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long distance- from axon hillock through entire length of axon (a few mm over a meter)
the stimulus for opening ion channels is -chemical or sensory stimulus(light, pressure,temperature)
stimulus for opening ion channels is Voltage(depolarization, triggered by GP reaching the threshold)
Repolarization- Voltage regulate, occurs when Na+ channels inactivate and k+ channels open
Summation-stimulus responses can be summed to increase amplitude(size) of graded potential: temporal-increased frequency of stimuli, or Spatial-stimuli from multiple sources.
Function-short distance signaling, depolarizationthat moves membrane potential towards the threshold for generation for AP
Function-short distance signaling:hyperpolarization that moves the membrane potential away from the threshold for generation of Ap
Inhibitory (IPSP)-GRADED POTENTIAL
initail effect of stimulus- opens channels that allow stimultaneous Na+ and K+ fluxes
Excitatory(EPSP) Graded potential
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