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Thermodynamics
Apex Physical Science Unit 11: Jumping Jack Flash. It's a Gas 2 (Thermodynamics)
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Terms in this set (24)
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
An isolated system will evolve to equilibrium.
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Conservation of energy. dU = 0 for isolated system.
Internal energy of a system increases by heat added and decreases by work done by the system.
dU = δQ-δW
Isochoric and relate to first law
Constant Volume process
Since dW = pdV, dW = 0, therefore dU = dQ
Isobaric and relate to first law
Constant Pressure process
dU = δQ - δW and dQ = dU + pdV = d(U+pV) = dH (enthalpy)
Adiabatic and relate to first law
δQ = 0 so dU = -δW
Enthalpy
isobaric: dQ = dU + pdV = d(U+pV) = dH
H = U +pV
Specific Heat
C is the ratio of heat add to a system and the corrisponding change in temperature. C = dQ/dT
C_v = (dQ/dT)_v = (dU/dT)_v
C_p = (dQ/dT)_p = (dH/dT)_p
Isothermal
Temperature is constant. dU = 0; dQ = dW
p = nRT/V = const/V
W = ∫pdV = ∫nRT/V dV = nRT*ln(V2/V1)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
States that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermodynamic equilibrium -- the state of maximum entropy.
The total entropy of any system will not decrease other than by increasing the entropy of some other system.
Thomson's postulate, Clausius's postulate
Entropy
The measure of a system's thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work.
dS ≥ δQ/T
= for reversible, > for irreversible.
if reversible and adiabatic dS = 0, so Entropy stays constant during this process.
Entropy and 1st law and 2nd law
TdS ≥ dU + dW
and dW ≤ -dU + TdS ≤ -d(U - TS)
Ideal Gas: law, internal energy equ, Cp and Cr relation, isothermal Work, isobaric Work, adiabatic Work
pV = nRT
(dU/dV)_t = 0 so dU = dQ = n*C_v*dT
C_p = C_v + R
W_t = nRT*ln(V2/V1)
W_p = p∆V = nR∆T
W_q = -∆U = -n ∫ C_v*dT
Ideal gas: γ, and adiabatic Work
γ = Cp/Cv
C=pV^γ
W_q = (pV - pV) / (γ-1)
Hess's Law
Regardless of the steps in a reaction, total enthalpy change encompasses the sum of all changes. ∆H is a state function that only needs the initial and final conditions.
v_i
stoichiometric coefficients
Standard Enthalpy of formation
∆H⁰₂₉₈ = ∑v_i*∆H⁰₂₉₈(i) - ∑v_i*∆H⁰₂₉₈(i)
Standard Enthalpy of reaction
∆H⁰_T = ∆H⁰₂₉₈ + ∫₂₉₈ ∆Cp*dT
Clausius's postulate
Heat cannot flow spontaneously from a cooler to a hotter system
Reversible process
A process that can go from point A to B and back to A with no change in the universe.
Third law of thermodynamics
The heat capacity of any substance goes to 0 as T→0 K. The entropy of equilibrium of any system will got to 0 as T→0 K. @ T=0 K, all processes occur with no change of entropy.
Triple point
existence of all three phases
Critical Point
End of liquid-vapor line where where the liquid and vapor have same structural properties. Beyond is single phase region.
Degrees of Freedom, F
Number of independent parameters that must be set to fully determine the state of a system in equilibrium.
Solution
Homogeneous mixture of two or more components.
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