She may take it as a slight on her ability as a mother.""; ""a slight to his authority"" (noun) --> slight means little, small in adjective form. So in verb form, it means belittling (to belittle). And as in noun from it is discourtesy."
"(adj) concerned or anxious (about another person), expressing care; eager or desirous; very careful / very concerned about someone's safety, health, or comfort: ""Larry spoke to Davis in sympathetic and solicitous tones during the interview.""; ""Conversation stopped and everyone became frightfully solicitous.""; ""He dashed about her, solicitous but irascible.""; ""The door was locked but the Lady Eleanor could trust Dame Agatha, who was ever solicitous for her happiness.""; ""We can see the soft expression in their eyes, caring and solicitous, watchful."" --> sollicitus ÁanxiousÒ / solo+sit !! question: when do you sit alone??? answer: when you are with full of ""anxiety and concern"" about your child who is in ""us""..solicitous / solo+sit+tus: alone sitting and studying TUS, so full of anxiety and concern for your future and expressing care because you are studying"
"(adj, n) causing sleep; sleepy, drowsy; making you feel ready to sleep: ""His voice had an almost soporific effect.""; ""At the start, everyone was respectful towards him, listening carefully to his soporific explanations.""; ""Cantor had underestimated the soporific effect of the six-course dinner, the two wines and the glass of port.""; """" (adj); something that causes sleep (noun) --> watching ""SOaP Operas"" makes u sleepy / so poor fiction makes u sleepy / Soprano in the Opera makes you sleepy"
"(v) measure the depth of (usually water) as with a sounding line; (technical) to measure the depth of the sea, a lake etc [? soundings] / penetrate and discover the meaning of, understand (usually as sound the depths)"
"(adj) very disciplined and stern; frugal, living simply, austere; suggestive of the ancient Spartans / spartan conditions or ways of living are simple and without any comfort: ""It was a spartan existence, with no running water or electricity.""; ""The accommodation is pretty spartan, so take extra blankets and bedding.""; ""The hotel was like a different world compared to the spartan accomodation I'd had in the army.""; ""The students' rooms are spartan but clean, with no carpets or central heating."""
"(n) sudden outpouring or rush; flood / spate of something: a large number of similar things that happen in a short period of time, especially bad things: ""Homeowners have reported a spate of vandalism, break- ins, thefts, and other crimes that they attribute to illegal immigrants.""; ""The poll results come amid a spate of bad news for tobacco companies.""; """" / in spate: (British English) a river, stream etc that is in spate is very full and flowing very fast: ""Some of these riverbank cave entrances are submerged when the river is in spate making their underground passages subject to sudden flooding."" --> What will be our 'state' if there is a SPATE of bad things OR SUDDEN FLOOD happens"
"(v,adj) be the leader of / to lead an attack or organized action: ""the troops who spearheaded the rescue mission""; ""Evita spearheaded legislation for compulsory public education.""; ""Public relations may use advertising to support or spearhead a publicity programme to reinforce messages.""; ""Sadly for Graham we haven't got too many players of true international quality to spearhead his attack this way."" --> spear:m?zrak, spearhead:m?zraí?n ba??/liderlik etmek"
"(adj) seemingly true but actually false; deceptively attractive / seeming to be true or correct, but actually false SYN:misleading : ""All that is needed is a positive approach and an end to the specious fear of isolation.""; ""In the Middle East crisis de Gaulle adopted a specious and unpopular neutrality.""; ""There was a specious ease about everything, like the moment just before something was going to explode."" --> It sounds like 'suspicious'. / Seemingly true/plausible/attractive, but when inSPECeted closely, it was found to be fallaCIOUS."
"(n) a broad range of nevertheless related qualities or ideas, esp. those that overlap to create a continuous series (as in a color spectrum, where each color blends into the next in a continuous way) / a complete range of opinions, people, situations etc, going from one extreme to its opposite: across the spectrum: ""The bill drew support from across the political spectrum.""; ""The two articles here represent opposite ends of the spectrum.""; ""a broad spectrum of environmental groups""; ""At one end of the spectrum were the Communists, and at the other, the Nationalists.""; ""People from across the religious spectrum are now working together."""
"(v) contemplate; make a guess or educated guess about; engage in a risky business transaction, gamble / to guess about the possible causes or effects of something, without knowing all the facts or details: ""She refused to speculate.""; speculate on/about (why/what etc): ""Jones refused to speculate about what might happen.""; ""Some analysts speculated that jobs will be lost.""; ""Edward began to speculate on what life would be like if he were single again.""; ""People have been speculating about interstellar flight for years.""; ""We don't know why the prehistoric stone circles were built. We can only speculate."" / to buy goods, property, shares in a company etc, hoping that you will make a large profit when you sell them: ""He speculated in stocks.""; ""Terry speculated heavily in mining shares and lost a lot of money."""
"(adj) occasional, happening irregularly or in scattered locations / happening fairly often, but not regularly [= intermittent]: ""There has been sporadic violence downtown.""; ""The fighting continued sporadically for several days.""; ""Sporadic gunfire continued through the night.""; ""Our advertising campaigns have been too sporadic to have had a lot of success.""; ""Since then he has been on sporadic drinking binges.""; ""There was rioting and sporadic fighting in the city as rival gangs clashed."""
"(adj) playful, merry, joking around, done ""in sport"" (rather than intended seriously): ""a sportive pastor who began every sermon with a joke"""
"(n, adj) status, rank, reputation / someone's rank or position in a system, organization, society etc, based on what other people think of them: ""Barb's work helped to improve her standing with her colleagues.""; ""The scandal damaged the Governor's standing in the polls.""; ""Graduates from certain colleges have a lower standing in the eyes of employers.""; ""Jacques Tati was a man of international standing in the world of screen comedy.""; ""Stefano's standing as an artist has improved over the past few years."" / something of five/many etc years' standing: used to show the time during which something such as an agreement has existed: ""an arrangement of several years' standing"" (noun) /// existing indefinitely, not movable; permanently agreed or arranged - standing invitation (=permission to visit someone whenever you like) - a standing army (=a professional permanent army): ""You have to pay standing charges whether or not you use the service.""; ""A standing committee was established to coordinate the army and navy."" / done from a standing position: ""The runners set off from a standing start."" / standing joke: something that happens often and that people make jokes about: ""The whole incident became a standing joke between us."" (adj)"
"(adj) complete, total, utter; harsh or grim; extremely simple, severe, blunt, or plain / very plain in appearance, with little or no colour or decoration: ""In the cold dawn light, the castle looked stark and forbidding.""; ""the stark beauty of New Mexico""; ""The waiting room was stark, with hard, stiff chairs and lit by a single lightbulb."" / unpleasantly clear and impossible to avoid [= harsh]: ""The movie shows the stark realities of life in the ghetto.""; ""The extreme poverty of the local people is in stark contrast to the wealth of the tourists.""; ""We are faced with a stark choice.""; ""Ethnic divisions in the region remain stark."" --> star+k - STARs are SIMPLE AND PLAIN with no colour or decoration / Tony Stark is unpleasantly clear and impossible to avoid, a harsh man"
"(adj,n) fixed, not moving or changing, lacking vitality: ""Economists predict that house prices will remain static for a long period."" / (extra)***especially American English informal: complaints or opposition to a plan, situation, or action: ""His promotion has caused a lot of static."""
"(n) existing state or condition / the status quo: the state of a situation as it is / maintain/preserve/defend the status quo (=not make any changes): ""Will the West use its influence to maintain the status quo and not disrupt the flow of oil?"""
"(adj) not generous with money, reluctant to spend or give / informal: not generous, especially with money [= mean]: ""She's too stingy to give money to charity.""; ""Don't be so stingy! It's your turn to buy me a drink.""; ""Residents here have a history of being stingy with their tax dollars."" / a stingy amount of something, especially food, is too small: ""a stingy portion of vegetables""; ""I don't know why they were so stingy with the drinks -- they have plenty of money."" --> stingy=cimri / people who are not generous, mean, they kind of stink."
Stoic or Stoical
"(adj, n) indifferent to pleasure or pain, enduring without complaint / not showing emotion or not complaining when bad things happen to you: ""He hadn't answered, just existed, staying there, stoical, not crying because you didn't cry.""; ""That is one of the great things about the club golfer he is so stoical and resistant to his own poor play."" (adj) /// person indifferent to pleasure or pain / someone who does not show their emotions and does not complain when bad things happen to them: ""He accepted our fate like a stoic and refused to make a fuss.""; ""Most people, however, are not stoics.""; ""What would he have had if he'd played the stoic?"" (noun) --> Think: ""Stone-like""--> To be like a stone means you don't experience pleasure or pain. You are unaffected, indifferent. / Stoic Áfollower of the ancient Greek thinker Zeno, who said that happiness results from accepting what happens in lifeÒ (14-21 centuries), from Latin, from Greek stoikos, from Stoa (Poikile) ÁPainted PorticoÒ, where Zeno taught in Athens"
"(adj) unemotional, showing little emotion, not easily moved / someone who is stolid does not react to situations or seem excited by them when most people would react - used to show disapproval [= impassive]: ""I must have reached out to him, extended my hand, gave him a stolid smile.""; ""Might he surprise us yet with a daring belied by his stolid dullness?"" --> Stone like, so no emotion, impassive"
Stymie or Stymy
"(v, n) block, hinder, or thwart / informal: to prevent someone from doing what they have planned or want to do [= thwart]: ""Investigators have been stymied by uncooperative witnesses.""; ""He typified a decade in which financial machinations stymied long-term corporate growth.""; ""So the Republican sneak-it-through strategy is mostly stymied.""; ""The Middle East peace process was stalemated; negotiations were stymied."" (verb) /// an obstacle (noun) --> Stymie is a negative word. Stymie means ""tie me"". i.e., prevent from moving forward."
"(adj) existing in the mind or relating to one's own thoughts, opinions, emotions, etc.; personal, individual, based on feelings // ""As a critic, he is far too subjective.""; ""The ratings were based on the subjective judgement of one person.""; ""His work was judged objectively as well as subjectively.""; ""A person's perception of stress is often very subjective.""; ""Hiring new employees can be very much a subjective process."""
"(v) sink, settle down, become less active; return to a normal level / if a feeling, pain, sound, etc subsides, it gradually becomes less and then stops [= die down]: ""The pains in his head had subsided, but he still felt dizzy and sick.""; ""Simon waited until the laughter subsided."" / if a building or an area of land subsides, it gradually sinks to a lower level: ""After the heavy rains, part of the road subsided."" / if bad weather conditions subside, they gradually return to a normal state: ""The wind gradually subsided, and all was quiet."" / if water, especially flood water, subsides, it gradually goes under ground or back to a normal level: ""When the floods subsided, the streets were littered with bodies."""
"(v) support with evidence or proof; give a material existence to / formal: to prove the truth of something that someone has said, claimed etc: ""Katzen offered little evidence to substantiate his claims.""; ""Allegations made by prisoners are usually only considered when substantiated by the evidence of a prison officer.""; ""No evidence has been found to substantiate the story.""; ""The authorities claimed they were conspiring to overthrow the government, but offered no evidence to substantiate these claims."" --> substance: materyal, madde - Substantiate: belgelerle materyalize etmek, somut hale getirmek"
"(adj) coming after or following / coming after something else: ""Over the succeeding weeks things went from bad to worse.""; ""She became more well-known with each succeeding novel.""; ""The effects of exposure to atomic radiation at Hiroshima have been passed on to succeeding generations."""
"(v) replace, take the position of, cause to be disregarded as void or obsolete / if a new idea, product, or method supersedes another one, it becomes used instead because it is more modern or effective [= replace]: ""Their map has since been superseded by photographic atlases.""; ""Iron began to supersede bronze for tool making about 3000 years ago.""; ""It is unlikely that scientific thinking will ever entirely supersede superstition and religion.""; ""The computers used to be top of the line, but they have been superseded by more recent models.""; ""The new deal supersedes the old agreement."""
"(v) pray humbly; ask, beg, or seek in a humble way: ""the minister reminded his flock that God is a being to be obeyed and worshipped always and not just someone to be supplicated in times of trouble"" /// supplicant (n):someone who asks for something, especially from someone in a position of power or from God ---> if u SUPPLICATE God will SUPPLY"
"(n) excess, excessive amount, overindulgence / a surfeit of something: an amount of something that is too large or that is more than you need [= excess]: ""A surfeit of rock dust blocked their vision and irritated their throats.""; ""The world has a surfeit of mediocre drummers.""; ""It's not excess of turkey and plum pudding that has been indigestible; it's the surfeit of news."" --> surfeit = SIR is FAT..as he eats 'a lot than required', 'excess' until he is full."
"(v) guess, infer, think, or make an opinion with incomplete information / formal: to guess that something is true, using the information you know already: ""When he came in, he didn't look up, so she surmised that he was in a bad mood.""; noun: ""Charles was glad to have his surmise confirmed.""; ""And the first victims were not black, as you might surmise, but white men.""; ""I could only surmise that she and Lila had met before."" --> Mice can guess where the cheese is kept even though they do not know where exactly it is kept."
"(n) servile flatterer, parasitic person, one who fawns in order to get ahead / formal: someone who praises powerful people too much because they want to get something from them - used in order to show disapproval: ""Reese's mistake was to surround himself with sycophants.""; ""It takes little effort to imagine how he is treated by sycophants and opportunists.""; ""My father was just a blatant sycophant."" --> sycophant.....split it like .....syco(sounds like psycho)+phan...sounds like FAN.......SO JUST IMAGINE a PSYCHO FAN of yours in your office who want to please you in whatever way..by flattering..or by bootliking.....just to gain your favour..."
"(adj) happening at the same time; occurring at the same rate and thus happening together repeatedly / if two or more things are synchronous, they happen at the same time or work at the same speed: ""The Moon rotates so slowly that synchronous orbit is not achievable.""; ""To date, in all languages studied, synchronous movement has been observed."""
"(v) lay aside to discuss later, often as a way to postpone discussion indefinitely / table a proposal/question/motion etc: (British English) to formally present a proposal etc for other people to discuss: ""Dr Clark tabled a motion for debate at next month's committee meeting."" / table a bill/measure/proposal etc: (American English) to leave a bill etc to be discussed or dealt with in the future: ""Nottingham Forest are planning a ·500,000 bid for the big Ballyclare man; expect it to be tabled some time next week."" --> tasar?y? m?zakereye sunmak, masaya koymak, masaya yat?rmak, tart??maya sunmak - ertelemek"
"(adj) understood without being said; implied, not stated directly; silent / tacit agreement, approval, support etc is given without anything actually being said: ""Roh's remarks indicated a tacit acceptance of the high-level talks.""; ""In both cases tacit knowledge and experience is accepted as valid and enhanced and developed.""; ""No one actually claims this is how the brain works, but there is a tacit assumption that it might be.""; ""There was tacit acceptance of the content of the book itself."" --> break it as taci -t = taxi... when you are waiting on road side. it implied, understood without being expressed that you need taxi"
"(adj) not talking much, reserved; silent, holding back in conversation / speaking very little, so that you seem unfriendly: ""It was unlike her to be so taciturn - she must have had something on her mind.""; ""It was unlike her to be so taciturn.""; ""The ship's captain was a taciturn man who spoke only to give orders."""
"(adj) only slightly relevant, going off topic / tangential information, remarks etc are only related to a particular subject in an indirect way: ""The matter you raise is rather tangential to this discussion.""; ""Even the tangential characters are wittily drawn.""; ""There are two reasons for giving them only the most tangential treatment here."" --> tangential: te¡et, te¡etsel, y?zelyel / tangent: a straight line that touches the outside of a curve but does not cut across it; tanjant:te¡et"
"(n) moderation, self-control, esp. regarding alcohol or other desires or pleasures; total abstinence from alcohol"
"(adj) long and thin, slender; flimsy, having little substance / a situation or relationship that is tenuous is uncertain, weak, or likely to change: ""For now, the band's travel plans are tenuous.""; tenuous link/connection etc: ""The United Peace Alliance had only a tenuous connection with the organized Labour movement.""; ""The link between her family and the King's is rather tenuous."" / (literary) very thin and easily broken --> this word sound very close to TENNIS....and most of the female TENNIS PLAYERS ARE VERY SLIM AND THIN... / Tenuous comes from Attenuate. Attenuate means to make thin, weak."
"(adj) well-timed, happening at a suitable time / done or happening at exactly the right time: ""The fight ended only with the timely arrival of the police."" / in a timely manner/fashion (=as quickly as is reasonable in a particular situation): ""We aim to settle all valid claims in a timely manner."" / a timely reminder (of something) British English (=one that makes you remember something important): ""The crash served as a timely reminder of the dangers of drinking and driving."" / ""The database will provide timely and accurate information on the current status of the business.""; ""The fighting in the Ardennes came as a timely reminder that the West still needed the Russian army.""; ""The Government's intervention was timely and may have prevented economic disaster."""
"(adj) fearful, timid / lacking confidence and easily frightened [= fearful]: ""She was no helpless, timorous female.""; ""Even a timorous bicyclist can relish the route.""; """" --> sounds like TIME + OVER: imagine you are giving your exam, and your time gets over, you will get frightened.. = fear = demonstrate fear. :) / timorous=tumor+ous(like) - doctor tells you you have a tumor like structure. when you hear that you become fearful, intimidated / timoureux, from Medieval Latin timorosus, from Latin timor µfearã, from timere µto be afraidã; timid and intimidate same root"
"(n) bitter, abusive criticism or verbal attack / a long angry speech criticizing someone or something: tirade against: ""He launched into a tirade against the church.""; ""Hahn is known for his tirades against immigrants.""; ""At least answer the Brigadier's tirade against temporary officers.""; ""At the end of his tirade he seemed curiously tired, and emptied of invective.""; ""On one hand, he resented his courtroom tirades, which were often personal and designed to humiliate."" --> sounds like tired.. your mom gets tired after a TIRADE..i.e. LONG ANGRY DENUNCIATORY(su?lay?c?) SPEECH.."
"(n) sluggishness, lethargy, or apathy; a period of inactivity / a state of being not active because you are lazy or sleepy: ""She tried to rouse him from the torpor into which he had sunk.""; ""He had sunk into an intellectual torpor.""; ""Amphibians may have survived because of their ability to hibernate or to enter a state of torpor.""; ""They will remain there in a state of torpor, patiently awaiting the return of the rains."" --> adjective->torpid / torpedo type of fish that can produce electricity to protect itself (16-21 centuries), from Latin, that electricity gives you µstiffness, numbness, torpedo fishã, from torpere;µto be stiff or without feelingã ? TORPID"
"(adj) very hot, parching, burning; passionate / involving strong emotions, especially of sexual love: ""Are we to believe that this pair was actually having a torrid love affair on the Nile?""; ""Economies in these regions are growing at a torrid pace.""; ""Still, the idea that they could have had the kind of torrid relationship that leads to murder was another matter."" / (literary) torrid weather is very hot: ""the torrid desert sun"" / (British English) a torrid time is a very difficult one: ""He had a torrid time out there on the racetrack.""; ""They took full advantage of the opportunity to unwind after a torrid few weeks."" --> My girlfriend thought i was lookin torrid(HOT) in my new silky shirt so she just came up and TORE(tear) IT OFF, out of her passion to me!!!!(SOUNDS LIKE TORID)"
"(adj) easily controlled or managed, docile; easily shaped or molded / easy to control or deal with [? intractable]: ""The issues have proved to be less tractable than expected.""; ""The country's economic problems are less tractable than first thought.""; ""Fortunately, some scientists saw them as posing tractable scientific questions and offering new insights.""; ""Republicans are clearly more tractable than in the last Congress, when they insisted on a large tax cut or nothing.""; ""The development of a natural language interface to a database has proved to be more tractable than other applications.""; ""The horse would instantly change from placid and tractable to anxious and difficult!"" --> tract:yol tractable:yola gelir / track:izlemek tractable:izlenebilir, kolayca kontrol edilebilir"
"(adj) temporary, short-lived, not lasting / continuing or existing for only a short time: ""As she tilted her face upwards to answer, her bone structure was thrown into transitory relief.""; ""Relativism is not an attractive proposition to anyone, least of all philosophers, because everything becomes so uncertain and transitory.""; ""The benefits are transitory, wearing off as the alcohol is filtered out of the body."" --> transient. / present participle of transire µto go acrossã, from ire µto goã"
"(adj) trivial, not very important; so small as to be unimportant; frivolous, shallow / unimportant or of little value: ""Spenser's stories, if superficially trifling, are yet justified by the symbolism.""; ""The benefits to the poor are trifling, and for native peoples, invariably negative.""; ""Usually haemorrhage was trifling and healing clean.""; ""With trifling exceptions the record is restricted to monetary values.""; ""The sign on the door tells the visitor he can have a tooth extracted for a trifling sum."" --> Trifling=Tea+refilling - tea refilling is not an important job, it is trivial and little value"
"(adj) lacking freshness or originality, lacking effectiveness due to overuse, cliche / a trite remark, idea etc is boring, not new, and insincere: ""Her remarks sounded trite and ill-informed.""; ""I know it might sound like a trite remark, but mothers usually know best.""; ""The movie's dialogue is trite and uninspired.""; ""As trite as the saying has become, it remains none the less true.""; ""I know it sounds trite, but you're so lucky to have your son."" --> trite = tri +it ( so sounds like try + it) She made the same dish all the time and give it to her friends saying, 'try it' ... as it is repeated so many times, it becomes over familiar. / trite sounds like tried...when something is tried again and again it becomes cliche, boring"
"(adj) existing everywhere at the same time / seeming to be everywhere - sometimes used humorously: ""Coffee shops are ubiquitous these days.""; ""a French film, starring the ubiquitous G?rard Depardieu""; ""Plastic containers are ubiquitous nowadays.""; ""Energy-and water-saving technologies are ubiquitous."""
"(v) weaken cause to collapse by digging away at the foundation (of a building or an argument); injure or attack in a secretive or underhanded way / to gradually make someone or something less strong or effective: ""economic policies that threaten to undermine the health care system""; undermine somebody's confidence/authority/position/credibility etc: ""The constant criticism was beginning to undermine her confidence.""; ""Losing the witness will seriously undermine the government's case against Jones.""; ""The kidnappings undermined several months of delicate peace negotiations.""; ""Unfair criticism can undermine employees' self-confidence.""; ""The US was accused of undermining international efforts to combat global warming."""
"(v) emphasize (or, literally, to underline text) / to emphasize the fact that something is important or true [= underline]: ""The report underscores the importance of childhood immunizations.""; ""But it is also worth underscoring both the intended and unintended symbolism of a Churchill bust.""; ""The cultural significance of it is not really underscored."" / to draw a line under a word or phrase to show that it is important [= underline]: ""All the mistakes had been underlined/underscored in red ink."" --> '_' this symbol is called underscore"
"(v) dig up, uncover, expose / to find something after searching for it, especially something that has been buried in the ground or lost for a long time: ""Farmers still sometimes unearth human bones here.""; ""In one shop, I unearthed a wonderful collection of 1920s toys.""; ""I unearthed this old picture of him from a box in the basement."" / to find information or the truth about something or someone: ""The inquiry unearthed some disturbing evidence.""; ""His research unearthed new information about the origins of the HIV virus.""; ""Investigators have unearthed new evidence about the possible cause of the crash."" --> un+earth=meydana ??karmak"
"(adj) unambiguous, clear, absolute; having only one possible meaning / completely clear and without any possibility of doubt: ""His answer was an unequivocal 'No.' ""; ""The European Parliament has given the plan its unequivocal support.""; ""This time his father was unequivocal: ""You're getting no more money from me, and that's final.'' """
"(adj) never before known or seen, without having happened previously / never having happened before, or never having happened so much: ""He took the unprecedented step of stating that the rumours were false.""; ""Crime has increased on an unprecedented scale.""; unprecedented in: ""an event that is unprecedented in recent history""; ""An unprecedented boom in tourism brought sudden prosperity to the town.""; ""An unprecedented number of cars entered the race."" --> UN(not)..PRECEDE(event occured in past)...so unprecedented means something which has never occured in past or it is novel"
"(adj) improper, inappropriate, against the rules of taste or politeness / unseemly behaviour is not polite or not suitable for a particular occasion: ""Ann thought it unseemly to kiss her husband in public.""; ""It was considered unseemly for women to smoke."" --> UN+SEEM- does not seem normal or proper in behavior"
"(v) waver in one's mind or opinions, be indecisive / to continue to change your opinions, decisions, ideas etc [= waver]: vacillate between: ""Her parents vacillated between different approaches to discipline.""; ""The longer you vacillate the less time you'll have to do anything worthwhile.""; ""The writer seems to vacillate between approving of Collins' actions and finding them disgusting.""; ""How often we vacillate back and forth, pro and conning things to death."" --> sounds like OScillate..so something which moves from one position to another position."
"(v) revere, regard with deep respect and awe / to honour or respect someone or something because they are old, holy, or connected with the past: ""a symbol of Arab courage, to be venerated for generations"" / venerate somebody as something: ""These children are venerated as holy beings.""; ""The sun was an object of veneration.""; ""Ataturk died in 1938, but he is still widely venerated in Turkey."" --> 'ven(..when) you rate' someone higher.. you TREAT THEM WITH RESPECT."
"(n) truthfulness, accuracy; habitual adherence to the truth / the fact of being true or correct [= truth]: veracity of: ""Has anyone checked the veracity of these allegations?""; ""There is no way in which he could emphasise the veracity of his testimony except by literally asserting it.""; ""They relate to his stock portfolio and to the veracity of statements he made to Congress."" --> veracity and voracity were two cities, people of vora city used to eat too much and people of vera city used to tell truth about their fattiness, which caused differences between two cities (in this way you can remem. both words) / U must have the audacity to exhibit veracity!!!audacity means courage...veracity means truthfulness......(2 words at a go)"
"(adj) wordy / using or containing too many words: ""For once, his usually verbose wife was content to listen.""; ""Legal writing is often unclear and verbose.""; ""He had taken it for granted that his verbose and glib explanation of the facts would convince the jury of his innocence.""; ""Legal writing is frequently criticised for being unclear, verbose, convoluted and incomprehensible.""; ""Much academic language is, in practice, obscure and verbose."""
"(adj) capable of living (or growing, developing, etc.); practical, workable / a viable idea, plan, or method can work successfully: viable alternative/proposition/option etc: ""The committee came forward with one viable solution.""; economically/commercially/financially viable: ""Will a hotel here be financially viable?""; ""Nuclear energy is the only viable alternative to coal or gas."" "
"(adj, n) related to items of high quality from a previous era, old-fashioned, antique: ""The latest film has a vintage Disney charm.""; ""They lunched on lobster and strawberries, accompanied by a fine vintage champagne.""(adj); the wine of a particular year (noun)"
"(adj) existing only in the mind or by means of a computer network; existing in results or in essence but not officially or in name / very nearly a particular thing (gayriresmi (Resmen kabul edilmemi? fakat fiilen olmu? bir ?eyi niteler) ): ""Car ownership is a virtual necessity when you live in the country.""; ""Finding a cheap place to rent is a virtual impossibility in this area.""; ""Children were forced to work as virtual slaves in the factories.""; ""The two countries are locked in a virtual state of war.""; ""Without knowing it, we can be virtual prisoners of all this judging."" / made, done, seen etc on the Internet or on a computer, rather than in the real world: ""The website allows you to take a virtual tour of the art gallery.""; ""constructing virtual worlds"""
"(v) verbally abuse, rebuke or criticize harshly / to abuse or censure severely or abusively : berate SYN:scold/rebuke / to use harsh condemnatory language: ""My vituperative language clearly expressed my displeasure.""; ""Your extreme use of vituperate words an phrases tends to negate the valid"" --> gine someone very close to you has a µvital-operationã that he has to go through. The doctor doesnãt give all the required attention to the patient and the operation also fails. In this situation you would definitely verbally abuse the doctor and that verbal abuse is called vituperation."
"(adj) varying, inconstant, fleeting; tending to violence, explosive / a volatile situation is likely to change suddenly and without warning: ""The political situation in the Balkans is still extremely volatile.""; ""She formed enduring friendships with women and more intense, volatile ones with men.""; ""People are afraid to change jobs in today's volatile economy."" / someone who is volatile can suddenly become angry or violent / technical a volatile liquid or substance changes easily into a gas // ""A high turnover may well have been justified in view of volatile markets.""; ""And abortion is a very volatile, emotional issue.""; ""As the vapours rise in the column through each successive equilibrium, they become richer in the more volatile component.""; ""Churn makes it harder for charities to raise money, keeps real-estate prices in check and politics volatile.""; ""Politics in Britain has become volatile.""; ""With markets so volatile, small investors are turning from do-it-yourself trading in search of greater interaction and guidance from brokers."""
"(adj) justified, authorized (warrant can mean to justify or a justification, but can also mean to vouch for or guarantee) /// warrant (verb): to need or deserve: ""This tiny crowd does not warrant such a large police presence.""; warrant attention/consideration etc: ""Another area that warrants attention is that of funding for universities.""; ""Any plan that could reduce costs warrants serious consideration."" / to promise that something is true: warrant that: ""The Author hereby warrants that the Publisher is the owner of the copyright."" / I'll warrant (you): (old-fashioned) used to tell someone that you are sure about something: warrant (that): ""I'll warrant we won't see him again."""
"(adj) watchful, motivated by caution, on guard against danger / someone who is wary is careful because they think something might be dangerous or harmful: be wary of (doing) something: ""I'm a bit wary of driving in this fog.""; ""We must teach children to be wary of strangers.""; ""Keep a wary eye on the weather before you set sail.""; ""She had a wary expression on her face."" --> ware µcarefulã (11-20 centuries), from Old English wÁr; what about aware? / Wary and worry sound the same... you become wary (cautious) if you have too many worries in life."
"(conjunction) while on the contrary, considering that / formal: used to say that although something is true of one thing, it is not true of another: ""The old system was fairly complicated whereas the new system is really very simple.""; ""Whereas the city spent over $1 billion on its museums and stadium, it failed to look after its schools."" / law: used at the beginning of an official document to mean 'because of a particular fact'"
"(adj) marked or motivated by whims (odd, fanciful ideas; a sudden feeling that you would like to do or have something, especially when there is no important or good reason-noun); erratic, unpredictable / unusual or strange and often amusing: ""He has a wonderful whimsical sense of humour.""; ""Miller is known for her whimsical paintings."" --> in an important meeting when you take out a popscile and eat, it would be whimsical, unusual, strange and amusing"
"(adj) crafty, cunning, characterized by tricks or artifice / clever at getting what you want, especially by tricking people [= cunning]: ""Breen had a reputation for being a tough and wily negotiator.""; ""The Fawcett brothers were too wily to be caught, and the local residents could get no help from the law.""; ""All these benefits were acquired by a wily diplomacy.""; ""There is Achilles, the fearless hothead; the courageous and disciplined Hector; and the wily, imaginative Odysseus."" --> sounds like willy which means someone who wants to fulfill his will by any means. He has to be clever to do so. / Wiley Coyote tried to trick Road Runner. (cartoon)"
"(n) great fervor or enthusiasm for a cause, person, etc.; tireless diligence in furthering that cause; passion, ardor / eagerness to do something, especially to achieve a particular religious or political aim: religious/revolutionary/missionary etc zeal: ""He approached the job with missionary zeal.""; in your zeal to do something: ""In their zeal to catch drug dealers, police have ignored citizens' basic civil rights.""; zeal for: ""their zeal for privatization"" --> The sea seal had lots of zeal and feel while playing ball games with the people on beach. / Zeal which means full of enthusiasm, sounds like meal meaning food .. therefore to earn a meal for your family you need to work with great zeal. ,,,,, you need zeal to earn a meal."
"(n) high point, culmination / the most successful point in the development of something [= peak; ? nadir]: reach its zenith/be at its zenith: ""The Roman Empire reached its zenith around the year 100."" / technical: the highest point that is reached by the sun or the moon in the sky --> Word sounds like 'Jannat' which is in highest point / zenit football team reached their peak when they won uefa cup."