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24 terms

Psychology: Chapter 2.01/2.02 -- Neuro-transmission & Neurotransmitters

Neurons and their functions / states. Taken straight out of Brain Honey's Chapter 2.02 quiz.
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Resting Potential
State during which a neuron contains more -ions inside than outside the cell. NOT firing.
All-Or-None Principle
Firing patterns of neuron transmitters; never "partially" firing
Synaptic Vesicles
Tiny sacks in a synaptic knob, releasing chemicals into the synapse
Synaptic Knob
Holds synaptic vesicles that release chemicals into the Synapse
Synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Action Potential
When the electric potential in a cell is in action versus a resting state, the electrical charge reversal is known as the ____________

State of being positively charged, in comparison to charge outside the neuron

Causes neurotransmitters to be released into the synapse
Receptor Site
Like a locked door that only certain neurotransmitter "keys" can unlock; because ______s are holes in the surface of dendrites or certain cells of the muscles & glands that are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters
Dendrite
short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron
Excitatory Neurotransmitters
______ Make it more likely a neuron will send its message to other neurons
Inhibitory Neurotransmitters
______ Make it less likely a neuron will send its message to other neurons
Cuare
A poison that works by blocking receptor sites and acts as an antagonist for acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
Convulsions, memory & learning
Functions triggered by Acetylcholine
Serotonin
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger, sleep, arousal & mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
Sleep, hunger, arousal, mood
Functions affected by serotonin
Threshold
Point that must be exceeded to begin a given effect or result to elicit a response
Semi-Permeable / Selectively permeable
Permeable only to certain molecules
Polarization
When more sodium ions outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron; usually when inactive
Depolarization
sodium rushes into neuron through membrane, potassium ruses out; results in a change in charge; the refractory period of the neuron will prevent it from firing.
Repolarization; Refractory
As each section of the axon is depolarizing, the preceding section is going through the process of __(a)__. Also called the __(b)__ period, as it cannot fire again until it reaches resting potential
GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Inhibitory transmitter to the neurosystem

Release of ___ is stimulated by alcohol consumption; which is why too much alcohol is followed by the general inhibitory patterns associated with being drunkk.
Morphine
narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain and aid sleep. ___ and other opiates tap into receptor sites for endorphins
Endorphin
natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Reuptake
Process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles; reabsorption of excess neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron