TRACHEA, BRONCHI, AND LUNGS
Terms in this set (86)
Where does the trachea begins?
at the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (CV 6)
What does the trachea consist of?
15-20 C-shaped cartilaginous rings which are open posteriorly, and which prevent the trachea from collapsing
What is the band of smooth muscle that is spanned over the posterior gap?
What is the length of the trachea?
9 to 15 cm in length
Describe the bifuraction of the trachea.
it bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the sternal angle (intervertebral disc between tv4 and tv5)
What is carina?
a prominent ridge located within the trachea at its bifurcation
What does the carina separate?
separates the opening of the right and left main bronchi
Where does the trachea lie?
anterior to the esophagus and posterior to the arch of the aorta. it deviates to the right just before its bifurcation at the sternal angle
Give a description of the right main bronchi.
is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the left main bronchus
Where does the right main bronchi pass under and gives off?
passses under the arch of the azygos vein and gives off the superior lobar bronchus before entering the hilum of the lung
What does the right main bronchus divide into?
the middle and inferior lobar bronchi within the hilum
From the right main bronchus that divides into 3 lobar bronchi, what do those three divide into?
10 segmental bronchi
Give a description of the left main bronchi.
longer, narrower, and more horizontal than the right main bronchus
How does the left main bronchus pass?
it passes anterior to the esophagus
How does the left main bronchus divide?
into superior and inferior lobar bronchi within the hilum of the lung
In the left main bronchus divides into 2 lobar bronchi. What do those two lobar bronchi divide into?
10 segmental bronchi
Describe four components of the aspiration of foreign objects.
-it is common for a child to aspirate a small object such as a peanut
-these usually enter the right main bronchus due to its wide, short, vertical arrangement
-the carina is covered with sensitive mucous membrane. it represents the lowest point in the tracheobronchial tree where the cough reflex is mechanically initiated
-once the carina is passed, coughing stops, but chemical bronchitist atelectasis may ensue
What is the blood supply to the trachea?
inferior thyroid artery and bronchial arteries
What is the innervation of the trachea?
1. vagus nerve (parasympathetic and pain fibers)
2. sympathetic trunk
What does each lunch have?
an apex and a base
What are the surfaces of the lungs?
What are the borders of the lungs?
What surface of the lung is the hilum on?
the mediastinal surface of the lung
The hilum is on the mediastinal surface of the lung and is the opening through which what passes?
the vessels, nerves and bronchi
The root of the lung is formed by the structures which pass through the hilum. It connects the lung to what other two structures?
the heart and trachea
What are the structures which form the root of the lung?
1. bronchi (posterior)
2. pulmonary vessels
3. bronchial vessels
What are the two pulmonary vessels?
1. pulmonary arteries (superior)
2. pulmonary veins (anterior and inferior)
What is the root of the lung covered by?
The pleura is prolonged downward as a double layered membrane. What is the double layered membrane called?
the pulmonary ligament
Each lung has how many bronchopulmonary segments?
10 bronchopulmonary segments
What kind of fissures does the right lung have?
an oblique fissure and a horizontal fissure
What lobes are the right lungs divided into?
Superior, middle and inferior lobe
Of the right lung, what fissure makes up the superior lobe?
above the horizontal fissure
Of the right lung, what fissure makes up the middle lobe?
between the horizontal and oblique fissure
Of the right lung, what fissure makes up the inferior lobe?
below the oblique fissure
Each lobe is supplied by a corresponding What?
Lobar bronchus is divided into segmental bronchi, each of which supplies what?
What are the five grooves of the right lung?
1. Groove for the azygos vein
2. Groove for the esophagus
3. Cardiac Impression (shallow)
4. Groove for Superior Vena Cava
5. Groove for Right Brachiocephalic Vein
What fissure does the left lung have?
only an oblique fissure
What lobes are in the left lung?
Superior lobe and inferior lobe
Of the left lung, what fissure goes with superior lobe?
above the oblique fissure
Of the left lung, what fissure goes with the inferior lobe?
below the oblique fissure
What are other characteristics of the left lungs?
2. cardiac notch
3. cardiac impression
4. groove for the aorta
5. groove for left subclavian artery
What are the functional units of the lung?
What does each bronchopulmonary segment consist of?
1. segmental bronchus
2. branch of the pulmonary artery
3. segment of lung tissue
4. surrounding septum
Why are bronchopulmonary segments clinically important?
they can be surgically removed without affecting the functioning of adjacent segments
What is the arterial blood supply to the lungs?
bronchial arteries (from the thoracic aorta)
What is the venous blood supply to the lungs?
bronchial veins (to the azygos and accessory hemiazygos veins)
What is the tracheobronchial tree of the structures?
trachea-> main bronchi -> lobar bronchi -> segmental bronchi -> bronchioles (5 tiers) -> alveoli
What primary tissue goes with the trachea?
What primary tissue goes with the main bronchi?
What primary tissue goes with the lobar bronchi?
What primary tissue goes with the segmental bronchi?
What primary tissue goes with the bronchioles?
What primary tissue goes with the alveoli?
membrane (permeable for exchange)
How many tiers are in the bronchioles?
What kind of inflammation goes with the segmental bronchi?
What kind of inflammation goes with the bronchioles?
Which is more severe, bronchiolitis or bronchitis?
What kind of inflammation goes with alveoli?
Where do the anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses lie?
in front of and behind the root of the lung
The anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses are formed by fibers from where?
1. Vagus (parasympathetic and sensory)
2. Sympathetic trunk (T2 to T5, sympathetic and sensory)
What does sympathetic activation of the anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses produce?
bronchial dilation and vasoconstriction
What does sympathetic activation of the anterior and posterior pulmonary plexus decrease?
Decreases glandular secretion
What does parasympathetic activation of the anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses produce?
bronchial constriction and vasodilation
What does parasympathetic activation of the anterior and posterior pulmonary plexus increase?
increases glandular secretion
-An obstructive airway disease characterized by coughing, wheezing and difficulty breathing
What is asthma caused by?
caused by spasms of the smooth muscle which lies in the segmental bronchi and bronchioles
What accompanies asthma?
excessive secretion of mucus (causes coughing reflex)
What are the two types of asthma?
Extrinsic asthma and intrinsic asthma
Describe extrinsic asthma.
triggered by allergies/ allergens
Describe intrinsic asthma.
triggered by non-allergic stimuli such as stress
In the chiropractic note for asthma, asthma is often associated with what?
upper thoracic subluxations
In the chiropractic note for asthma, what often brings relief from the asthma?
In the chiropractic note for asthma, Impingement on what sympathetic cord levels allow parasympathetic activation to dominate?
T2 - T5
Where does the lymph from the lungs drain into?
pulmonary and bronchopulmonary nodes
Where is the pulmonary and bronchopulmonary nodes located in?
When lymph drains from the pulmonary and bronchopulmonary nodes, where does it drain into next?
the tracheobronchial nodes
Lower thoracics (T9-T11) supply the adrenal medulla, which secretes a potent bronchodilator. What is that potent bronchodilator?
What are lungs rich in?
What is bronchogenic carcinoma?
a primary tumor of bronchus
What is bronchogenic carcinoma directly related to?
cigarette smoke and air pollution
Describe the metastasis of bronchogenic carcinoma.
-highly metastatic, it spreads quickly to lymph nodes and enters the blood stream by eroding a venule traveling via the pulmonary veins to the heart and systemic circulation
What does bronchogenic carcinoma often cause enlargement of?
a sentinel node (left shoulder)
Bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer may effect what two things?
1. phrenic nerve result in paralysis of diaphragm
2. recurrent laryngeal nerve and apex of lung and results in paralysis of 1/2 of the larynx
What is the chiropractic note for bronchogenic carcinoma?
-intra thoracic diseases such as bronchogenic carcinoma or lung infections may refer pain to upper or middle thoracic cord segments
-both sympathetic and vagal branches to the lungs contain sensory fibers