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concerns the use of words to create and convey meaning
words in verbal communication enable us to
define and classify; express our beliefs, attitudes, thoughts, and feelings; organize perceptions; and talk about hypothetical events, in the past and future.
words that stand for something else.
triangle of meaning
shows the relationship between words and what they stand for.
knowing the needs and motifs
that drive us to interact with others can also motivate us to communicate competently.
Maslows hierarchy of needs
basic, safety, belonging, esteem, actualization
inclusion, affection, control.
messages we send
have two meanings.
replace unpleasant and negative meanings with pleasant and neutral.
how symbols are arranged.
what symbols mean in a given context.
what symbols mean.
level of specificity. highly connotative=highly abstract. "your a jerk."
more specific, based on sense data leaving no doubt to meaning.
failing to make distinctions among similar but different people places and ideas.
incorrect idea of knowing everything about something.
realizing we dont know everything and our perceptions are influcencd by culture, social, and gender contexts.
ignoring ideas of persons, places, and things changing. using the word is.
symbols used in verbal communication
influence our perceptions of the world.
changes in our language affect
culture and changes in our culture affect language.
specialized vocab shared by members of occupational groups.
failing to acknowledge and validate others.
vocab shared by people with similar experiences and interests.