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cell body and dendrites typically

Graded potential

axon hillock and axon

action potential

travels short distance-typically within cell body to axon hillock (.1-1.0)

graded potential

long distance- from axon hillock through entire length of axon (a few mm over a meter)

action potential

various size-declines with distance

graded potential

always the same size (all or none) does not decline with distance.

action potential

has an absent positive feedback

graded potential

has an present positive feedback

action potential

the stimulus for opening ion channels is -chemical or sensory stimulus(light, pressure,temperature)

graded potential

stimulus for opening ion channels is Voltage(depolarization, triggered by GP reaching the threshold)

action potential

Repolarization:voltage independent occurs when stimulus is no longer present

graded potential

Repolarization- Voltage regulate, occurs when Na+ channels inactivate and k+ channels open

action potential

Summation-stimulus responses can be summed to increase amplitude(size) of graded potential: temporal-increased frequency of stimuli, or Spatial-stimuli from multiple sources.

graded potential

Function-short distance signaling, depolarizationthat moves membrane potential towards the threshold for generation for AP

(postsynaptic potential)

Function-short distance signaling:hyperpolarization that moves the membrane potential away from the threshold for generation of Ap

(postsynaptic potential

Function-long distance signaling constitutes the nerve impulse

action potential

initail effect of stimulus- opens channels that allow stimultaneous Na+ and K+ fluxes

Excitatory(EPSP) Graded potential

Initial effect of stimulus- opens K+ or Cl-

Inhibitory (IPSP) Graded potential

Initial effect of stimulus-first opens Na+ channels, then k+ channels.

Action potential

peak membrane potential- becomes depolarized moves toward -0mV

Excitatory(EPSP)-Graded potential

Peak of membrane potential- Becomes hyperpolarized toward -90mV.

Inhibitory(IPSP)-Graded potential

peak membrane potential- +30mV to +50 mV

Action potential

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