Covers chapters 6-10 in Chazan's World Prehistory and Archaeology
What kinds of evidence do we have for the early peopling of Australia?
Found at Nauwalabila I. 53,000- 60,000 years ago.
How and when did people arrive in Austrailia?
Indiginous people of Australia arrived there probably between 60,000 and 100,000 years ago
What does the genetic evidence indicate about the migration to Australia?
Estimate of a genetic coalescent for Australian Aborigines with individuals from outside based on mitochondrial sequences ranges from 60,000 to 119,000 years
What is the early archaeological evidence of humans in Australia and what kind of data support such interpretations?
Beginning about 46,000 years ago, all megafauna weighing more than 100kg became extinct
How old is the rock painting in Australia?
16,400 years ago
When/how did the extinction of Australia megafauna occur?
Widespread extinction of megafauna occurred globally at the end of the Pleistocene Ice age. About 50,00 to 40,000 years ago.
What possible routes are recognized for the peopling of the Americas?
Clovis First: supporters believe that Clovis culture (13,500-12,500 years ago) is the initial human occupation of the Americas
Pre-Clovis: holds that human occupation of the Americas predates 13,500 years ago
Early Arrival: states that humans were present in the New World by 30,000 years ago
What is a Clovis/Folsom point?
Points are bifacially worked and have a symmetrical, leaf-like shape with a concave base and wide, shallow grooves running along the entire length of the point.
Clovis First Model
• Clovis culture, dated to 13,500 to 12,500 B.P., is defined largely on the presence of Clovis spear points found across North America.
• Supporters believe humans crossed the Bering land bridge into North America, were funneled down from Alaska to the Great Plains by an ice-free corridor, and hunted all the megafauna in the New World to extinction in about 1,000 years.
Why does it matter if there was a pre-Clovis migration to the New World?
• Many claims have been made for Pre-Clovis sites in the New World -including Meadowcroft Rockshelter, Pennsylvania (23,000-15,000B.P.) and Monte Verde, Chile (15,000 B.P.)
• Other sites indicate that Clovis was simply one of several regional traditions -Including Pedra Pintada, Brazil (13,000-11,000B.P.) and Quebrada Tacahuay, Peru (12,700-12,500 B.P.)
• Pre-Clovis peoples thought to have been coastally adapted —they moved out of Beringia following the West Coast
What is the most accepted or probable route of migration and early colonization of the New World?
Beringia: land bridge that connected Asia and North America during times of low sea level.
What's the Meadowcroft Rockshelter known for?
Archaeological site that has revealed the earliest evidence of people in North America, dating back 16,000 years.
Why are the remains of Kennewick Man relevant ?
Found on a bank of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington. Furthered scientific debate over the exact origin and history of early Native American people.
What are the characteristic of the Wentchee Clovis site?
Yielded 36 ancient stone tools and 12 transeversely beveled rods of carved and in some cases incised mammoth bone. Also many stone flakes left over from tool manufacture and/or maintenance. It's the only intact Clovis site ever found in Washington state. Largest amounts of Clovis points then known to science.
Why is Monte Verde a very important and significant archaeological site?
Site in southern Chile which has been dated to 14,800 years BP. Adds to the evidence showing that settlement in the Americas pre-dates the Clovis culture by roughly 1000 years. Which contradicts the previously accepted "Clovis-first" model.
Pedra Pintada is a rockshelter in the early human occupation for what reason?
There, Anna Roosevelt found human remainder considered the oldest in Brazil. The excavation in the cave is reveled, deep, down, bones, teeth, and ink on the walls. Dates to 11,200 years old. Makes us think that Clovis men may have not been the first inhabitant of the New World.
What's the Overkill hypothesis?
Humans arrive about 14,000 years ago. Spread to South America in 1,000 years. Extensive hunting wipes out megafauna.
Describe Vavilov's idea on the centers of crop origins
•"Science" was practically nonexistent • Work consisted of so-called "practical directions" for agriculture, such as cooling grain before it was planted. •"Vernalization": using humidity and low temps to make what grow in the spring
What were the major centers of plant domestication?
A buffalo jump located where the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The buffalo jump was used for 5,500 years by the indigenous peoples of the plains to kill buffalo by driving them off the high cliff. The carcass of the buffalo was used in a variety of purposes, from tools made from the bone, to the hide used to make dwellings and clothing. After a successful hunt, the wealth of food allowed the people to enjoy leisure time and pursue artistic and spiritual interests. This increased the cultural complexity of the society.
What's Malthus' theory of population growth and natural resources?
• Two "laws of our nature" form the basis of Malthus' argument: food and "passion between the sexes" are both necessary for human existence.• Subsistence increases arithmetically. (1,2,3,4,..) • Population increases geometrically(1,2,4,8...) •"This implies a strong and constantly operating check on population from the difficulty of subsistence. This difficulty must fall somewhere and must necessarily be severely felt by a large portion of mankind"
What are the advantages of food production?
•Live in small villages that have the characteristics of supporting extended families. (Strong basis in kinship relations) •Territorial control of land •Division of labor in terms of gender •Storage of resources in relation to seasons of hunger (dry season or winter season) •Intensification in processing technologies as well. Example: fermentation and improvement of health conditions. • The formation of religious cults: mother goddess, Bull cults, Skull cults (cult of the ancestors).
What are the disadvantages of food production?
•Increased population growth •Increased spread of transmissible diseases •Decreased the quality of the food (less proteins, more carbs and sugars) •Warfare •Economic inequality b/w groups and hereditary social inequality
What are the different stages of food production?
• Primary - This involves the extraction of raw materials from the earth. It includes such things as farming (agriculture), mining (coal, metals, precious stones), quarrying (extracting gravel, stone, etc.), fishing and forestry.
• Secondary - This involves turning raw materials into other products. For example, fish might be sold whole after being skinned and boned, it might be minced and made into fish fingers or fish cakes, it might be used to make cat food, processed to be put into tins and so on.
What countries form the "Fertile Crescent"?
Egypt Israel Gaza strip Jordan Syria Iraq SE Turkey SW Iran Kuwait
What wild plants where domesticated in the "Fertile Crescent"?
•12.500 BC-10.000 BC • Characteristic stone tool is the lunate, a crescent-shaped bladlet. •Lunates served as hunting tools or as parts of tools made of multiple small pieces.
Describe Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran Periods.
• These sites identified by characteristic stone tools— bladelets • Most sites are remains of small camps made by highly mobile hunter- gatherers • Burials at these sites are rare • No evidence of plant or animal domestication during this period • Plant remains recovered include wild grasses, fruits, nuts, and animals
Ohalo is known for what reason?
A 23,00 year old fisher/hunter-gatherers camp on the shore of the sea of Galilee.
Ain Mallaha is relevant for what reason?
•One of the earliest villages in the world, dating to 11,000 - 9,000 B.C. - Remains of permanent villages with a number of round houses were excavated.
•Artifacts, animal bones, and human remains were found at the site. - Many species of wild mammals, fish, and other animals were found. - Wild plant foods were recovered.
WHere and when was the pig domesticated?
Early Neolithic site in Eastern Turkey. Dating 9000 BC
Gobekli Tepe is known for what reason?
•Situated on top of a mountain north of the Harran plain in SE Turkey.
•Megalithic architecture, large scale stone sculptures
Why is Jericho known in relation to the origins of agriculture?
• Jericho is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places on earth. - Jericho is a tell, accumulated to a height of 70 feet during its long period of occupation. - Since at least 10,000 B.C., Elisha's Fountain, the spring at Jericho, has flooded the area beneath it and supports an oasis in the hot, arid Jordan Valley.
• Around 7,500 B.C., major changes in architecture, artifacts, and animals occurred at Jericho. - The design of houses changed. - Domesticated animals became important at this time.
What is Abu Hureyra known for?
•Located in northern Syria, is one of the largest early post-glacial communities in Southwest Asia. - The tell covered 30 acres, with deposits from Natufian and early Neolithic periods. - The primary component of the tell was the decayed mud walls of the generations of houses that were built there, along with the artifacts and food remains left behind. - The layers contained an uninterrupted occupation of the mound from 10,500 - 6,000 B.C.
•During the Natufian occupation an open forest of oak and pistachio trees grew on the steppes nearby with dense stands of wild grasses among the trees. - The Mesolithic occupation of the site may have been placed along the migration route of gazelle herds. - Animals were killed in great numbers during the spring migration. - The population of the site is estimated between 200 and 300 inhabitants.
• The bulk of the food came from wild plants, some of which were staples. - The plant remains indicate a year-round occupation in both the Mesolithic and the Neolithic periods. - The Natufian levels had remains of wild wheat, barley, and rye.
Where were sheep domesticated?
11,000 years ago in Northern Iraq
Çatalhöyük is known for what reason?
•The mound accumulated within a period of a little more than 1,000 years.
•Abandoned around 6,000 B.C.
•A large settlement of perhaps as many as 2,000 families.
•Two or three generations of a family were often buried under the house floor. -First burials were infants and young children, while later burials were older adults. -This pattern suggests a family life cycle represented in the burials -The inhabitants depended heavily on wild flora and fauna. - Important plant foods included both wild and domesticated varieties. - Cattle were an important part of the diet, but it is not yet certain if they were domesticated. -Domesticated sheep and other species were eaten.
When was cattle domesticated?
8,000 years ago in the "Fertile Crescent"
What is teosinte?
The ancestor to maize. A giant wild grass.
What was the contribution of Scotty MacNeish to the study of the origins of agriculture? Where did he focus the research?
American archaeologist who pioneered research on the evolution of agriculture and who studied the earliest human migrations into the New World.
Gila Naquitz is known for what reason, and where is it located?
•Located in Oaxaca, Mexico.
•Pre ceramic occupations date between 8,750 - 6,670 B.C.
•The cave was occupied seasonally between August and December by small groups
What was the social and economic context of the Adena?
•Early Woodland ceremonial complex involving: -Conical mounds and other earthen constructions -Elaborate mortuary ritual -Elaborate material culture (less of a culture-primarily a ceremonial complex)
What was the social and economic context of the Hopewell mounds?
•Centered on Ohio and southern Illinois, but with influences across much of eastern U.S.
-Conical earthen mounds; geometric and effigy earthworks; elaborate mortuary ritual; and interregional exchange (clearly a cultural "outgrowth" of Adena but more extensive)
-Feasting appears to have been a major aspect of Hopewell mortuary rituals
•Acquisition of nonlocal (exotic) materials from as far away as Yellowstone Park (obsidian), the Knife River (flint), Lake Superior (copper, silver), the Appalachians (mica), the Gulf and Atlantic coasts (marine shell)
-Most of this material obtained by individuals in major population centers (i.e., Ohio, Illinois) and then converted to finished products and exported
-Hopewell exchange follows trends established much earlier, but at this time the scale of exchange is greater than ever, and the exchanged items are generally standardized
-However, each type of "standardized" artifact has a relatively unique distribution, so there is little to recommend that Hopewell exchange was a fully integrated or controlled process (that is, controlled by just a few people)
•Structures built to both house the dead and mortuary rituals -Included both cremated and whole corpses -Bodies stored in charnel houses included ones in flesh, others defleshed elsewhere and some that may have been exhumed and later reburied
What is the significance of the discoveries at Windover Pond?
•An Early Archaic (6000 to 5000 BC) archaeological site found in Brevard County near Titusville, Florida
•A muck pond where skeletal remains of 168 individuals were found buried in the peat at the bottom of the pond.
-skeletons were well preserved because of the characteristics of peat. represent among the largest finds of each type from the Archaic Period.
Why is Watson Break a significant archaeological site?
•5,400 years ago (approx. 3500 BCE)
•Considered the earliest mound complex in North America. Earliest dated, complex construction in the Americas.
•Considered the earliest mound complex in North America. It is the earliest dated, complex construction in the Americas.
What plants made up the Eastern Agricultural Complex? When were they domesticated?
•Squash is barley, goosefoot or lambsquarters, erect knotweed, maygrass, sumpweed or marsh elder, and sunflower.
• 2050 BCE
What is significant about Poverty Point?
•The central construction consists of six rows of concentric ridges three- quarters of a mile across.
•Movement of 750,000 cubic meters of earth covering 5 square km.
•These stone beads carved in highly stylized effigies of animals were collected on Poverty Point sites in Alabama, Arkansas and Louisiana.
Where and when does pottery first appear in North America?
What is a shell midden?
Old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, vermin, shells, sherds, lithics, and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
What is the Chichorro culture and for what reason is it known in the archaeology of the Americas?
•Site is a cemetery site located on a beach in Arica, in northern Chile.
•Discovered by Max Uhle in the early 20th century, the site contained a collection of mummies, among the earliest in the world, and among the most stylistic of mummification techniques.
•Dated between about 5000 to 500 BC.
•Chinchorro people were fisher-hunter-gatherers who lived along the coast of the Atacama Desert of northern-most Chile from the Lluta valley to the Loa river.
•The first evidence of mummification dates to approximately 5,000 BC, in the Quebrada de Camarones region, making the Chinchorro mummies the oldest in the world.
What is Valdivia?
•May have been populated since 12,000 - 11,800 B.C according to archaeological discoveries in Monte Verde
•challenges the "Clovis First" model of Migration to the New World a
•Possible that the first inhabitants of Valdivia and Chile travelled to America by watercraft and not across a land-bridge in the Bering Strait.
Caral is known for what reason, please explain why it is relevant in our understanding of the beginning so urbanism.
•A large settlement in the Supe Valley, near Supe, Barranca province, Peru,
•Caral is the most ancient city of the Americas, and is a well-studied site of the Caral civilization
What evidence is there for elite individuals at either Pueblo Bonito or Cahokia?
•Pueblo Bonito is the largest and best known Great House in Chaco Culture of northern New Mexico
•Built by ancestral Pueblo people
•Occupied between AD 828 and 1126.
What level of socio-political complexity were Pueblo Bonito?
•Presence of luxury goods imported through long-distance trade. -Turquoise and shell inlays, copper bells, incense burners, and marine shell trumpets, as well as cylindrical vessels and macaw skeletons have been found in tombs and rooms within the site.
•The main great houses across the landscape and whose function and significance have always puzzled archaeologists.
•Archaeologists believe that the power of the people living at Pueblo Bonito came from its centrality in the sacred landscape of ancestral Puebloans and their unifying role in the ritual life of the Chacoan peoples.
Describe Cahokia culture.
•Some evidence of Late Archaic period (circa 1200 BCE) occupation in and around the site -Cahokia as we now define it was settled around 600 CE
•The inhabitants left no written records beyond symbols on pottery, shell, copper, wood and stone
•Elaborately planned community, wood-henge, mounds and burials reveal a complex and sophisticated society.
•Maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such exotic items as copper, Mill Creek chert and whelk shells.
•At the high point of its development, Cahokia was the largest urban center north of the great Mesoamerican cities in Mexico.
•Cahokia began to decline after 1300 CE. -proposed environmental factors, such as over-hunting and deforestation as explanations.