Psychology of Sport Chapter 13
Terms in this set (29)
the process involves recalling from memory pieces of information stored from experience and shaping these pieces into meaningful images. It is a form of stimulation that is a sensory experiences that occurs in the mind
is particularly important to athletes because it involves the feeling of our body as it moves in different positions and thus useful in enhancing performance
Visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and kinesthetics
peoples reports of isolated occurrences are numerous. Interesting but least scientific.
the researcher closely observes, monitors, and records and individual's behaviour over a period of time.
approaches hat use a variety of psychological interventions along with imagery
Suinn's Visuomotor behaviour rehearsal
combines relaxation, with imagery and it increases the neuromuscular activity of the muscles used for skiing, and other sports
Multiple baseline case studies
found positive effect of imagery on performance enhancement and other psychological variables such as confidence and coping with anxiety
have been conducted across different levels of ability and clearly demonstrate the value of imagery learning and performing
Two functions of Imagery
motivational and cognitive
Motivational specific (MS)
people can use imagery to visualize specific goals and goal - orientated behaviours such as winning a particular contest or being congratulated for a good performance
Cognitive specific (CS)
imagery focuses on the performance of specific motor skills. This type of imagery most often used as individuals attempt to get the feel of the movement and improve their level of skill
35% of Athletes
25% of coaches and 87% of sport psychologist could point to examples where imagery inhibited performance (negative images)
Research comparing the effectiveness of learning a new task
indicated that visual imagery performed significantly better than the kinesthetics imagery although both imagery groups performed better than the control group. The best way to proceed is to combine both the visual and kinesthetics information
refers to imagery of the execution of a skill from your own vantage point. First person perspective. It appears to make it easier to bring in the kinesthetics sense, feel the movement and approximate actual performance skills ( more electrical activity in the muscles)
you view yourself from the perspective of an outside observer. Its as if your are watching yourself in a movie. Research indicated Olympians using both internal and external imagery
Factors affecting the effectiveness of Imagery
nature of the task, skill level of the performer,using imagery along with physical practice and imaging ability. Novice and highly skilled performers who use imagery on cognitive tasks show the most positive effects.
originated with Carpenter who proposed the ideomoter principle. Imagery facilitates he learning of motor skills because of the nature of the neuromuscular activity patterns activated during imaging.
Symbolic Learning theory
Sackety argued that imagery can help individuals understand their movements. His theory suggest that imagery may function as a coding system to help people understand and acquire movement patterns
Probably the best well developed imagery explanation is Lang's bioinfromational theory. It assumes that an image is a functionally organized set of proportions stored by the brain the model holds that a description of an image consists of two main types of statements Response and stimulus proportions.
are statements that describe specific stimulus features of the scenario to be imaged
are statements that describe the imager's response to the particular scenario and they are designed to produce physiological activity.
Ahsen's Triple Code Model
Involves three aspects that are essentially a party of imagery: the effects are referred to as ISM. These aspects are the image (I) itself, the somatic response (S), and the meaning (M) of the image.
Uses if Imagery
improve concentration, enhance motivation, build confidence, control emotional responses, acquire, practice, and correct sport skills, acquire and practice strategy, prepare for competition, cope with pain and injury, and solve problems.
Keys to Effective imagery
Vividness ( make images as vivid and detailed as possible) and Controllability ( manipulate your images so they do what you want them to) Practice
The Physical nature of the movement , specifics of the Environment, type of Task, Timing of the movement, Learning the content of the movement, Emotion of the movement and Perspective of the person
Betts Questionnaire on Mental Imagery
developed in 1909 test of imagery for the first time
Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ)
contains questions about the frequency with which individuals use various types of imagery ( function more critical than content)
When to use imagery
before and after practices and competitions, during the off season and action, during personal time, and when recovering from injury