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Hormones and Sexuality

What are gonadotropins?
How are they different in males and females? What influence do they have?

A hormone that has a stimulating effecton the ovaries or testicles.

The gonadotropin in women is FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
The gonadotropin in men is ICSH (Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone)

For females it releases more estrogen and for males it releases more testosterone

What is FSH?
What is ICSH?

The gonadotropin in women is FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) signals estrogen

The gonadotropin in men is ICSH (Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone) signals testosterone

What is menarche?
What seems to determine the age of onset?

Menarche is the beginning of the menstrual cycle

In women estrogen causes the uterus to become more muscular, the vagina to become more acidic, and helps the breasts to develop

How many stages are there in the menstrual cycle?
What are they?
What types of physiological and hormonal changes occur in each?

The menstrual cycle is divide up into three phases:
Follicular (about 13 days)
Ovulatory (1 day)
Luteal (about 14 days)

What is a follicle?

A sac in the ovary containing an ovum and surrounding follicular cells.

What is a hormonal feedback loop?
Describe those that occur in the menstrual cycle

Sorry Cant find it in book LOL

What is LH?

Luteinizing Hormone which is a gonadotropin hormone released by the pituitary gland that triggers ovulation in women and stimulates the production of male hormones in men.

What is the endometrium?

Functional layer - changes in response to ovarian hormone cycles. Is shed during menstruation.

When does ovulation occur?
Describe the process.

Ovulatory Phase Day 14

The follicle ruptures and the ri[pe ovum is expelled into the abdominal cavity, where it will soon be picked up by a Fallopain tube.

What is the corpus luteum?

The follicular cells that remain in the ovary after the follicle expels the ovum during ovulation. They begin to secrete progesterone in large quantities in the postovulatory stage

Where does fertilization occur?
At what point in the menstrual cycle does it occur?

In most instances fertilization takes place within one of the fallopian tubes or within the uterus

Luteal Phase

What is menopause?
What are some of the symptoms associated with it?
What causes these symptoms?

Perimenopause is a time period before the menstrual cycle ends where a woman may has symptoms of "menopause"

Hot flash/flush
Decreased elasticity of vagina
Vagina becomes narrower and shorter
Increased risk of heart disease
Increased risk of osteoporosis

Caused by a disruption of the hormonal feedback loops of the menstrual cycle that can begin even in the later twenties

What is dysmenorrhea?
Describe the two types.
What are their causes?

Dysmenorrhea - painful menstruation

Two types:
Primary - due to an overproduction of prostaglandins (hormones that cause the uterus to contract)
Secondary - due to any other reason except the overproduction of prostaglandins (e.g., Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, a displace IUD)

What is amenorrhea?
Describe the two types.
What are their causes?

Amenorrhea - an absence of menstruation

Two types:
Primary - never had a menstrual period; probably due to hormonal or anatomical problems
Secondary - and interruption of the menstrual cycle; due to such issues as pregnancy or anorexia nervosa or is found in some female athletes

What is endometriosis?
What appears to be it's cause?
Why is it a problem?

The growth of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus

What is pms?
Why do some people do not believe it exists?

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) - a term used to describe the many physical and psychological symptoms that occur before every menstrual period and that are severe enough to interfere with some aspect of life

Researchers cannot agree on a definition.
Researchers cannot agree on a time period.
Researchers cannot agree on what symptoms constitute PMS.
PMS Checklists can be too long and inclusive.

What changes occur in men's sexuality as they get older?

Increased time needed to achieve erection
Increased time needed to achieve orgasm
Increased refractory period

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