41 terms

APES Ch 17- Human Health and Environmental Risks

APES vocab from Friedland and Relyea
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disease
an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
infectious diseases
Diseases that are caused by infecting organisms; they can be passed from person to person
chronic diseases
diseases that linger for long periods of time, and are slower to develop and recede
acute diseases
diseases that develop rapidly, cause severe symptoms, and fade quickly
plague
a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected rat flea (especially bubonic plague)
epidemic
the rapid spread of a disease among many people
pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
malaria
an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito
tuberculosis
infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
emergent infectious diseases
infectious diseases that were previosuly not described or have not been common for at least the prior 20 years
aids
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
hiv
the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
ebola
A contagious viral disease originating in Africa. It is transmitted by blood and body fluids and causes body organs and vessels to leak blood, usually resulting in death
mad cow disease
disease that is caused by an infectious protein called a prion and is also known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy
prions
Infectious protein particles that do not have a genome (often found in cow brains)
bird flu
also called avian influenza, it is a viral disease carried by birds; this virus spreads by water, air and soil; it is dangerous to humans because our immune system does not have antibodies that can beat this virus
west nile virus
infection is transmitted by mosquitoes and is relatively new to the United States and can cause flu-like symptoms that can result in encephalitis
neurotoxins
Toxic substances that specifically poison nerve cells [i.e. lead, mercury]
carcinogens
chemicals that cause cancer [i.e. arsenic, abestos, PCBs]
mutagens
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
teratogens
chemicals that interfere with the normal development of embryos or fetuses [i.e. alcohol, thalidomide]
endocrine disruptor
chemicals that interfere with the normal functioning of hormones in an animal's body [i.e. altrazine, a herbicide, ddt, phthalates]
allergens
chemicas that cause allergic reactions [i.e. peanuts, pollen, codeine, penicilin]
dose response studies
A study that exposes organisms to difierent amounts of a chemical and then observes a variety of possible responses, including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction
acute studies
short duration of experiments
LD50
the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population
ED50
the point at which 50 percent of the test organisms show a negative effect from a toxin
sublethal effects
a general type of toxic effect, results in great harm, but not death
chronic studies
A Study that is done for two yers. The object of long term testing is to determine the no effect level
Toxic Substances Control Act
1976- Authorized the EPA to ban or regulate chemicals deemed a risk to health or the environment
epidemology
the branch of medicine that investigates the causes and conditions of epidemics
retrospective studies
studying participants with a disease and tracing behaviors to determine cause
prospective studies
Look ahead to see if risk factors from retrospective study predict tendency to develop disease
synergistic interactions
occur when chemicals act together to multiply harmful effects
routes of exposure
Inhalation, Absorption, Ingestion and Injection
solubility
the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)
biomagnification
buildup of pollutants at higher levels of the food chain
innocent until proven guilty principle
Based on the philosophy that a potential hazard should not be considered a hazard until it can be proven so
precautionary principle
based on the philosophy that when a hazard is plausible but yet certain, we should take actions to reduce or remove the hazard
stockholm convention
2001- an agreement between 127 nations in Sweden to restrict the global use of chemicals. The 12 banned chemicals (including DDT) became known as the "dirty dozen." 9 more were later added
REACH
registration, evaluation, authorisation, and restriction of chemicals (embraces the precautionary principle) Founded in 2007 in the European Union
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