Ethel Wood AP Human Geography Unit 5 Vocab

AP Human Geography: A Study Guide 3rd Edition by Ethel Wood
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the primary sector
agriculture; the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment; (raising animals, fishing, forestry, and mining - largest in low-income, pre-industrial nations.)
the secondary sector
industry; the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods; grows quickly as societies industrialize; (refining petroleum into gasoline, turning metals into tools.)
the tertiary sector
services; the pat of the economy that involves services rather than good; (construction, trade, finance.)
post-idustrial societies
countries where most people are no longer employed in industry
the quaternary sector
often seen as a subset of the tertiary sector; (service jobs concerned with research and development, management and administration, and processing and disseminating information.)
agriculture
the deliberate tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
hunters; gatherers
gained skills in capturing and killing animals; learned which plants and fruits were edible and nutritious
Neolithic Revolution
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
agricultural hearths
areas of settlement during the neolithic period, especially along major rivers, from where farming and cultivation of livestock emanates; farming practices diffused from here across the surface of the earth
job specialization
other occupations from farming developed, since fewer people were needed to produce food
patriarchal systems
resulted from men being in control; men had power in family, economy, and gov't
vegetative planting
the earliest form of plant cultivation in which new places are produced from direct cloning from existing plants; cutting stems and dividing roots.)
seed agriculture
the production of plants through annual planting of seeds
irrigation
the channeling of water to fields
Columbian Exchange
(began in the late 15th and 16th centuries); products were carried both ways across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; an exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
second agricultural revolution
(begin in Western Europe during the 1600s); intensified agriculture by promoting higher yields per acre and per farmer
enclosure
fencing or hedging large blocks of land for experiments with new techniques of farming
seed drill
a machine invented by Jethro Tull that more efficiently planted seeds
subsistence agriculture
the production of only enough food to feed the farmer's family, with no surpluses to sell
commercial agriculture
the production of food surpluses, with most crops destined for sale to people outside the farmer's family
agribusiness
the system of commercial farming found in move developed countries
wet, or low-land, rice
planted on dry land in a nursery and then moves as seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth
labor intensive agriculture
employs large numbers of people and requires relatively little capital to produce food
shifting cultivation
often referred to as "slash and burn" or swidden agriculture; a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Pastoral Nomadism
the alternative to sedentary agriculture is characterized by following herds, just as the earlier hunters and gatherers did
nomadism
the practice of moving frequently from one place to the other; dictated by the need for pasture for the animals
extensive subsistence agriculture
the reference to both shifting cultivation and pastoral nomadism
intensive subsistence agriculture
involves the cultivation of small land plots through great amount of labor, and yields per unit and area and populations densities are both high
mixed crop and livestock farming
the most common form of commercial agriculture in most of the world; farmers grow crops and raise livestock in the same land spread, with most of the crops fed to animas rather than people
milkshed
a ring of milk production that surrounds a city due to the fact that milk spoils quickly and the product must be shipped in quickly
winter wheat area; spring wheat area
extends through Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma; crop is planted in the autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops for the winter and then ripens in the following summer - the area of the Dakotas and Montana, where winters are too severe for winter wheat
pampas
prairie; areas of Argentina, s Brazil, and Uruguay that are devoted to grazing cattle and sheep
horticulture
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
truck farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
plantation farming
a large farm that specializes in one or two crops, and is found today in Latin America, Africa, and Asia
Von Thunen's Model
The model that explains the placement of agriculture in the economic scale around a city. In rings - 1. Marketing, gardening and dairying 2. Forest 3. Field crop and grains 4. Livestock and ranching/ animal grazing
intensive agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
extensive agriculture
an agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
location theory
the general but logical attempt to explain how an economic activity is relate to the land space where goods are produced
dispersed settlement pattern
individual farmhouses lying quite far apart
nucleated settlement pattern
villages located quite close together with relatively small surrounding fields
hamlets, villages
*small clusters of buildings;
*slightly larger than hamlets; a small number of people who live in a cluster of houses in a rural area
wattle
refers to poles and sticks woven tightly together and then covered with mud
rectangular survey system
used to encourage settlers to disperse evenly across interior farmlands; section lines were drawn in grids, often without reference to the terrain, that determined where people settled
metes and bounds
natural features are used to mark irregular parcels of land
long-lot survey system
divides land into narrow parcels that extend from rivers, roads, or canals; gives more access to transportation
mercantilism
goal was to benefit the mother country by trading goods to accumulate precious metals to enrich the country
industrial agriculture
the current stage of commercial agriculture resulting from the shift of the farm as the center of production to a position as just one step in a multiphase industrial process that begins on the farms and ends on the consumer's table
specialization
the growing of specialized crops because they seem to be the most profitable
Third Agricultural Revolution
(began in the mid-20th century) modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops; , 20th century; tractor; monoculture; irrigation; petroleum; Agro-Biotechnology
biotechnology
the use of genetically altered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production
Green Revolution
involved two important practices: the use of new higher-yield seeds and the expanded use of fertilizers
erosion
lands cleared for agriculture almost immediately begin to erode
organic agriculture
crops grown without fertilizers and pesticides, ensuring that the consumer will not suffer adverse health effects from them
sustainable agriculture
attempts to integrate plant and animal production practices that will protect the ecosystem over the long term
desertification
a deterioration of land to a desert-like condition by over-grazing and over-planting
cereal grains
corn, wheat, rice, and other grasses
Mediterranean agriculture
specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
primogeniture
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.