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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Systole
  2. Complete Cardiac Cycle
  3. Name 1 important intracellular parameter that can inc. contractility
  4. Regulation of Stroke Volume
  5. Stroke Volume Important Factors
  1. a 1. Preload- amt. vent. stretched by blood (affects EDV)
    2. Contractility- cardiac cell contractile force
    -Effects ESV- more cont.- less blood remains
    3. Afterload- back pressure exerted by blood in the large arteries leaving the heart
    -Effects ESV
  2. b SV is the difference between
    -EDV- end diastolic volume
    -amt. of blood collects in the ventricle during diastole
    ESV- end systole volume
    -volume of blood remaining in ventricle after contraction
    EDV-ESV= SV
  3. c Contraction
    - ejection of blood
  4. d Atrial- systole and diastole
    ventricular- systole and diastole
  5. e Calcium

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. CO (ml/min)= HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70 ml/beat)
    Normal blood volume- 5 Liters
    Entire blood volume through heart every minute
    Co is highly variable
    -altered by SV or HR or both
    Cardiac Reserve
    -maximal CO- Resting CO
    -Cardiac reserve (normally) 4-5 times greater than resting CO
    -Athletes about 7x greater than resting CO
  2. Relaxation
    -filling the heart
  3. Atrial Systole- depolarization atria contracts
    -compesses blood in the chambers
    -Atrial pressure forces remaining blood into ventricles
    -ventricles last of resting phase(diastole) w/ max blood volume termed "end diastolic volume" (EDV)
    -Atria relax and ventricles depolarize creates-QRS complex
    -Atrial diastole remains through the cycle
  4. CO=HR x SV
    Cardiac Output (CO)- amt. of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute
    -HR- heart rate
    -SV (stroke vol)- vol. of blood pumped by vent. per heart beat
    -correleated w/ force of ventricular contraction
  5. Back pressure of aortic and pulmonary valve must be over come by ventricle to open valves and eject blood
    -80 mm Hg (aorta)
    -8 mm Hg (pulmonary)

5 True/False questions

  1. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 4 (Isovolumetric Relaxation)Isovolumentric Relaxation(early diastole)
    -Following the T wave(repol. of vent.) ventricles relax- not compressed
    -"end systole volume" (ESV)
    -blood that did not get pumped out- remaining in vent.
    -blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk back flows closing semilunar valves
    -so blood can't go back into heart
    -closed semilunar valves cause a short rise in aortic pressure as blood rebounds off closed valve
    -creates the dicrotic notch
    -Isovolumetric relaxation- ventricles again totally closed off

          

  2. Heart sounds at thoraxLub-dub lub-dub lub-dub
    -heart valves closing
    Pause- represents quiescent period
    First sound-
    -start of systole- vent. pressure rises above atrial pressure
    -louder and longer than the second sound
    Second sound-
    -short, sharp sound of the semilunar valves snap shut
    -at the start of ventricular diastole
    -Note: aortic valve closes before pulmonary valve- can distinguish these by sound

          

  3. Stroke Volume (SV)SV (ml/beat) = EDV (120 ml)- ESV (50ml/beat)
    Therefore SV= 70 ml/beat
    Each ventricle pumps 70 ml of blood
    About 60% of blood in its chamber per beat

          

  4. Preload- Stretch of Cardiac MuscleAtrial- systole and diastole
    ventricular- systole and diastole

          

  5. Chemical Regulation of the HeartChemicals in blood and body fluids can alter cardiac function
    Hormones
    -epinephrine- released by adrenal medulla
    -enhances HR and contractility
    -Thyroxine- thyroid hormone
    -inc. metabolic rate and body heat
    -slow sustained inc. in HR
    -also enhances effects of epinephrine