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46 terms

FS chapter 5 study guide

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Physical dependence
physiological need for a drug that been brought about by its regular use
Psychological dependence
conditioned use of a drug caused by underlaying emotional needs
screening test
a test that nonspecific an preliminary in nature
spectrophotometry
an analytical method for identifying a substance by exposing it to a specific type of electromagnetic radiation
stimulant
a substance taken to increse alertness or activity
ultraviolet
invisible long frequencies of light beyound violet in the visible spectrum
anabolic steroids
steroids that promote muscle growth
analgestic
a drug or stubstance that lessens or eliminates pain
chromatography
a means of seperating and tentatively identifying the components of a mixture
confirmation
a single test that specifically identifies a substance
depressent
a substances that depresses the functions of the central nervous system
fluoresce
to emit visible light when exposed to light of a shorter wavelength
hallucinagen
a substance that indused change in mood, attitude, thought processes, and perceptions
infrared
invisible short frequences of light before red in the visible spectrum
ion
an atom or molecule bearing a positive or negitive charge
microcrystalline test
tests to identify specific substances by the color a morphology of crystals formed when the substance is mixed with specific reagents
monochromatic light
light having a single wavelength frequency
monochromater
a decice used to isolate wavelengths or frequences of light
narcotic
an analgesic or pain-killing substance that depresses vital body functions shch as blood pressure, pulse rate, and breathing rate
Durg
A natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects in humans or other higher-order animals
opiates
a type of narcotic drug and the source of most narcotic drugs
Bariturates
also known and downers because they relax the user, create a sense of wellbeing and produce sleep
Huffing
the sniffing of materials containing volatile solvents, freon and things of this nature
Amphetamine
a group of synthetic stimulants that share a similar chemical structure and are known as uppers of speed
Schedule 1 drugs
have no medical value in the united states and have a high potential for abuse
schedule 2 drugs
may have medical value in the united stated and have a high potential for abues
How many people in the united states use illicit drugs?
23 million
list some psychological reasons for drug use?
desire to create a sence of well being, to escape from reality, seek relief from personal problems and stressful situations, and sustin a physical and emotial state that permits an improved level of performance.
list some withdrawal symptoms linked with physical dependence of a drug?
body chills, vomiting, stomach cramps, convulsions, insomnia, pain, hallucinations
what is the mot frequently used opium derivative?
heroin
what is the best known synthetic opiate?
methadone
why is OxyContin so addictive?
it is closely related morphine or heroin
what is the most widely used illicit drug in the united states?
Marijuana
how can marijuana be used for medical benefit?
the reduction of excessive eye pressure in glaucoma and the lessening of nausea caused by powerful anticancer drugs
what is LSD derived from?
a type of fungus that attacks grasses and grains
what makes PCP so dangerous?
severe depression, tendencies toward violence, suicide, and it can cause schizophrenic behavior
what is the most abused drug in the united states?
Alcohol
list some examples of depressants?
Alcohol, Bariturates, Antiphyschotic, and antianxiety drugs
what damage can huffing do to the human body?
liver, heart, and brain damage, also risk of immediate death
why do many people use cocaine?
to increase productivity at work and to keep going when they are tired
what are GHB (ecstasy) and rohypnol associated with?
sexual assault, rape, and robbery
why are anabolic steroids so dangerous?
masculinizing effect in females, infertility, an diminished sex drive in males. for teenagers, result in premature halting of bone growth, and they are associated with anger issues
what is the most common type of screen test?
color test
list three types of confirmation test?
microcrystalline test, chromatography, spectrophotometry
what are two types of chromatography?
thin-layer and gas chromatography
what type of spectrophotometry is most affective for identifying drugs?
infrared Spectrophotometry