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Chapter 6, Body systems, Circulatory System

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Functions of the Circulatory System
The body's means of transporting a continuous supply of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and antibodies throughout the body, while carbon dioxide and other cellular waste are being removed from the body. This system maintains a balance between intracellular and extracellular fluids.
Pulmonary Circulation
The first of two pathways that circulates blood through the heart to the lungs, and back to the heart
Systemic Circulation
The second pathway, carries the blood from the aorta to the smallest blood vessels and back to the heart
Main Components of the Circulatory System
Include the heart, blood vessels( arteries, veins, and capillaries) and blood
The Heart
A pump that circulates the blood throughout the body, triangular shaped muscular organ that is approximately the size of a fist, The heart is covered in three layers
Pericardium
The outer layer that is composed of a double -walled sac
Myocardium
The second layer, a tough muscular wall
Endocardium
A thin lining on the inside of the heart
Wall
A wall divides the heart into right and left chambers
Atria/ Auricles
Each half (a wall) is divided again into upper chambers
Ventricles
Each half (a wall) the lower chambers
Heart Valves
Four--- Regulate the flow of blood in one directon
Vena Cava
The blood comes into the heart through large blood vessels called the vena cava
Tricuspid Valve
From the superior and inferior vena cava blood enters the right atrium and is then pumped through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle
Pulmonary Valve
From the tricuspid valve, it then goes to the pulmonary valve, into the pulmonary artery, which carries the blood to the lungs to get rid of waste and gases, and picks up fresh oxygen.
Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve
From the lungs, the blood is carried by the pulmonary vein to the left atrium, and then through the Mitral Valve into the left ventricle and then into the aortic valve.
Aortic Valve
Into the aorta to be distributed to all parts of the body
Arteries
Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries of the tissues, the walls of arteries are tough and composed of three layers to withstand the pressure
Aorta
The largest artery, recieves blood directly from the heart
Arterioles
The smallest arteries
Veins
Carry blood that has drained from the capillaries back to the heart. Walls of veins are also three layers, but much thinner and less muscular. Within the inner layer are folds that form valves that keep the blood flowing to the heart
Capillaries
The connection between arteries and veins. The exchange between blood and body cells occurs in teh capillaries. Here blood and oxygen