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Chapter 6

1. Somatoform and dissociative disorders are similar in that both

a. have symptoms suggesting a physical dysfunction.
b. typically begin after a stressful experience.
c. involve aggressive outbursts.
d. are delusional in quality.
2. Somatoform disorders all involve

a. physical symptoms.
b. dysphoric mood.
c. disruptions of consciousness.
d. hallucinations.
3. All the somatoform disorders involve physical with no known physical cause.

a. changes
b. pain
c. illness
d. symptoms
4. All somatoform disorders involve

a. childhood onset.
b. physical complaints.
c. physical symptoms.
d. loss of physical functioning.
5. Fred has pain disorder. His clinician distinguished it from actual pain as

a. Fred was dependent on pain killers.
b. Fred gave very specific descriptions of the location of the pain.
c. Fred was unable to describe situations associated with a decrease in pain.
d. It cannot be distinguished from actual pain.
6. Jaclyn is preoccupied with her eyes, feeling that they are asymmetrical. She spends hours applying makeup in an effort to make her eyes appear exactly the same size and shape. The extent of her routine requires hours and has cost her several jobs. She has had plastic surgery, but this has not alleviated her concerns. The most likely diagnosis for Jaclyn would be

a. body dysmorphic disorder.
b. conversion disorder.
c. hypochondriasis.
d. somatization disorder.
7. William has been diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder because of his excessive concerns about having too much body hair. Which of the following would completely eliminate his symptoms?

a. plastic surgery
b. eliminating all mirrors from his house
c. shaving
d. None of the above would eliminate his symptoms.
8. Which of the following is most similar to somatization disorder?

a. body dysmorphic disorder
b. conversion disorder
c. hypochondriasis
d. dissociative disorder
9. Which of the following best illustrates hypochondriasis?

a. An ulcer caused by stress.
b. A persistent unsubstantiated fear of having cancer.
c. Having obsessions with an imagined physical defect, such as facial wrinkles.
d. Experiencing recurring pain with no physical basis.
10. While sitting at dinner, Mary inexplicably begins to sweat. She immediately thinks that she must have a deadly heart condition. Which diagnosis most appropriately describes Mary?

a. somatization disorder
b. obsessive-compulsive disorder
c. hypochondriasis
d. specific phobia
11. Which of the following is sometimes used as a synonym for somatization disorder?

a. psychophysiological disorder
b. psychosomatic disorder
c. hysteria
d. Briquet's syndrome
12. Rates of somatization disorder are

a. higher in African American women.
b. lower in Puerto Rican people.
c. lowest in Asian women.
d. equally distributed across cultures.
13. With regard to somatization disorders, cultural differences probably influence

a. whether an individual has a comorbid anxiety disorder.
b. how an individual understands and communicates his or her distress.
c. an individual's sophistication in understanding his or her symptoms.
d. whether an individual has a comorbid mood disorder.
14. In the case of Anna O., her conversion symptoms involved her

a. left leg.
b. sexual dysfunction.
c. her right side, beginning with her arm.
d. scalp, nose, and lips.
15. Julie experienced inexplicable blindness. She visited several ophthalmologists, all of whom indicated there was no physical basis for her blindness. She most likely has

a. hypochondriasis.
b. dissociative disorder.
c. conversion disorder.
d. body dysmorphic disorder.
16. Conversion disorder is NOT a likely diagnosis for someone with a loss of

a. coordination.
b. vision.
c. memory.
d. speech.
17. Which of the following is a symptom of conversion disorder?

a. extreme anxiety
b. paralysis in the hand
c. chronic sweating
d. hypersensitivity to pain
18. Robert complained of complete lack of sensation in both knees, but a physical exam revealed no physiological damage. Which of the following would be the most likely diagnosis for Robert?

a. body dysmorphic disorder
b. somatization disorder
c. conversion disorder
d. hypochondriasis
19. Prior to the onset of conversion disorder, there must be

a. body dysmorphia.
b. derealization.
c. a stressful event.
d. a head injury.
20. The onset of conversion symptoms is usually

a. sudden and related to a stressful situation.
b. gradual and subtle.
c. not associated with psychological distress.
d. preceded by a period of physical illness.
21. Conversion disorder was first studied by Freud, when it was referred to as

a. la belle indifference.
b. hysteria.
c. hypochondriasis.
d. Briquet's syndrome.
22. Conversion disorders occupy a central place in psychoanalytic theory because they provide a clear example of the role of

a. repression.
b. the unconscious.
c. the pleasure principle.
d. stages of development.
23. Conversion disorders are most common in

a. women.
b. men.
c. They are equally common in men and women.
d. No information is yet available on prevalence among men vs. women.
Answer: A Type: Factual Page: 164

24. Lucy complained of paralysis in her leg that made it impossible for her to work or do household chores. When in the emergency room, she appeared unconcerned with her ailment and discussed it at great length. She even invited people to come and poke her leg to show that she experienced no sensations. She would most likely be diagnosed with

a. somatization disorder.
b. conversion disorder.
c. malingering.
d. hypochondriasis.
25. Lucy's style of discussing her symptoms (described in the last question) is called

a. la belle indifference.
b. hypochondriasis.
c. Briquet's syndrome.
d. fugue.
26. Paul is seeking a large insurance settlement following a car accident and undergoes a physical evaluation of his injuries. Paul complains of total numbness in his right leg since the accident. Which of the following would indicate that he was malingering?

a. He reports full sensation in his left leg.
b. He reports full sensation along his right side.
c. He reports no medical problems before the accident.
d. He reports being able to reduce the pain at times.
27. Louise arrived at the emergency room complaining of severe stomach pain. After
careful evaluation, it became clear that Louise had purposely given herself food
poisoning. She would most likely

a. be malingering.
b. have somatization disorder.
c. have la belle indifference.
d. have factitious disorder.
28. Unlike a malingerer, a person with factitious disorder

a. does not exhibit "la belle indifference."
b. has primarily psychological, not physical, symptoms.
c. has physical symptoms that are not under voluntary control.
d. has no clear motivation for adopting the symptoms.
29. A psychologist is examining Colleen and thinks that she may have somatization disorder. Which of the following would most refute this idea?

a. She has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
b. She actively uses marijuana.
c. She demonstrates la belle indifference.
d. She reports having irregular menstrual cycles.
30. Conversion disorder and somatization disorder may be distinguished from each other because only one involves

a. frequent visits to physicians.
b. long-term complaints.
c. symptoms that worsen under stress.
d. all of the above are symptoms of both disorders
31. Many men developed conversion symptoms following World War I. This supports the hypothesis that

a. men are more susceptible to conversion disorder.
b. conversion symptoms often develop to help individuals to avoid some unpleasant activity.
c. conversion symptoms often begin after a life stressor.
d. All of the above are correct.
32. Sandra has 'glove anesthesia.' This diagnosis

a. may be incorrect if Sandra has a job involving a great deal of typing.
b. can be made with near certainty.
c. depends on the degree of accompanying anxiety experienced by the patient.
d. is not appropriate; pain disorder is the correct term.
33. Medical conditions and conversion disorders are commonly distinguished based on

a. response to treatment.
b. medical diagnostic tests.
c. similarity to known medical/psychological conditions.
d. None of the above is reliable.
34. Which theory has dominated the study of somatoform disorders?

a. psychoanalytic
b. biological
c. behavioral
d. cognitive
35. The importance of conversion disorders in psychoanalysis is based upon

a. Freud's discovery that patients with conversion disorders were usually victims of sexual abuse.
b. Freud who suffered from and overcame a conversion disorder.
c. Freud's belief that more directive methods were appropriate for treating conversion disorders, paving the way for linking psychoanalysis and behavior therapy.
d. Freud's development of many psychoanalytic concepts while treating patients with conversion disorder.
36. Freud's early theory of conversions hypothesized that they result from repressed

a. events.
b. conflicts.
c. desires.
d. stimuli.
37. In his later writings, Freud hypothesized that conversion disorders result from

a. traumatic experiences.
b. arrested development.
c. developmental disabilities.
d. unresolved Electra complex.
38. The psychodynamic perspective on conversion disorder was revised in light of experimental findings with hysterically blind people who

a. have underlying brain defects.
b. can see when under hypnosis.
c. can respond to visual information.
d. experienced traumatic visual events.
39. Contemporary psychodynamic research on hysterically blind individuals indicates that they repress

a. the awareness that they see.
b. visual stimuli.
c. information extracted from visual stimuli.
d. their motives about seeing.
40. Roseanne is suffering from hysterical blindness. She participates in a study, and it is shown that she

a. is actually faking her blindness.
b. cannot respond to any visual stimuli.
c. responds to visual stimuli but is unaware that she did so.
d. appears to respond to visual stimuli but in fact has learned to detect other sensory cues (e.g., heat, noise, etc.).
41. The performance of a hysterically blind person on a visual test appears to depend on

a. their motivation to maintain their symptom.
b. the degree of physical impairment.
c. the neurological basis for their symptom.
d. their unconscious need to please the experimenter.
42. People with blind-sight

a. have sustained damage to their brain.
b. do not know that they can see.
c. have sustained no damage to their eyes.
d. All of the above are correct.
43. According to experimental psychological research, if you are shown a hexagon for 1 millisecond (a level too fast for you to actually perceive consciously), when asked to rate preferences for shapes, you will

a. not prefer the hexagon over other shapes.
b. be able to indicate that the hexagon 'looks familiar.'
c. likely prefer the hexagon over other shapes.
d. be disinterested in hexagons.
44. Research on genetic factors in conversion disorder

a. indicates that the disorder is highly heritable.
b. indicates that genetic factors are not important.
c. indicates that heritability estimates are 40%.
d. has not yet been conducted.
45. Research on genetic factors in conversion disorders suggests a diathesis for

a. overall physiological weakness.
b. low sexual drive.
c. physical expression of stress.
d. None of the above are correct. No diathesis has been found.
46. The importance of social and cultural factors is suggested by data showing that conversion disorders are more common in

a. high stress occupations.
b. psychoanalytic patients.
c. non-Western countries.
d. people with few social supports.
47. What is the basis for sociocultural theories of conversion disorders?

a. The greater prevalence of conversion disorders in urban areas.
b. The increased use of hypnosis by psychiatrists.
c. The increase in conversion disorders during the 1960s.
d. The decrease in conversion disorders over the last century.
48. The higher incidence of conversion disorders during Freud's time has been attributed to

a. prevalent sexually repressive attitudes.
b. pervasive beliefs in mystics and magical thinking.
c. the high incidence of unreported sexual abuse.
d. clinicians inadvertently creating the disorder through hypnosis
49. Which model has been least helpful in understanding conversion disorders?

a. psychoanalytic
b. behavioral
c. sociocultural
d. genetic
50. Gina has conversion disorder. Her identical twin, Jean, who was raised in a different house, does not know Gina. If conversion disorder were completely heritable, what diagnosis would Jean likely have?

a. conversion disorder
b. pain disorder
c. somatoform disorder
d. no disorder
51. "The finding that conversion disorder is currently more common in Libya than in England means that cultures with increased medical sophistication are less likely to have somatoform disorders." What is a flaw in this argument?

a. Conversion disorder was actually more common in 19th century England.
b. Different rates in different countries may be caused by variations in diagnostic practices.
c. Conversion disorder is fundamentally different from the somatoform disorders.
d. None of the above is correct.
52. Some of the neurobiological risk factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder may be involved in the genesis of

a. hysteria.
b. body dysmorphic disorder.
c. dissociative identity disorder.
d. conversion disorder.
53. When examining attention to cues of physical health among people with somatization disorder, depression, or panic disorder,

a. patients with somatization disorder remembered more physical threat words than the other patients.
b. patients with somatization disorder had trouble concentrating on the task compared with the other patients.
c. patients with somatization disorder were faster to name the colors of words related to physical health compared with the other patients.
d. patients with somatization disorder made less negative attributions about the physical threat words.
54. People with somatoform disorders

a. are usually hysterical.
b. tend to make more negative attributions about physical symptoms.
c. are more often men than women.
d. tend to blame others for their physical imperfections.
55. Nina has hypochondriasis. She notices a red splotch on her face that seems to be getting larger each day. Nina will most likely believe that this symptom

a. is due to a psychological problem.
b. is due to a serious underlying disease.
c. will go away once she visits a doctor.
d. is a bug bite.
56. A behavioral reinforcer for someone with a somatoform disorder would be

a. receiving a dollar each time they ride an elevator.
b. feeling refreshed after taking a hot shower.
c. receiving attention and sympathy.
d. successfully avoiding social situations.
57. The treatment of somatoform disorders is relatively primitive because

a. sufferers rarely seek mental health treatment.
b. they are rare in the population.
c. efforts to treat them have been unsuccessful.
d. of legal and professional prohibitions.
58. If you have a relative with pain disorder, that relative will most likely consult
a__________ to the exclusion of a ___________.

a. psychologist; physician
b. psychiatrist; psychologist
c. psychoanalyst; psychiatrist
d. physician; psychologist
59. In an effort to reduce Alan's somatoform symptoms, his behaviorally- oriented therapist would most likely

a. suggest that his family reward his efforts to return to work.
b. train him in relaxation skills.
c. spend time uncovering stressors that led to the problem.
d. dispute the validity of his pain.
60. Behavioral treatments for somatoform disorders seek to

a. reduce anxiety levels using somatic methods.
b. eliminate the problem behaviors using punishment.
c. teach more appropriate techniques for interacting with others.
d. use hypnosis to alleviate the symptoms.
61. Cognitive treatments for somatoform disorders seek to

a. reduce attention to the body and challenge negative thoughts.
b. teach more appropriate techniques for interactions with others.
c. teach relaxation techniques to alleviate the symptoms.
d. use operantconditioning approaches with family and friends to increase attention paid to patient.
62. Which of the following would not be part of an effective treatment for pain?

a. Teaching a patient to use muscle relaxation.
b. Praising the patient for enduring the pain.
c. Using over-the-counter medications.
d. Validating the patient's experience of pain as real.
63. Isaac was being treated for somatoform pain disorder, and his psychiatrist prescribed imipramine, an antidepressant, in a very low dose for his symptoms. Assuming Isaac is also depressed, what is his likely treatment outcome?

a. His depression will improve, but his pain will persist.
b. All his symptoms will improve.
c. His pain will subside, but his depression will persist.
d. He will not improve.
64. Current psychological treatment for pain disorder emphasizes helping the client to

a. recognize the psychological basis for pain.
b. comply with medical treatment.
c. accept inevitable limitations.
d. keep going despite pain.
65. Rachel has body dysmorphic disorder. She believes that her ears are way too big for her head. She is about to enter treatment. Which of the following treatments is likely to be the most effective for her?

a. cognitive-behavioral
b. psychoanalytic
c. psychodynamic body therapy
d. There is little research on treatments for body dysmorphic disorder
66. Treatments for body dysmorphic disorder are very similar to treatments for

a. conversion disorder.
b. pain disorder.
c. obsessive compulsive disorder.
d. dissociative identity disorder.
67. Research suggests that the neurobiological risk factors in body dysmorphic disorder are similar to those for

a. anorexia nervosa.
b. agoraphobia.
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
d. schizophrenia.
68. Grace is in treatment for body dysmorphic disorder. It is likely that her therapist will

a. engage Grace in psychodynamic body therapy.
b. ask Grace to avoid checking her appearance in the mirror.
c. teach Grace practice relaxation techniques.
d. discourage Grace from seeking reassurance from medical doctors.
69. Cognitive-behavioral treatments for hypochondriasis

a. are aimed at focusing the person on their bodily sensations.
b. encouraging the person to seek reassurance from a medical doctor.
c. are effective only for women.
d. have proven effective in reducing health concerns and health care utilization.
70. Stewart suffers from a somatoform disorder. Which treatment would be the most effective in reducing Stewart's catastrophizing cognitions?

a. biofeedback
b. relaxation training
c. long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy
d. All of the above have been shown to be equally effective.
71. Psychological treatment of somatization disorder often includes

a. medical tests to show symptoms have no medical basis.
b. focusing on underlying anxiety and depression.
c. keeping a diary of symptoms and complaints.
d. exploring childhood experiences of being sick.
72. Controlled trials of psychological treatment for conversion disorder

a. indicate that supportive psychotherapy reduces patients concerns about their bodily problems.
b. suggest that biofeedback is effective.
c. indicate that relaxation training is highly effective in reducing symptoms.
d. have not yet been conducted.
73. To date, there have been no research studies on psychological treatment of

a. pain disorder.
b. hypocondriasis.
c. conversion disorder.
d. body dysmorphic disorder.
74. Why has there been little research on psychological treatment of people with somatoform disorders?

a. They rarely seek psychological treatment.
b. Medical treatments are highly effective.
c. The disorders have been identified only recently.
d. Insurance companies will not reimburse for psychological treatment.
75. Dissociative disorders share

a. feelings of depersonalization.
b. an alteration in consciousness or identity.
c. an inability to distinguish reality from fantasy.
d. physical symptoms with no physiological basis.
76. Which of the following is an example of dissociation?

a. worrying excessively over your grades
b. not remembering material you studied for a test
c. difficulty committing to social relationships
d. being so preoccupied you forget an appointment
77. Why are there many questions regarding the role of memory under stress with respect to dissociative disorders?

a. People have trouble recalling events.
b. Few brain-imaging studies have been conducted to date.
c. Some lines of research indicate that high levels of stress enhance memory.
d. Research indicates that, under stress, people store memories in different areas of the brain.
78. People who scored high on the Dissociative Experiences Scale before completing the Stroop task

a. could block out emotionally charged words.
b. could not name the color of the words.
c. remembered more of the emotionally charged words.
d. named the colors of the words faster.
79. With regard to the theory that adults can recover memories of childhood abuse after many years,

a. it is best to assume that such people are malingering.
b. it is viable to assume that such recovered memories are indeed true.
c. it is best to treat these people as sufferers of PTSD.
d. it is safest to regard such theories as tentative.
80. Dissociative amnesia may be distinguished from brain injury by

a. the loss of ego functioning in dissociative amnesia.
b. additional cognitive deficits in brain injury.
c. the presence of prograde memory loss in dissociative amnesia.
d. the presence of severe anxiety in dissociative amnesia.
81. The prognosis for dissociative amnesia usually involves a _______________
remission with ________________ recovery.

a. gradual; complete
b. gradual; partial
c. sudden; complete
d. sudden; partial
82. Explicit memory is to conscious recall of experiences as implicit memory is to

a. repressed memories.
b. behaviors based on experiences that cannot be consciously recalled.
c. behaviors based on experiences that occurred before the onset of speech.
d. dreams.
83. Donna was brutally assaulted outside the local 7-Eleven. Although she cannot recall the details of the assault, she becomes terrified when she drives past the 7-Eleven. This is an example of a situation in which

a. a person has an explicit memory, but no implicit memory.
b. a person has neither explicit nor implicit memory.
c. a person will most likely develop dissociative identity disorder.
d. a person has no explicit memory, but has an implicit memory.
84. Distinguishing organic brain disorders and dissociative amnesia

a. is only possible using neurological tests such as the CAT scan.
b. can be accomplished only if neuropsychological tests are administered soon after the loss of memory is discovered.
c. is quite difficult since the symptoms of dissociative amnesia perfectly mimic those of organic brain disorders.
d. is fairly easy.
85. Among the dissociative disorders, dissociative fugue is characterized by

a. massive repression.
b. moving away and establishing a new identity.
c. sudden development following severe stress.
d. memory loss for virtually all past events.
86. Simon submitted a job application at an office in Hawaii. After a check was
conducted on his fingerprints, his identity was determined to be a man named
Alex who was from Kentucky. He was most likely experiencing

a. dissociative amnesia.
b. dissociative fugue.
c. dissociative identity disorder.
d. depersonalization disorder.
87. Following a dissociative fugue episode, the person often

a. does not remember the events that occurred during the episode.
b. remembers most of the events occurring during the episode, although they may be denied to avoid embarrassment.
c. is predisposed to have further episodes at times of stress.
d. is likely to develop another type of dissociative disorder.
88. What disorder is illustrated by the following? Joe was stressed by many tests and papers that were coming up soon. One day he disappeared. Two weeks later he was found in another state. He was working in a fast food restaurant and had little memory of how he got there or of his life at school.

a. dissociative amnesia
b. dissociative fugue
c. depersonalization disorder
d. dissociative identity disorder
89. Since watching his mother get hit and killed by a car two years ago, Chris has felt like he has been watching himself from outside of his body and thinks that voices sound strange. He is likely suffering from

a. depersonalization disorder.
b. dissociative identity disorder.
c. dissociative fugue.
d. None of the above; it cannot be determined based on the information given.
90. Mildred has been struggling with feelings of chronic depersonalization for several years. If she has depersonalization disorder, she most likely

a. has impaired memory functioning.
b. has a well-developed sense of self, just feelings of not being present.
c. has experienced some abuse at an earlier age.
d. is not employed.
91. What is the most appropriate label for Lakeisha? Following an auto accident, she reports that, "Everything is strange. It's like I'm not me. I'm just going through the motions. Nothing seems real anymore."

a. dissociative amnesia
b. dissociative fugue
c. depersonalization disorder
d. dissociative identity disorder
92. The categorization of depersonalization as a dissociative disorder is controversial because

a. there are no somatic symptoms.
b. there is no associated anxiety.
c. there is no disturbance in memory.
d. there is a heightened sensory awareness.
93. In the treatment of Evelyn, a well-known case of dissociative identity disorder, the aim of treatment was

a. to allow one personality to become dominant.
b. to fuse, or merge, the different personalities.
c. to train coping skills for all the personalities, ultimately causing them to merge.
d. to get Eve to admit that she faked the disorder.
94. Ms. Hall consulted a physician because of the following experience: The week before, she felt that another voice was talking to her, although she tried to ignore it. She then had a period of hours which she was unable to recall, but her boyfriend reported later that during that period she behaved like a completely different person, being loud and boisterous in contrast to her usual shy and sedate personality. She had never had a similar experience and was at a loss to explain it. Ms. Hall's symptoms most likely meet the criteria for

a. schizophrenia.
b. depersonalization disorder.
c. dissociative identity disorder.
d. None of the above is correct.
95. Bradford reports the following unusual experiences: He finds used tea bags in the waste basket, although he does not like tea and lives alone; he discovered several suits in his closet that he had no memory of buying and did not like; he has had people greet him calling him "William" or "Christian" whom he has never met before. What DSM-IV diagnosis would best fit Bradford's symptoms?

a. dissociative amnesia
b. dissociative fugue
c. depersonalization disorder
d. dissociative identity disorder
96. John is 'not feeling himself today.' In this light, he has been doing many things out of character, such as getting angry and expressing it, when he is usually shy and reserved, even when upset. He is most likely

a. just having an unusual day.
b. developing dissociative identity disorder.
c. suffering from dissociative fugue.
d. suffering from an impulse control disorder.
97. The onset of dissociative identity disorder is generally believed to begin during_________________ and is found most often in people with _________________ history of abuse.

a. adolescence; no
b. adolescence; a severe
c. childhood; no
d. childhood; a severe
98. Dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia

a. are two entirely different disorders.
b. are synonyms.
c. are very similar; the schizophrenic has two personalities, while the person with dissociative identity disorder has three or more.
d. are similar in that both involve a split between cognition and emotion.
99. The diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder has been controversial, in part, due to

a. early confusion with schizophrenia.
b. recent increases in reported cases.
c. distorted views in popular literature.
d. lack of cases in other countries.
100. All of the following have been cited as reasons for changes in the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder over the years EXCEPT

a. changes in the diagnostic criteria for the disorder.
b. publication of popular accounts such as "Sybil."
c. changes in the medical sophistication and level of education in modern society.
d. changing definitions of schizophrenia.
101. The two major theories of DID are

a. post-traumatic and sociocognitive.
b. post-traumatic and psychoanalytic.
c. behavioral and psychoanalytic.
d. cognitive-behavioral and posttraumatic.
102. The post-traumatic model of DID

a. has the most substantial empirical support.
b. assumes that DID begins in childhood as a result of severe abuse.
c. assumes that DID is created in therapy.
d. assumes DID is due to suggestions from the media.
103. One major theory of the etiology of dissociative identity disorder is that it results from

a. fear of facing the complexities of adult living.
b. drug use in predisposed individuals.
c. suggestions by therapists or media influences.
d. having a fantasy life more reinforcing than reality
104. According to Claire's friends, she never exhibited signs of DID. However, after watching Sybil on TV and visiting a therapist regularly, Claire began exhibiting different personalities. A socio-cultural theory of the development of Claire's DID would suggest that

a. Claire must have been sexually abused as a child.
b. Claire must have come from a dysfunctional family and had few friends growing up.
c. Claire's alters appeared in response to exposure to media and therapists' suggestions.
d. Claire has repressed memories for too long.
105. Conversion disorder may be characterized by problems in ________ memory, whereas dissociative disorders may be characterized by problems in _________ memory.

a. anterograde; prograde.
b. distorted; accurately.
c. explicit; implicit.
d. implicit; explicit.
106. Most people with dissociative identity disorder have high__________ along with a history of _______________.

a. child abuse; criminal behavior.
b. hypnotic susceptibility; child abuse.
c. hypnotic susceptibility; criminal behavior.
d. sensation seeking; amnesia.
107. Dr. Jones believes that different alters appear during adulthood after the suggestion of a therapist. This is consistent with

a. psychoanalytic theory.
b. behavioral theory.
c. social role enactment.
d. self-fulfilling prophecy.
108. The study by Spanos et al., based on the "Hillside Strangler" Ken Bianchi, showed that

a. people without dissociative identity disorder can adopt multiple personalities if a situation demands it.
b. dissociative identity disorder results from people enacting a role.
c. dissociative identity disorder does not sway a jury when used as part of an insanity defense.
d. malingering cannot be detected by psychiatrists
109. Although different alters report an inability to share memories,

a. studies suggest that alters can share some implicit memories.
b. studies suggest that alters share more explicit memories, but they are just repressed.
c. studies indicate that most alters are completely fabricated.
d. research suggests that role-playing is the best explanation of DID.
110. Therapists who are most likely to diagnose DID tend to

a. practice behavioral techniques.
b. use hypnosis.
c. use biofeedback.
d. support the sociocultural model.
111. Most approaches to treating dissociative disorders include elements of

a. psychoanalytic techniques.
b. behavioral techniques.
c. cognitive approaches.
d. All of the above are correct.
112. Treatment of dissociative disorders generally focuses on

a. encouraging recall of the underlying trauma.
b. discouraging others from reinforcing symptoms.
c. teaching better skills in coping with trauma.
d. providing a safe setting where symptoms are not needed.
113. Research on the effectiveness of psychological treatment of dissociative identity disorder

a. shows that behavioral-cognitive therapy is moderately effective.
b. has been hampered by the publicity surrounding known cases.
c. supports the post-traumatic model of its etiology.
d. is limited to observations of a few specialized therapists.
114. Hilda is being treated for dissociative identity disorder. It is most likely that as part of treatment she will

a. receive high dose antipsychotic medication.
b. hypnosis.
c. have biofeedback.
d. All of the above are correct.
115. The most commonly diagnosed comorbid disorder with dissociative identity disorder is

a. depression.
b. generalized anxiety disorder.
c. post-traumatic stress disorder.
d. schizophrenia.
116. Patty is currently being treated for dissociative identity disorder. Which of the following is most likely to NOT be part of her treatment?

a. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (EMDR)
b. thinking about traumatic events in a safe context
c. hypnosis
d. exposure treatment
117. Imagine that you are one of the "three faces of Carol," a personality known as "Paula" to Carol (the host personality) and to the therapist. What can you expect to happen to your ego state if the therapy is successful?

a. You will be exposed as a fraud.
b. You will be merged with Carol.
c. You will no longer have a place in Carol's personality or life.
d. You will continue to have a say in Carol's decisions, but she will have the final authority.
118. The controlled outcome studies on dissociative identity disorder (DID) show

a. superior outcome when psychodynamic treatment is employed.
b. integration of alters is easily achieved in most people with DID.
c. psychotropic medications are effective in eliminating alters.
d. None of the above; no controlled outcomes studies on DID exist.
119. Repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse are considered to be

a. accurate.
b. inaccurate.
c. partially accurate.
d. None of the above; the accuracy remains unknown.
120. Research on memory indicates that retrospective reports of events

a. are similar to a tape recorder; they are usually accurate.
b. The accuracy of memories depends on whether the memory was repressed.
c. are often inaccurate or incomplete.
d. are most accurate for events that occur in childhood.
121. The main difference between the Freudian and modern experimental view of the unconscious is that contemporary investigators

a. deny the existence of unconscious processes.
b. recognize that, while unconscious processes may exist, human behavior is determined by conscious processes.
c. believe it is impossible to demonstrate whether unconscious processes exist or not.
d. reject Freud's idea of "the" unconscious and of repression.
122. Efforts to help patients cope with pain focus upon

a. distraction and refocusing attention.
b. cognitive retraining to reduce the importance of pain.
c. exposure exercises, so the pain experience is extinguished.
d. psychoanalytic pain management
123. Margaret is experiencing chronic lower back pain. She goes to a psychologist for pain management. She will most likely

a. be trained in imagery that will distract her from the pain.
b. experience greater pain by exposure exercises so the pain will be less severe later.
c. be referred to receive pain killers.
d. None of the above choices are correct.