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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Regulation of HR- At rest
  2. EDV and ESV parameters
  3. Cardiac Cycle- Duration
  4. Stroke Volume (SV)
  5. Preload- Stretch of Cardiac Muscle
  1. a SV (ml/beat) = EDV (120 ml)- ESV (50ml/beat)
    Therefore SV= 70 ml/beat
    Each ventricle pumps 70 ml of blood
    About 60% of blood in its chamber per beat
  2. b EDV- two parameters (120 ml)
    1. length of ventricle diastole- how long is vent. relaxing?
    2. Venous pressure- how much pressure is there to bring blood into ventricle?
    ESV- two parameters(50 ml)
    1. atrial BP
    2. force of vent. contraction
  3. c "Frank- Starling Law" of the heart
    -Factor controlling SV is preload
    -Preload- or degree of stretch before the muscle contracts
    -Why?
    Stretch muscle fiber (and sarcomeres) inc. numbers of active across bridge (actin/myosin)
    All muscle if stretched is going to have a better contraction
    More muscle fibers stretched greater the force of contraction
  4. d Both divisions of the autonomic NS send impulses to the heart
    The dominant influence is inhibitory termed 'Vagal Tone'
    -cutting the 'vagal nerve' (parasympathetic input removed) causes a quick inc. in beats/min
  5. e Length of cycle- .8sec
    -average 75 beats/min
    -atrial systole .1 sec
    -ventricular systole- .3 sec
    -remaining .4 total- heart relaxation termed "quiescent period"

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. 1. Preload- amt. vent. stretched by blood (affects EDV)
    2. Contractility- cardiac cell contractile force
    -Effects ESV- more cont.- less blood remains
    3. Afterload- back pressure exerted by blood in the large arteries leaving the heart
    -Effects ESV
  2. Chemicals in blood and body fluids can alter cardiac function
    Hormones
    -epinephrine- released by adrenal medulla
    -enhances HR and contractility
    -Thyroxine- thyroid hormone
    -inc. metabolic rate and body heat
    -slow sustained inc. in HR
    -also enhances effects of epinephrine
  3. Blood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction
  4. Skeletal muscle at rest is near its optimal length for max. tension
    Cardiac muscle at rest is shorter...
    -therefore inc. stretch inc. contractile force
    Anything inc. vol. or speed of venous return- inc. SV
    -HR, exercise, etc.
  5. Pressure and Blood volume changes
    -left side of heart- 5x greater pressure than right side
    -regardless both ventricles pump the same volume of blood per beat

5 True/False questions

  1. SystoleRelaxation
    -filling the heart

          

  2. Chemical Regulation of the HeartBoth divisions of the autonomic NS send impulses to the heart
    The dominant influence is inhibitory termed 'Vagal Tone'
    -cutting the 'vagal nerve' (parasympathetic input removed) causes a quick inc. in beats/min

          

  3. Complete Cardiac CycleAtrial- systole and diastole
    ventricular- systole and diastole

          

  4. Why is presure 5x greater on the left side of the heartChemicals in blood and body fluids can alter cardiac function
    Hormones
    -epinephrine- released by adrenal medulla
    -enhances HR and contractility
    -Thyroxine- thyroid hormone
    -inc. metabolic rate and body heat
    -slow sustained inc. in HR
    -also enhances effects of epinephrine

          

  5. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 5- Ventricular SystoleVentricular Systole
    -atria relaxed- ventricles start contraction phase
    -ventricular pressure rises rapidly
    -Back pressure closes the AV valves
    -"isovolumetric Contraction Phase"
    -briefly ventricle closed off chambers and blood vol. is constant
    -Ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in arteries
    -semilunar valves are forced open
    -ends isovolumetric contraction phase
    -ventricular ejection phase
    -blood leaves ventricle and enters aorta and pulmonary trunk
    - aortic pressure reaches 120 mmHG
    -In left side of heart