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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Contractility
  2. Atrial Brainbridge Reflex
  3. Cardiac Cycle Important Points
  4. Diastole
  5. Stretch and Contraction
  1. a Relaxation
    -filling the heart
  2. b Sympathetic reflex caused by...
    -inc. in venous return
    -blood congestion in the atria
    Stretching of the atrial walls inc. HR and force by...
    -directly stimulating the SA node
    -stimulating by baroreceptors in the atria (pressure receptors)
    -triggers adjustment- inc. symptoms/stimulation of the heart
  3. c Skeletal muscle at rest is near its optimal length for max. tension
    Cardiac muscle at rest is shorter...
    -therefore inc. stretch inc. contractile force
    Anything inc. vol. or speed of venous return- inc. SV
    -HR, exercise, etc.
  4. d Blood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction
  5. e Contractility
    -inc. in contractile strength independent of muscle stretch and EDV
    More vigorous contractions due to...
    -greater Ca++ influx- from extracellular and SR
    Results- more blood ejected from the heart (lower ESV and greater SV)
    Contractility due to inc. sympathetic stimulation
    Norepinephrine and the B1 adrenergic receptors
    -stimulates whole process
    -inc. amt. of Ca+ in cell- how sympathetic NS inc. contractility

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. EDV- two parameters (120 ml)
    1. length of ventricle diastole- how long is vent. relaxing?
    2. Venous pressure- how much pressure is there to bring blood into ventricle?
    ESV- two parameters(50 ml)
    1. atrial BP
    2. force of vent. contraction
  2. Contraction
    - ejection of blood
  3. CO (ml/min)= HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70 ml/beat)
    Normal blood volume- 5 Liters
    Entire blood volume through heart every minute
    Co is highly variable
    -altered by SV or HR or both
    Cardiac Reserve
    -maximal CO- Resting CO
    -Cardiac reserve (normally) 4-5 times greater than resting CO
    -Athletes about 7x greater than resting CO
  4. Atrial Systole- depolarization atria contracts
    -compesses blood in the chambers
    -Atrial pressure forces remaining blood into ventricles
    -ventricles last of resting phase(diastole) w/ max blood volume termed "end diastolic volume" (EDV)
    -Atria relax and ventricles depolarize creates-QRS complex
    -Atrial diastole remains through the cycle
  5. Parasympathetic NS
    -opposed to sympathetic responses
    -reduces HR when stress is relieved
    -Mechanism: Ach receptors(opens K+ channels)
    -Hyperpol. Cardiac cells
    -slows process down

5 True/False questions

  1. Stroke Volume Important FactorsBlood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction

          

  2. Cardiac OutputRight side of heart- pulmonary side
    -systole- 24 mm Hg
    -diastole- 8 mm Hg
    Left side of heart- aortic side
    -systole- 120 mm Hg
    -diastole- 80 mm Hg

          

  3. Preload- Stretch of Cardiac Muscle"Frank- Starling Law" of the heart
    -Factor controlling SV is preload
    -Preload- or degree of stretch before the muscle contracts
    -Why?
    Stretch muscle fiber (and sarcomeres) inc. numbers of active across bridge (actin/myosin)
    All muscle if stretched is going to have a better contraction
    More muscle fibers stretched greater the force of contraction

          

  4. Heart MurmursHeart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves

          

  5. Regulation of HR- At restSV is the difference between
    -EDV- end diastolic volume
    -amt. of blood collects in the ventricle during diastole
    ESV- end systole volume
    -volume of blood remaining in ventricle after contraction
    EDV-ESV= SV