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Sp.15 Ecology Exam 3
USM Beckett, Ch. 6-8
Terms in this set (55)
the ultimate energy source
for almost all ecosystems?
the Sun (solar energy)
converting sunlight to carbohydrate
List the types of electromagnetic radiations.
1. gamma rays
3. UV light
4. visible light
5. infrared light
7. radio rays
what we can see; ROYGBV is really VBGYOR (V is UV-380 nm, R is IR-700nm)
How is visible light absorb?
By photosynthetic active radiation (PAR)
individual packets of lights
When light hits, it can be...
absorbed, reflected, or transmitted
List the types of chloroplast pigments.
Chlorophyll A, B, C, D
A is the main photosynthetic
__ and __ such as carotenoids are substance that can absorb light.
Thylakoid and accessory pigments
Carotenoids (orange-redish) absorb...
violet, blue and green
Phycocyanins phycoerythrin (purple-bluish) absorb...
green, yellow, and orange
Chlorophyll A absorb..
violet, blue, and red
How does energy flow?
a biological community with abiotic surroundings.
What is a
made up of a population
Producers that make primary production are called
List the types of consumers.
Herbivores= primary consumers
Carnivores= secondary consumers
Tertiary= consumers who eat carnivores
Quaternary= consumers who eat tertiary consumers.
What two organisms are important for decomposition?
bacteria and fungi
eat detritus (nonliving matter) are called...
As energy moves from primary producers to consumers, energy moves from...
more useful to less useful.
What did G. Evelyn Hutchinson mean by "Disorder spreads through the universe, and life alone battles against it."
constant supply of new energy is what keeps life organized and makes life's activities possible.
a food chain that is linked together
Primary production (PP)
a rate at which energy is stored as organic matter by photosynthesis; expressed as kcal/m^2.yr or g/m^2/yr
Who was Paul Colinvanx*
wrote book called Why Big Fierce Animals are Rare?
What percentage of light that plants are exposed to is transformed PP by photosynthesis?
E.N. Transeau published a paper in 1926 "The Accumulation of Energy by Plants" that tested corn plants to state that 1.6% of that light energy was converted into glucose by photosynthesis, in prime conditions the best amount is 2%.
Not all of this carbon that is fixed is converted to plant biomass—some of it is burned during...
respiration, making glucose
What is the chemical sequence of inorganic matter to glucose?
CO2 + H20 --> C6H1206
What is secondary production?
the rate of formation of new organic material as growth or reproduction by consumers (animals).
How are assimilation efficiencies measured?
amount assimilated (a)/ ingested (I)
How are growth efficiencies measured?
production (p)/ ingested (I)
create own body heat and maintain body temperature; 77.5% assimilation, 2.0% production
body temp. is controlled by external environment 42% assimilation, 18% production
Charles Elton defined this as the basic role of an organism, the species' occupation
an organism's address, where it is found
discovered by G. Evelyn Hutchinson is...
all the physical and biological variables that affects an organism's well being
; N stands for environmental factors important to a species, Hypervolume means definition of niche.
What is a
a group of organisms that all make their living in a similar way
Describe ane example of a guild
Filter-feeders such as net-spinning caddleflies, black flies, and bivalves
life histories/life history strategies
pattern or behavior that's used to gain fitness
# of young produced by parents (e.g, 2 children/2 parents = 1, 1 is the fitness)
Describe the California condor.
-largest bird in N.America
- in 1987, only 22 left in wild were collected to breed
- sexually mature at 6+ years
-generally produce 1-2 offsprings every
iteroparous- multiple births; semliparous- 1 birth
Describe optimal strategy
large litters = high survivorship & reproduction at an early age
Difference between a small egg strategist & a large egg strategist.
small egg strategist
- many eggs, but small that don't survive
large egg strategist
- few eggs, but large that do survive
how many offspring capable of surviving
look at interactions within a population
3 types of survivorship patterns
based on life tables (*defined w/ 3 columns- age in yrs, # of survivors, & # of deaths during the year) that show life expectancy & mortality rates
Why is mortality rate higher in males?
According to Beckett, "because they are stupid & take higher risks."
Type I survivorship curve
-live a long time and die at an old age
-high rate of survival among young
-examples: humans in developed countries, Dallmountain sheep
Type II survivorship curve
-mortality rate fluctuates
-examples: American robins, white-crowned sparrow birds
This survivorship curve die before maturity & survivors live a long time. Some examples are praying mantis, dandelions, & a fish called Atlantic mackerel that produces a lot of eggs (millions/yr) but by day 70, only 10 survive.
type III survivorship curve
the maximum # of organisms the environment can hold; maximal size of population
"the Maine Gunners"
a group of researchers that conducted a study on warblers preying on spruce budworm caterpillars
What are mating systems?
behavior and social organization involved in obtaining a mate
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