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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Regulation of Stroke Volume
  2. Regulation of HR- Parasympathetic
  3. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 4 (Isovolumetric Relaxation)
  4. Heart sounds at thorax
  5. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 2 (Ventricular Filling)
  1. a Lub-dub lub-dub lub-dub
    -heart valves closing
    Pause- represents quiescent period
    First sound-
    -start of systole- vent. pressure rises above atrial pressure
    -louder and longer than the second sound
    Second sound-
    -short, sharp sound of the semilunar valves snap shut
    -at the start of ventricular diastole
    -Note: aortic valve closes before pulmonary valve- can distinguish these by sound
  2. b Parasympathetic NS
    -opposed to sympathetic responses
    -reduces HR when stress is relieved
    -Mechanism: Ach receptors(opens K+ channels)
    -Hyperpol. Cardiac cells
    -slows process down
  3. c Isovolumentric Relaxation(early diastole)
    -Following the T wave(repol. of vent.) ventricles relax- not compressed
    -"end systole volume" (ESV)
    -blood that did not get pumped out- remaining in vent.
    -blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk back flows closing semilunar valves
    -so blood can't go back into heart
    -closed semilunar valves cause a short rise in aortic pressure as blood rebounds off closed valve
    -creates the dicrotic notch
    -Isovolumetric relaxation- ventricles again totally closed off
  4. d SV is the difference between
    -EDV- end diastolic volume
    -amt. of blood collects in the ventricle during diastole
    ESV- end systole volume
    -volume of blood remaining in ventricle after contraction
    EDV-ESV= SV
  5. e Ventricular filling (mid-to-late diastole)
    -returning blood flowing into atria and opens AV valve to ventricles
    -semilunar valves closed (aortic and pulmonary)
    -70% of ventricular filling
    -AV valve begins to close- blood trapped in ventricle
    -Preparing for atrial systole

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Contractility
    -inc. in contractile strength independent of muscle stretch and EDV
    More vigorous contractions due to...
    -greater Ca++ influx- from extracellular and SR
    Results- more blood ejected from the heart (lower ESV and greater SV)
    Contractility due to inc. sympathetic stimulation
    Norepinephrine and the B1 adrenergic receptors
    -stimulates whole process
    -inc. amt. of Ca+ in cell- how sympathetic NS inc. contractility
  2. Pressure and Blood volume changes
    -left side of heart- 5x greater pressure than right side
    -regardless both ventricles pump the same volume of blood per beat
  3. "Frank- Starling Law" of the heart
    -Factor controlling SV is preload
    -Preload- or degree of stretch before the muscle contracts
    -Why?
    Stretch muscle fiber (and sarcomeres) inc. numbers of active across bridge (actin/myosin)
    All muscle if stretched is going to have a better contraction
    More muscle fibers stretched greater the force of contraction
  4. CO (ml/min)= HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70 ml/beat)
    Normal blood volume- 5 Liters
    Entire blood volume through heart every minute
    Co is highly variable
    -altered by SV or HR or both
    Cardiac Reserve
    -maximal CO- Resting CO
    -Cardiac reserve (normally) 4-5 times greater than resting CO
    -Athletes about 7x greater than resting CO
  5. Autonomic NS Regulation (extrinsic factor regulating the heart)
    Under stress, fright, anxiety, excitement
    -sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine
    -binds to B1- andrenergic receptors
    -causes threshold to be reached quicker- pacemaker fires more rapidly faster beat

5 True/False questions

  1. EDV and ESV parametersEDV- two parameters (120 ml)
    1. length of ventricle diastole- how long is vent. relaxing?
    2. Venous pressure- how much pressure is there to bring blood into ventricle?
    ESV- two parameters(50 ml)
    1. atrial BP
    2. force of vent. contraction

          

  2. Cardiac OutputRight side of heart- pulmonary side
    -systole- 24 mm Hg
    -diastole- 8 mm Hg
    Left side of heart- aortic side
    -systole- 120 mm Hg
    -diastole- 80 mm Hg

          

  3. Chemical Regulation of the HeartChemicals in blood and body fluids can alter cardiac function
    Hormones
    -epinephrine- released by adrenal medulla
    -enhances HR and contractility
    -Thyroxine- thyroid hormone
    -inc. metabolic rate and body heat
    -slow sustained inc. in HR
    -also enhances effects of epinephrine

          

  4. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 5- Ventricular SystoleDuring Ventricular Systole
    1. Atria is in diastole and fills
    2. Intra-atrial pressure inc. b/c atria filling
    3. Pressure in atria forces AV valves open- ventricular filling begins
    4. Atrial pressure drops and vent. pressure rises completing the cycle

          

  5. True or False: semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves are closed during isovolumetric contraction phase?True