AP English 84 Terms Test
Terms in this set (85)
An argument based on the fallings of an adversary rather than on the merits of the case; a logical fallacy that involves a person attack.
Ex: Rebekah thinks we have class tomorrow. Rebekah likes Taylor Swift. We don't have class tomorrow.
The part of speech (or word class) that modifies a noun or pronoun
The part of speech (or word class) that modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb
Extending a metaphor so that objects, persons, and or actions in a text are equated with meanings that lie outside the text
Ex: Animal Farm by George Orwell
The repetition of an initial consonant sound
Ex: But a better butter makes a batter better.
A big bully beats a baby boy.
A brief, usually indirect reference to a person, place or event--real or fictional
Ex: Hey! Guess who the new Newton of our school is?
Stop acting like my ex-husband please.
He was a real Romeo with the ladies.
I thought the software would be useful, but it was a Trojan Horse.
The presence of two or more possible meanings in any passage
Ex: John took off his trousers by the bank. -The word "bank" could refer to the building or the edge of a river
Each of us saw her duck - It is not clear whether the word "duck" refers to an action of ducking or a duck that is a bird.
Reasoning or arguing from parallel cases
Ex: He that voluntarily continues ignorance is guilty of all the crimes which ignorance produces, as to him
that should extinguish the tapers of a lighthouse might justly be imputed the calamities of shipwrecks.
The repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses
Ex: Every day, every night, in every way, I am getting better and better.
My life is my purpose. My life is my goal. My life is my inspiration.
The noun or noun phrase referred to by a pronoun
Ex: When you see the professor, please tell him I'll be 10 minutes late this evening.
David plays football in the courtyard. All the children gather there.
The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.
Ex: Man proposes, God disposes.
Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
You are easy on the eyes, but hard on the heart.
Setting foot on the moon may be a small step for a man but a giant step for mankind.
A tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion
Ex: The simplest questions are the hardest ones to answer
A brief statement of a principle
Ex: Pride hath fall.
A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood
Ex: It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.
Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether the station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show.
A verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed.
Ex: Pleasure is a sin, and sometimes sin is a pleasure.
An argument that commits the logical fallacy of assuming what it is attempting to prove.
Ex: The Bible is the Word of God because God tells us it is... in the Bible.
President Reagan was a great communicator because he had the knack of talking.
An arguable statement, which may be a claim or fact, value, or policy; thesis, position, point of view, opinion
A group of words that contains a subject and a predicate
Ex: When the president arrives
Because I can't wait for the bus
As if he knew what was going to happen
Mounting by degrees through words or sentences of increasing weight and in parallel construction with an emphasis on the high point or culmination of a series of events
Ex: This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Characteristic of writing that seeks the effect of informal spoken language as distinct from formal or literary English
Ex: y'all - you all
a bunch of numpties - a group of idiots
A rhetorical strategy in which a writer examines similarities and/or differences between two people, places, ideas, or objects
Ex: as lazy as a snail
A car is useless in New York, essential everywhere else. The same with good manners
An argument strategy by which a speaker or writer acknowledges the validity of an opponent's point
Ex: "Dad, I know taking a trip to another country with my friends may be expensive and unsafe, but I have studied so hard the past year and I think I deserve a vacation. You already know how responsible I have been all my life; I don't think there will be any problem."
The part of speech (or word class) that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses , or sentences
Ex: and, but, for, or, nor, yet, and so
The emotional implications and associations that a word may carry
Ex: A dove implies peace or gentility.
Home suggests family, comfort and security.
The grammatical connection of two or more ideas to give them equal emphasis and importance. Contrast with subordination
Ex: "Wilbur didn't know what to do or which way to run."
"Curiosity killed the cat, but for a while I was a suspect."
The football game has been postponed so we will have to do something else.
Conjuctions: and, but, for, or, nor, yet, so
The direct or dictionary meaning of a word, in contrast to its figurative or associative meanings.
Ex: dove- a type of pigeon, a wild and domesticated bird having a heavy body and short legs
A regional or social vaiety of language distinguised by pronunciation, grammar, and/or vocabulary
The choice and use of words in speech or writing
Ex: "Could you be so kind as to pass me the milk?" Vs. "Give me that!"
"I regret to inform you that that is not the case." Vs. "You're wrong!"
"It is a pleasure to see you again! How are you today?" Vs. "Hey, what's up?"
"I'm a bit upset," Vs. "I'm so pissed off."
"I would be delighted!" Vs. "Sure, why not?"
"I'll do it right away, sir," Vs. "Yeah, just a sec."
Intended or inclined to teach or instruct, often excessively
Ex: Animal farm reveals the greed and corruption of the Russian Revolution as well as the impact of powerful people on societeal ideology.
The repetiton of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses
Ex: Hourly joys be still upon you! Juno sings her blessings on you. . . .
Scarcity and want shall shun you,
Ceres' blessing so is on you.
A short inscription in prose or verse on a tombstone or monument
Ex: Death is not a foe, but an inevitable adventure.
A statement or speech commemorating someone who has died: a funeral oration
A persuasive appeal based on the projected character of the speaker of narrator.
Ex:"Doctors all over the world recommend this type of treatment."
The substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensivel explicit
Ex: You are becoming a little thin on top (bald).
"kick the bucket"-dying
A statement or type or composition intended to give information about (or an explanation of) an issue, subject, method, or idea.
Ex: He is a very respectable man.
He had run off with Desdemona, Brabantio's daughter.
He is a great general who is sought by Venice to defend it in the war against the Turks.
A comparison between two unlike things that continues througout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem
Ex: All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts.
An error in reasoning that renders an argument invalid
Ex: "You can't demonstrate that there aren't Martians living in caves on the surface of Mars, so it is sensible for me to accept there are."
A fallacy of oversimplication that offers a limited number of options (usually two) when in fact more options are available
Ex: If you don't like One Direction, you kick puppies. You don't like One Direction? You kick puppies
If we don't reduce public spending, then our economy will collapse
America: Love it or leave it
The universe could not have been created from nothing, so it must have been created by an intellient life force.
Language in which figures of speech (such as metaphors, similes, and hyperbole) freely occcur
A category of artistic composition, as film or literature, marked by a distinctive style, form, or content
Ex: Parodies. A parody intends to mimic another genre to humorous effect. Parodies can be intended to mock and criticize as well as to pay homage.
Epics. An epic is a tale, often told in verse, of a heroic figure on a quest.
Fairy tales. Often age-old stories that include magic and folklore in addition to traditional fantasy characters like elves and goblins.
A fallacy in which a conclusion is not logically justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence.
Ex: My father smoked four packs of cigarettes a day since age fourteen and lived until age sixty-nine. Therefore, smoking really can't be that bad for you.
A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect; an extravagent statement
Ex: I've told you a million times
I am so hungry I could eat a horse.
I have a million things to do.
I had a ton of homework.
If I can't buy that new game, I will die.
Vivid descriptive language that appeals to one or more of the senses
Ex: The eerie silence was shattered by her scream.
The giant tree was ablaze with the orange, red, and yellow leaves that were beginning to make their decent to the ground.
Denunciatory or abusive language; discourse that casts blame on somebody or something
Ex: Calling a person a chicken when they are unwilling to jump off the top of a building.
Referring to an old, physically disabled man as a bungling fool when he is not able to quickly get his subway token into the machine.
Labeling someone who took credit for your idea as a cheater.
The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. A statement or situation where the meaning is directly contradicted by the appearance or presentation of ides.
Ex: A person who claims to be a vegan and avoids meat but will eat a slice of pepperoni pizza because they are hungry. It may not make sense, but it is an illustration of irony.
A man who is a traffic cop gets his license suspended for unpaid parking tickets.
An ambulance driver goes to a nightime bike accident scene and runs over the accident victim because the victim has crawled to the center of the road with their bike.
A succession of phrases of approximately equal length and correspongind strucute.
Ex: The dog barks. The cat meows. The pink oinks.
The specialized language of a professional, occupational, or other group, often meaningless to outsiders.
Ex: 10-4 - Radio talk meaning Okay or I understand
Right wing - political talk meaning a conservative viewpoint
A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an alternative is expressed by negating its oppostie.
Ex; He's no fool
He's not the ugliest fellow around.
You are not wrong.
They aren't the happiest couple around.
A sentence structure in which a main caluse is followed by subordiante phrases and clauses. Also called a cumulative sentence. Contrast with periodic sentence
Ex: Wolves are important in a habitat because they control the numbers of elk, which in turn allows trees to mature so they can offer shelter to birds and insects.
a statement, sentence or argument used to convince or persuade the targeted audience by employing reason or logic
Ex:"Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man".
"History has shown time and again that absolute power corrupts absolutely."
A figure of speech in which an implied compariosn is made between two unlike things that actually have something important common
Ex: He drowned in a sea of grief.
She is fishing in troubled waters.
Her voice is music to his ears.
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as crown for royalty)
Ex: Saying "The White House declared" rather than "The President declared"
Mode of Discourse
The way in which information is presented in a text. The four traditional modes are narration, description, exposition, and argument.
The emotion evoked by a text
Ex: Cheerful: This light-hearted happy mood is shown with descriptions of laughter, upbeat music, delicious smells, and bright colors.
Humorous: This mood is silly and sometimes ridiculous. Characters will do and say odd or funny things. This mood is sometimes used to alleviate a somber or dangerous situation.
Idyllic: This is a calm and peaceful feeling, and can sometimes be shown by describing a natural setting, like in the country. Here is an example from Charles Dickens' "Pickwick Papers":
A rhetorical stragety that recounts a sequence of events, usually in chronological order
The part of speech (or word class) that is used to name a person, place, thing, quality, or action
The formation or use of words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to.
Ex: boom, crash, moo, oink
A figure of speech in which incongruous or contradictory terms appar side by side
Ex: "I can resist anything, except temptation."
"I like a smuggler. He is the only honest thief."
"And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true."
"Modern dancing is so old fashioned." - Samuel Goldwyn
"A business that makes nothing but money is a poor business."
"I am busy doing nothing."
Cruel to be kind
Pain for pleasure
A statement that appears to contradict itself
Ex: Your enemy's friend is your enemy.
I am nobody.
The similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses.
Ex: Like father, like son.
The escaped prisoner was wanted dead or alive.
Easy come, easy go.
Whether in class, at work or at home, Shasta was always busy.
Flying is fast, comfortable, and safe.
A literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of an author or work for comic effect or ridiculte
Ex: "Police Academy" (spoof on police movies of the 1980s)
"Austin Powers" (spoof on James Bond movies)
"Spaceballs" (spoof on Star Wars movies)
"Airplane!" (spoof on disaster movies of the 1970s)
"Blazing Saddles" (spoof on American Western movies)
"Young Frankenstein" (spoof on classic monster movies)
"Robin Hood: Men in Tights" (spoof on all Robin Hood movies)
"Scary Movie" (spoof on horror movies)
The means of persuasion that appeals to the audience's emotions
Ex: "If we don't move soon, we're all going to die! Can't you see how dangerous it would be to stay?"
A long and frequently involved sentence, marked by suspended syntax, in which the main idea comes near the end of the sentence
Ex: With low taxes, beautiful views and a mild climate, this city is a great place to live.
A figure of speeh in which an inanimate object or abstraction is endowed with human qualities or abilities
Ex: The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky.
The run down house appeared depressed.
The first rays of morning tiptoed through the meadow.
Look at my car. She is a beauty, isn't it so?
The wind whispered through dry grass.
The flowers danced in the gentle breeze.
Time and tide waits for none.
The fire swallowed the entire forest.
Point of View
The perspective from which a speaker or writer tells a story or presents information
Ex: First person- "I felt like I was getting drowned with shame and disgrace."
Second person- "Sometimes you cannot clearly discern between anger and frustration."
Third person - "Mr. Stewart is a principled man. He acts by the book and never lets you deceive him easily."
One of the two main parts of a sentence or clause, including the verb, objects, or phrases governed by the verb
Ex: "We[ rob banks]."
"Great minds [discuss ideas]; average minds [discuss events]; small minds [discuss people].
"If you [build it], he [will come]."
"[Always do right]. This [will gratify some people] and [astonish the rest]."
A word (a part of speech or word class) that takes the place of a noun
Ex: I, me, he, she, herself, you, it, that, they, each, few, many, who, whoever, whose, someone, everybody, etc.
Ordinary writing (both fiction and nonfiction) as distinguished from verse
Ex: "The woods look lovely against the setting darkness and as I gaze into the mysterious depths of the forest, I feel like lingering here longer. However, I have pending appointments to keep and much distance to cover before I settle in for the night or else I will be late for all of them."
biographies, essays, novels, legends, tales
The part of an argument wherein a speaker or writer anticipates and counters opposing points of view.
Ex: The fact that children go to bed after eating chocolate opposes the argument that sugar keeps children up.`
An instance of using a word, phrase, or clause more than once in a short passage-- dwelling on a point
Ex: I'm nobody! Who are you?
Are you nobody too?
Then there's a pair of us-don't tell!
They'd banish us you know.
Because I do not hope to turn again
Because I do not hope
Because I do not hope to turn...
The study and practice of effective communication
Ex: Upon approaching a cashier at the grocery store she asks, "Will you help starving children today by adding $3 to your grocery bill?"
An advertiser for insurance may use rhetoric to make it seem that the buyer would receive less service or support for any intense damage to property in order to persuade a consumer to buy a certain brand of insurance.
Rhetorical Question A question asked merely for effect with no answer expected.
Ex: "O Wind,
If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?"
A text or performance that uses irony, derision, or wit to expose or attack human vice, foolishness, or stupidity
Ex: "I never forget a face, but in your case I'll be glad to make an exception."
A figure of speech in which 2 fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared, usually in phrase introduced by "like" or "as"
Ex: Her cheeks are red like a rose.
He is as funny as a monkey.
The water well was as dry as a bone.
He is as cunning as a fox.
Narrowly interpreted as those figures that ornment speech or writing; broadly, as representing a manifestation of the person speaking or writing
The part of a sentence of clause that indicates what it is about
Ex: My [dog] always growls at the postal carrier.
[Basketballs] roll across the floor.
[I] don't understand the assignment..
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
All men are mortal. John is a man. John is a mortal.
No homework is fun. Some reading is homework. Some reading is not fun.
No reptiles have fur. All snakes are reptiles. No snakes have fur.
Words, phrases, and clauses that make one elemetn of a sentence dependent on another. Contrast with coordination.
Ex: Because the football game has been postponed, we will have to do something else.
A person, place, action, or thing that (by association, resemblance, or convention) represents something other than itself
Ex: Wedding rings and engagement rings: Wedding and engagement rings are worn to symbolize a lasting union that a couple has entered into.
The American flag: The thirteen red and white stripes on the American flag symbolize the original thirteen colonies, while the fifty stars are a symbol for the fifty states.
A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole, the whole for a part, the specific for the general, the generals for the specific, or the material for the thing made from it.
Ex; "gray beard"- old man
"coke"- all sodas
The study of rules that govern the way words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences
The arrangement of words in a sentence
Ex: "What light from yonder window breaks?" instead of using a common expression "What light breaks from yonder window?"
The main idea of an essay or report, often written as a single declarative sentence. There is no magic number or parts
Ex: Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendía was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice.
It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.`
A writer's attitude toward the subject and audience. Tone is primarily conveyed through diction, point of view, syntax, and level of formality.
The connection between 2 parts of a piece of writing, contributing to coherence
Ex: on the contrary, however, notwithstanding, after, at last, before, etc.
A figure of speech in which a writer deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is. Opposite of a hyperbole.
Ex: He who examines his own self will not long remain ignorant of his failings.
Hitting that telephone pole certainly didn't do your car any good.
The part of speech (or word class) that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being
The distinctive style or manner of expression of an author or narrator