Terms-Judaism: Very Important Key Terms

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B'rit
The covenant made between God and Abraham/Moses and the Jewish people- the Jewish expression of monotheism.
Written Torah
The five books of Moses from which Jewish law derives, also known as the Pentateuch, the Nevi'm (prophets), and the Kethuvim (writings). Also referred to as the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)
Mitzvah/Mitzvoth
Obligation/commandment in the Torah
Halakhah (Plural is Halakhot)
Overall Jewish law, an obligation/commandment in the Torah
Mashiach
Messiah
Israel
The children of Israel; the worldwide Jewish community; the land of Israel and the modern state of Israel
Kedushah
Holiness
Love
Love of God and neighbor
Teshuvah
Repentance
Shekinah
The presence of God
Tikkum Olam
Reparation of the universe
Yetzer ha-tov
Good inclinations
Olam ha-ba
The world to come
Shema
Declaration to God: most important part of the prayer service in Judaism, and its twice-daily recitation as mitzvah. it is traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, and for parent to teach their children to say it before they go to sleep at night
House of Israel or Chosen People
Chosen to make known to the people of the world the idea of one God
Oral Torah/Talmud
Also known as the Talmud. Orthodox believe God taught Moses the Talmud, he taught it to others unbroken until now. Oral traditions ended in 2nd century CE when it was written down and called the Mishnah. Additional commentaries became the Gemara.
Yetzer ha-ra
Bad inclinations, sins