the process by which an atom or molecule gain an electron is a. reduction b. catalysis c. oxidation d. photosynthesis
which of these is an electron carrier molecule; a. NAD+ b. ATP c. adenylate kinase d. carbonic acid
the first stage of cellular respiration, called ____, takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell and needs no oxygen; a. glycolysis b. krebs cycle c. photorespiration d. oxidation
electrons generated from the krebs cycle go next to the; a. fermentation pathway b. formation of alcohol c. electron transport chain d. fluid portion of the mitochondrion
electron transport chain
when substrate level phosphorylation occurs it means that; a. NAD is converted into NADH b. ATP is converted into ADP plus a phosphate group c. ADP is converted into ATP by addition of a phosphate group d. AMP is converted into NAD by adding a phosphate group e. NADH is converted into NAD + H
ADP is converted into ATP by addition of a phosphate group
when ATP is made during glycolysis and the kreb's cycle, it is by; a. oxidative phosphorylation b. substrate-level phosphorylation c. photophosphorylation d. chemiosmosis e. ATPase
under what environmental conditions do yeast carry out fermentation; a. absence of oxygen b. high temperature c. low pH d. high osmotic pressure e. all choices
absence of oxygen
which is incorrect aout anaerobic respiration; a. some organisms use organic molecules as final electron acceptors b. anaerobic respiration consumes a small amount of oxygen c. it allows cells to continue to produce ATP through glycolysis d. oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and krebs cycle e. krebs cycle and electron transport chain
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and krebs cycle
what is the fate of NADH and FADH2 made during the first stages of aerobic respiration; a. they carry electrons to the electron transport chain b. they carry electrons to water c. they carry electrons to acetylaldehyde producing ethanol or lactic acid d. they carry them to the calvin cycle to reduce carbon dioxide e. they carry electrons to the krebs cycle
they carry electrons to the electron transport chain
which stage of cell respiration makes the majority of ATP; a. glycolysis b. krebs cycle c. electron transport chain d. fermentation e. they all produce the same aount
electron transport chain
how many net ATP are made in glycolysis; a. 1 b. 2 c. 6 d. 34 e. 38
glycolysis takes place in the ___, and the krebs cycle and electron transport chain take place in the ____. a. mitochondrial mix; inner mitochondrial membrane b. cytoplasm; endoplasmic reticulum c. inter membrane space of mitochondria; mitochondrial matrix d. cytoplasm; mitochondria e. mitochondria; cytoplasm
depending on your body's needs, acetyl-CoA is either directed into the krebs cycle or; a. channeled into fat synthesis b. fermented into alcohol c. sent back to glycolysis d. sent to the electron transport chain e. fermented to lactic acid
channeled into fat synthesis
which of the following is (are) products of the krebs cycle; a. CO2 & ATP b. CO2, ATP & FADH2 c. ATP & NADH d. CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH2 e. ATP, NADH, FADH2
CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH2
cellular respiration; a. oxidizes glucose & reduces oxygen b. oxidizes oxygen & reduces glucose c. releases energy & reduces water d. requires energy & releases NADH e. releases energy & oxyfen
oxidizes glucose & reduces oxygen
the process by which an atom or molecule loses and electron is; a. reduction b. catalysis c. oxidation d. photosynthesis
during fermentation in yeast, acetaldehyde accepts a hydrogen atom from NADH and is converted to ___
common endproducts of fermentation include___ & ___.
alcohol and lactic acid
the second stage of cellular respiration, ___, takes place in the mitochondria.
__ molecules of ATP are generated from the complete cellular respiration of one molecule of glucose
the krebs cycle turns__ times per glucose
electrons are often transferred with__
when an atom gains and electron, is is said to be ___
why do oxidation and reduction always take place together
you oxidize one molecule to reduce another molecule
how much of the radiant energy from the sun is incorporated into organic compounds in the process of photosynthesis; a. almost 90% b. 50% c. 25% d. 1% or less
1% or less
the full range of energy in sunlight can best be described as; a. electromagnetic radiation b. visible light c. ultraviolet light d. infrared radiation
during photosynthesis, ATP molecules are generated by; a. the calvin cycle b. chemiosmosis c. the splitting of water d. light striking the chlorophyll molecules
the overall purpose of the calvin cycle is to; a. generate molecules of ATP b. generate NADP c. give off oxygen for animal use d. build organic (carbon) molecules
build organic (carbon) molecules
light energy arrives at earth in little light packets called; a. rays b. photons c. light rays d. wavelengths
most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosynthesis. from which of the following molecules is the oxygen derived; a. carbon dioxide b. water c. glucose d. chlorophyll e. NADH
which is incorrect about photosynthesis; a. the light reactions take place in the cytoplasm and the light independent reactions take place in the chloroplast b. the light independent reactions don't require light but can occur in its presence c. the light independent reactions produce NADPH and ATP d. the light independent reactions release oxygen e. photosystems act as antenna to capture photons
the light reactions take place in the cytoplasm and the light independent reactions take place in the chloroplast.
the fluid portion of the chloroplast is called the; a. matrix b. stroma c. cytoplasm d. gel e. thylakoid
how many turns of the calvin cycle are needed to make one glucose molecule; a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 5 e. 6
after the phosphate bonds are broken in ATP in the calvin cycle, what happens to the ADP; a. it evaporates from the cell b. it is used in cellular respiration c. it breaks down further into AMP plus phosphate d. it is recycle back to the light dependent reactions e. it is reused again in the calvin cycle, losing another phosphate
it is recycled back to the light dependent reactions
the most abundant protein on earth is; a. cellulose b. rubisco c. ATPase d. NADPH e. chlorophyll
after hydrogens and electrons are stripped from NADPH, NADP+; a. is sent to the electron transport chain of cellular respiration b. is broken down further ti NAD plus phosphate in the calvin cycle c. is sent to the krebs cycle d. is recycled back to the light dependent reactions e. evaporates the cell
is recycled back to the light dependent reactions
the energy to power the calvin cycle comes from; a. cellular respiration b. the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis c. the light independent reactions of photosynthesis d. oxygen e. chlorophyll
the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
the substrates for photosynthesis are; a. water & oxygen b. oxygen & carbon dioxide c. water & carbon dioxide d. ATP & oxygen e. glucose & carbon dioxide
water & carbon dioxide
the main products of photosynthesis are; a. glucose & oxygen b. glucose & carbon dioxide c. carbon dioxide & water d. water & oxygen e. ATP & oxygen
glucose & oxygen
one turn of the calvin cycle produces one molecule of; a. glucose b. oxygen c. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate d. rubisco e. 3-phosphoglycerate
___, which is provided by the photosystem, provides a source of hydrogen and the energetic electrons needed to bind them to carbon atoms.
the internal membranes within the chloroplast are organized into flattened sacs called ___.
the molecule that supplies energy in the body is ___.
thylakoids are stacked on top of one another into little piles called ___.
the portion of electromagnetic spectrum visible to the human eye is known as ___.
explain the role that water plays in the light-dependent reactions.
Water splits to use hydrogens and the byproduct is oxygen.
how are photosynthesis and cellular respiration intimately related?