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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Regulation of HR- Parasympathetic
  2. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 2 (Ventricular Filling)
  3. Atrial Brainbridge Reflex
  4. Chemical Regulation of the Heart
  5. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 1(Atrial Systole)
  1. a Sympathetic reflex caused by...
    -inc. in venous return
    -blood congestion in the atria
    Stretching of the atrial walls inc. HR and force by...
    -directly stimulating the SA node
    -stimulating by baroreceptors in the atria (pressure receptors)
    -triggers adjustment- inc. symptoms/stimulation of the heart
  2. b Ions influencing heart function
    -calcium
    -patients w/ hypocalcemia (low calcium)
    -depresses HR
  3. c Ventricular filling (mid-to-late diastole)
    -returning blood flowing into atria and opens AV valve to ventricles
    -semilunar valves closed (aortic and pulmonary)
    -70% of ventricular filling
    -AV valve begins to close- blood trapped in ventricle
    -Preparing for atrial systole
  4. d Parasympathetic NS
    -opposed to sympathetic responses
    -reduces HR when stress is relieved
    -Mechanism: Ach receptors(opens K+ channels)
    -Hyperpol. Cardiac cells
    -slows process down
  5. e Atrial Systole- depolarization atria contracts
    -compesses blood in the chambers
    -Atrial pressure forces remaining blood into ventricles
    -ventricles last of resting phase(diastole) w/ max blood volume termed "end diastolic volume" (EDV)
    -Atria relax and ventricles depolarize creates-QRS complex
    -Atrial diastole remains through the cycle

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Both divisions of the autonomic NS send impulses to the heart
    The dominant influence is inhibitory termed 'Vagal Tone'
    -cutting the 'vagal nerve' (parasympathetic input removed) causes a quick inc. in beats/min
  2. Chemicals in blood and body fluids can alter cardiac function
    Hormones
    -epinephrine- released by adrenal medulla
    -enhances HR and contractility
    -Thyroxine- thyroid hormone
    -inc. metabolic rate and body heat
    -slow sustained inc. in HR
    -also enhances effects of epinephrine
  3. Heart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves
  4. Right side of heart- pulmonary side
    -systole- 24 mm Hg
    -diastole- 8 mm Hg
    Left side of heart- aortic side
    -systole- 120 mm Hg
    -diastole- 80 mm Hg
  5. During Ventricular Systole
    1. Atria is in diastole and fills
    2. Intra-atrial pressure inc. b/c atria filling
    3. Pressure in atria forces AV valves open- ventricular filling begins
    4. Atrial pressure drops and vent. pressure rises completing the cycle

5 True/False questions

  1. Regulation of Heart Rate- Autonomic NSAutonomic NS Regulation (extrinsic factor regulating the heart)
    Under stress, fright, anxiety, excitement
    -sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine
    -binds to B1- andrenergic receptors
    -causes threshold to be reached quicker- pacemaker fires more rapidly faster beat

          

  2. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 4 (Isovolumetric Relaxation)Ventricular filling (mid-to-late diastole)
    -returning blood flowing into atria and opens AV valve to ventricles
    -semilunar valves closed (aortic and pulmonary)
    -70% of ventricular filling
    -AV valve begins to close- blood trapped in ventricle
    -Preparing for atrial systole

          

  3. Cardiac Output- exampleCO (ml/min)= HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70 ml/beat)
    Normal blood volume- 5 Liters
    Entire blood volume through heart every minute
    Co is highly variable
    -altered by SV or HR or both
    Cardiac Reserve
    -maximal CO- Resting CO
    -Cardiac reserve (normally) 4-5 times greater than resting CO
    -Athletes about 7x greater than resting CO

          

  4. Cardiac Cycle- Pressure and Volume changesPressure and Blood volume changes
    -left side of heart- 5x greater pressure than right side
    -regardless both ventricles pump the same volume of blood per beat

          

  5. Cardiac Cycle Important PointsBlood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction