Chapter 5 — Sikhism
Terms in this set (84)
Sikh scriptures compiled by Guru Arjan Dev; also referred to as the Final Guru or Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
Akali Dal Khara Sauda Bar
Twentieth-century Sikh reform movement
that worked to liberate Sikh shrines (gurdwaras) from control by the dominating Udasi and Nirmala priests, who considered shrines and lands associated with them as their personal property.
Akbar (the Great) (1542-1605)
Third Mughal emperor, son of Emperor Humayun and grandson of Emperor Babur; known for religious tolerance and appreciation for the arts.
Sanctified solution of sugar and water (nectar) used in a Sikh ceremony; "immortality"; related etymologically to the Greek "ambrosia."
City in the state of Punjab, northwestern India; the spiritual center for the Sikh religion and home to the Harmandir Sahib, known as the Golden Temple; Sikh Guru Ram Das began the construction of the Golden Temple.
Self, soul; in Hinduism, the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual; in Buddhism, refers to self, ego, stressing the nonself teachings of the Lord Buddha (anatma); in Jainism, the soul, the principle of sentience and one of the tattvas (fundamental substances forming part of the universe).
Sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent; a pious Muslim, he rejected the religious tolerance of his predecessors.
Descent of a Hindu deity to Earth; also incarnation; usually associated with Vishnu.
Ancient city of India, considered the birthplace of the Lord Vishnu avatar Rama and the setting of the Hindu epic Ramayana; located at the south end of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Conqueror from central Asia who laid the foundation of the Mughal Dynasty in the Indian subcontinent; he was a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother.
Hindu and Buddhist religious devotion; in worship, warm devotion to the divine.
Bhattal, Rajinder Kaur (b. 1931)
First woman Sikh chief minister of the Punjab, with a reputation for being a strong leader.
British rule in the Indian subcontinent (1858-1947); also period of dominion of Indian subcontinent under British control.
Ancient term for enemies of the Indo-Aryan tribes in the Rig Veda; also means "servant of God" and "devotee."
Sikh head covering (Persian, "turban") mandatory for all Amrit-dhari (baptized) Sikh men; required for all members of the Khalsa; the dastar in central and South Asia con- notes royalty and dignity.
Sikh characteristic of God as the Great Giver.
In Sikhism, a place of worship; village hospice that functions as a religious asylum, a place set apart so that believers could meet for worship; predecessor to the Sikh gurdwara (place of worship).
Main hall where Sikh congregational worship occurs in a gurdwara (worship center).
Insider perspective; an approach to investigation that illuminates how local people think; analysis of cultural phenomena from the perspective of one who participates in the culture being studied.
Outsider perspective; analysis of cultural phenomena from the perspective of one who does not participate in the culture being studied.
In Sikhism, a holy temple of God (the Harmandir Sahib) located in Amritsar, Punjab, with four doors representing the openness of the Sikhs toward all religions.
Sacred text of Sikhism.
Place of worship for Sikhs; "Gateway to the Guru."
In Sikh tradition, a "person oriented toward the Guru"; a term describing one who has obtained the status of mukhti (Sanskrit, "release," "liberation").
In Sikhism, one of the Ten Gurus (Teachers) of Sikh tradition, enshrined in the Adi Granth.
Guru Amar Das (1479-1574)
In Sikh tradition, the third Guru.
Guru Angad Dev (1504-54)
In Sikh tradition, the second Guru.
Guru Arjan Dev (1563-1606)
In Sikh tradition, the fifth Guru; the first Guru to be born in a Sikh family, made one of the most important contributions to Sikhism, the final compilation of the Adi Granth in 1604.
Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708)
In Sikh tradition, the tenth and final human Guru.
Guru Hargobind (1595-1644)
In Sikh tradition, the sixth Guru, noted for building the chief Sikh shrine located in the Golden Temple.
Guru Har Krishan (1656-64)
In Sikh tradition, the eighth Guru; installed as Guru at the age of five, he died only three years later.
Guru Har Rai (1630-61)
In Sikh tradition, the seventh Guru.
Guru Nanak (1469-1539)
In Sikh tradition, the first Guru, who traveled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one
of God's creations; his teachings are found in the Guru Granth Sahib.
Guru Ram Das (1534-81)
In Sikh tradition, the fourth Guru.
Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621-75)
In Sikh tradition, the ninth Guru.
In Sikh tradition, "the Abode of God"; the sacred Sikh gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar; also known as the Golden Temple; the four entry doors to the Harmandir Sahib symbolize the openness of the Sikhs toward all people and religions
Second Mughal emperor, who ruled a large territory consisting of what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern Indian.
Fourth Mughal emperor (1569-1627), the eldest son of Emperor Akbar.
In Sikh tradition, "birth testimony," "life stories"; a collection of uncritical biographies of Guru Nanak.
In Sikh tradition, a set of verses recited every morning by faithful Sikhs.
Islamic law of poll tax, per capita tax, levied on non-Muslim citizens (dhimmi) who meet certain criteria; a material proof of the non-Muslims' acceptance of subjugation to a Muslim state and its laws.
Mystic poet and saint of India, whose writings influenced the bhakti movement within Sikhism.
In Sikh tradition, short trousers, undershorts, used practically during the period of the human Gurus to enable quick action in war, especially if surprised by an enemy; worn as an undergarment to symbolize self-restraint and self-control of sexual desires like lust.
In Sikh tradition, a small comb usually made of wood or ivory; its purpose is to keep the hair neat and tangle free at all times.
Kapany, Narinder Singh (b. 1926)
Considered the father of fiber optics, he has fundamentally shaped the world of technology and communications through his research in fiber optics communications, biomedical instrumentation, and solar energy; also known for his work as a philanthropist, art collector, artist, and farmer.
In Sikh tradition, a steel bangle bracelet worn on the right wrist; reminds the wearer of his or her unity with God and other Sikhs in bondage to the Guru, restraining the wearer from evil action.
In Sikh tradition, "Princess" or "Lionness"; a mandatory name for female Sikhs, often used as a last or middle name.
In Sikh tradition, long, uncut hair and unshorn beard; no hair may be removed from the body since doing so interferes with God's will.
Collective body of all initiated Sikhs.
Sikh symbol consisting of a double-edged sword.
In Sikh tradition, the characteristic of God, the Master.
In Sikh tradition, a sword; this ceremonial sword can be five to ninety centimeters long and can be worn at the waist, the neck, or in the kangha (comb), representing quick defense of truth and the prevention of violence.
In Sikh tradition, free kitchens; common kitchen where food is served in a gurdwara to all the visitors, Sikh or non-Sikh; only vegetarian food is served in a langar.
In Sikh tradition, a territorial division or district, as well as a missionary order for the purpose of preaching.
In Sikh tradition, "person guided by inclination," an ego-centered, perverse, self-willed individual who is controlled by human impulses rather than the truth of the Gurus.
In Sikh tradition, a territorial deputy or vicar charged with the care of Sikh congregations and who seeks to establish new and restore older gurdwaras (Sikh worship spaces).
Imperial power in the Indian subcontinent (c. 1526-1757) of Turkic- Mongol origin.
"Release," "liberation"; liberation from successive rebirths and therefore the achievement of peace through the ultimate union with God.
In Sikh tradition, "name," which encompasses the whole of creation; name of God; the word repeated daily by all Sikhs to refer to the All-Pervading Supreme Reality.
Sikh holy triangular flag, used outside most gurdwaras (Sikh churches).
Panjabi Pracharni Sabha
Society for the promotion of Punjabi language.
Sikh term meaning pathway, sect, denomination, or religious society; Sikh Panth refers to the entire community, fellowship, or religious body of Sikhs.
In Sikh tradition, a characteristic of God as Father; a "personal" God as Father.
In Sikh tradition, the characteristic of God, the Lover.
Vaishnava who lived in Varanasi in the fifteenth century; a pioneer of the bhakti movement and a social reformer in northern India who promoted devotion to Rama and Sita.
In Sikh tradition, the body of men and women who meet in the presence of the Guru Granth Sahib; the congregation of the Sikh community.
Renouncer; final life stage in Hindu tradition in which a devotee renounces worldly and material pursuits and dedicates his or her life to the attainment of spiritual insight.
To be good; to be real; refers to those who sing the name of God and worship him, particularly the Hindu bhakti poets.
Guru who dispels the darkness from all three elements of human existence (physical, psychic, and spiritual spheres); someone who enables one to overcome the ego.
In Sikhism, "everlasting name," referring to the All-Pervading Supreme Reality that sustains the universe; "True Name" that refers to God.
Sound, speech; in Sikhism, refers to a hymn or paragraph of the Sikh Holy Scripture.
Shahid Sikh Missionary College
Located in Amritsar, this college trains Sikh preachers and teaches Sikh sacred texts, philosophy, history, and music.
Shah Jahan (1592-1666)
Fifth Mughal emperor, grandson of Akbar the Great; reigned during the golden age of Mughal architectural achievements, such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, and Jama Masjid.
Islamic law; "path to the water hole," refers to the fact that water is the whole way of life and source of good; "the right path"; the straight path."
Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee
Parliamentary body responsible for preservation of Sikh places of worship (gurdwaras) in northern India by managing the religious, financial, and security facets of gurdwaras; also known as the Parliament of the Sikhs.
In Sikh tradition, the Pali term for "learner" and "disciple," referring to disciples of the Sikh Gurus. In Hindu tradition, refers to the lock of hair left on top or on the back of the shaven head of a male Orthodox Hindu; today, mainly seen among celibate Hindu monks and temple priests.
Sikh Students Federation
Sikh students' union and political organization in India; primarily political but also promotes Sikh heritage and values.
"Lion"; common name used in South Asia; used as a surname for male Sikhs.
Singh, Manmohan (b. 1932)
Best known worldwide as the first Sikh prime minister of India; a renowned economist credited with instituting economic reforms as prime minister that dramatically reduced regulations, thus stimulating the Indian economy.
Singh, Sobha (1890-1978)
Prominent Sikh builder and real-estate owner in Delhi; known as adhi da malik (the owner of half of Delhi).
Singh Sabha Movement
Sikh movement aimed at the revival of the Sikh Guru's teaching, in response to Hindu and Christian mission activities.
Built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal; this white marble mausoleum, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Agra, India, is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture.
Jain concept of a human being who helps others achieve liberation after succeeding in crossing over life's stream of rebirths and becoming a role model for others; also known as jina.
An egalitarian Hindu sect started by Ramananda, who called for radical equality, even between genders; the group stresses the need to worship the one God, Rama, through bhakti (warm devotion) commitment.
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