the evolutionary process by with heritable traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments are passed to ensuing generations.
evolutionary psychology (5)
the study of evolution cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection
the enduring behaviors ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of ppl and transmitted from one generation to the next
standards for accepted and expected behaviors; prescribe "proper" behavior.
personal space (5)
the buffer zone we would like to maintain around our bodies. its size depends on our familiarit with whoever is near us.
in psychology, the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
Cultural diversity (5)
The hallmark of our species is the capacity to learn and adapt, so that we can live in a variety of environments. This adaptability gives rise to our cultural diversity.
programmed, not hardwired (5)
The diversity of our languages, customs, and behaviors suggests that much of our behavior is socially .....
Cultural similarity (5)
"essential universality" below the surface of differences
Big Five Social Beliefs (5)
universal dimensions of social beliefs, may vary in relative importance and application across cultures
Brown's universal norm (5)
Forms of address communicate not only social distance but social status.
the vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes.
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
mixing both masculine and feminine characteristics
gender roles (5)
a set of behavior expectations for males and females
a relationship in which the effect of one factor depends on another factor (such as biology and environment)
a change in behavior or belief as a result of a real or imagines group pressure.
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing.
acting in accord with a direct order or command.
a "we-feelng"; the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another.
normative influence (6)
conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptanc.
informational influence (6)
conformity occuring when ppl accept evidence about reality provided by other ppl.
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. aarises when someone threatens our freedom of action.
the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.
central route to persuasion (7)
occurs when interested ppl focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
peripheral route to persuasion (7)
occurs when ppl are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
believability. perceived as both expert and trustworthy.
sleeper effect (7)
a delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.
having qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator is mos persuasive on matters of subjective preference.
primacy effect (7)
other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence.
recency effect (7)
information presented last sometimes has the most influence. effects are less common than primacy effects.
channel of communication (7)
the way the message is delivered - whether face-to-face, in writing, on film, or in some other way.
two-step flow of communication (7)
the process by which media infliuence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others.
need for cognition (7)
the motivation to think and analyze. Assessed by agreement with items such as "the notion for thinking abstractly is appealing to me" and disagreement with items such as "i think as hard as I have to"
a group, typically characterized by (1) distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or a person (2) isolation form the surrounding "evil" culture and (3) a charismatic leader.
attitude inoculation (7)
exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations avaiable.
two or more people who , for longer than a few moments, interact with and influences one another and perceive one another as "us"
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive actvity
social facilitation (8)
(1) original meaning: the tendency of ppl to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present; (2) current meaning: the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others.
evalutation apprehension (8)
concern for how others are evalutating us.
social lofting (8)
the tendency for ppl to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal then when they are individually accountable.
free riders (8)
people who benefit from the group but give little in return.
loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
group polarization (8)
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the gruop.
social comparison (8)
evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others.
pluralistic ignorance (8)
a false impressions of what most other pl are thinking or feeling or how they are responding.
"the mode of thinking that persons enange in wwhen concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group.
task leadership (8)
leadership that organizes work, sets standards and focuses on goals
social leadership (8)
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
transformational leadership (8)
leadership that, enabled by a leaders vision and inspiration exerts significant influence.