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to grow upon

Epiphyseal Cartilage

growth plate - bone grows longer here (one at each end)


to grow across


- Superior and posterior to soft palate
- Two Tonsils - pharyngeal and tubal tonsils
- Tonsils part of immune system


- From soft palate to epiglottis
- Two tonsils - Palatine and lingual


- From epiglottis to esophagus and trachea
- Food moves by peristalsis to stomach


- 2 to 2.5 mm thick
- Hardest material in the body - 92% hydroxyapatite


- Deep to enamel
- More Porous than enamel
- 64.5% hydroxyapatite

Gingiva (gum)

forms seal against tooth - protects dentin

Pulp Cavity

contains pulp - includes vascular supply and nerves

Bone (Alveolar Bone)

depression in bone that root anchors to - formed from ......?

Periodontal ligament or membrane

- Pointing to Watermelon colored line
- Is a continuation of the periosteum
- Surrounds root of the tooth
- Attaches to cementum


- Pointing to Green colored line
- Helps anchor tooth into alveolus
- Is calcified connective tissue

Root Canal

- Contains pulp

Spongy Bone

- yellow or red - red is where rbc's are formed
- formed by epiphyseal plate


- erodes the medullary canal as the bone grows
- can form callus on inside of a break

Compact Bone

- very dense and strong
- periosteum forms it
- bone gets greater diameter as it grows.

Medullar Canal or Marrow Cavity

Articular Cartilage

- Covers epiphysis - to periosteum
- Found in all moveable joints
- Reduces friction


- Surrounds bone except for area where articular cartilage is.
- Four main functions
1. Shares blood supply
2. Tendons attach to this
3. Increases diameter as bone grows
4. Forms callus on the outside

Blood vessel


- Attaches Periosteum to bone


In a broken bone the Periosteum forms the ______ on the outside, endosteum forms the _______ on the inside. This makes the bone very strong at the area of a break.

Joint Capsule

- dense connective tissue
- impermeable- holds synovial fluid in joint
- Protects synovial membrane
- May help stabilize the joint as extracapsular ligament

Articular Cartilage

- Covers epiphysis - to periosteum
- Found in all moveable joints
- Reduces friction, distributes pressure, and shock absorption

Synovial Fluid

This space is exaggerated potential space. Isn't really as large in real life as it appears here.

Synovial Membrane

- Connective tissue
- Secretes _______ fluid- lubricates, dissipates heat, and some shock absorption


- May be to stabilize joint
- Initiates movement


- Is sometimes extension of synovial membrane
- Acts as a bumper between structures near the joint

Intracapsular ligament

- Not all joints have these
- Stabilizes joint


- Connects Muscle to Muscle, or Muscle to bone

Extracapsular Ligament (collateral ligament)

- Not all joints have these
- Stabilizes joint
- Found on sides of joint where motion should NOT
- Thickening of joint capsule

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