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verbal communication

concerns the use of words to create and convey meaning

words in verbal communication enable us to

define and classify; express our beliefs, attitudes, thoughts, and feelings; organize perceptions; and talk about hypothetical events, in the past and future.


words that stand for something else.

triangle of meaning

shows the relationship between words and what they stand for.

knowing the needs and motifs

that drive us to interact with others can also motivate us to communicate competently.

Maslows hierarchy of needs

basic, safety, belonging, esteem, actualization

William Schutz

inclusion, affection, control.

messages we send

have two meanings.


unspoken meaning


spoken word.


replace unpleasant and negative meanings with pleasant and neutral.


how symbols are arranged.


what symbols mean in a given context.


what symbols mean.


level of specificity. highly connotative=highly abstract. "your a jerk."

concrete words

more specific, based on sense data leaving no doubt to meaning.


failing to make distinctions among similar but different people places and ideas.


incorrect idea of knowing everything about something.

owning thoughts

realizing we dont know everything and our perceptions are influcencd by culture, social, and gender contexts.

static evaluation

ignoring ideas of persons, places, and things changing. using the word is.

symbols used in verbal communication

influence our perceptions of the world.

changes in our language affect

culture and changes in our culture affect language.


specialized vocab shared by members of occupational groups.

biased language

failing to acknowledge and validate others.


vocab shared by people with similar experiences and interests.

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