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Mrs. Malecki Anatomy/ Physiology Catholic Central High School

What is the major organ of the integumentary system?

the skin

What are the 4 accessory organs of the integumentary system?

hair, glands, receptors, and blood vessles

What are the 5 major functions of the integumentary system?

Protection, Regulation, Communication, Excretion, and Production of Vitamin D

How does the skin protect the body?

It acts as a physical barrier, prevents fluid loss, prevents the invasion of microorganisms and protects against UV damage

Why is Vitamin D important to the body?

aids in the absorption of calcium

What are the 2 main layers of the skin?

Epidermis and Dermis

What type of tissue makes up the epidermis?

stratified squamous epithelium

Where is the epidermis located?

it is the superficial layer of the skin; the outer most layer

How many layers are in the epidermis?


What is our mneumonic device for the 5 layers of the epidermis?

Bill's skin gradually loses color

In order from deepest to most superficial, what are the 5 layers of the epidermis?

Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

In what layer of the epidermis are the cells dividing?

stratum basale

In what layer of the epidermis are the cells dying and filled with keratin?

stratum corneum

What is keratin?

a waterproofing protein that replaces the cytoplasm of skin cells in the stratum corneum

What type of tissue is found in the dermis?

dense irregular connective tissue

Is the Epidermis vascular?


What type of tissue is the dermis made up of?

dense irregular connective tissue

Is the dermis vascular?


What are the 2 layers of the dermis?

papillary layer and reticular layer

Where are accessory organs located?

the dermis

What are dermal papillae?

layers of the dermis that extend into the epidermis

What do dermal papillae do for the body?

they form ridges that allow us to grip to surfaces

What are melanocytes?

cells that produce melanin

What is melanin?


What is the function of melanin?

protect the body againts UV rays

What regulates the production of melanin?

it is regulated by inheritance but can be increased by exposure to UV rays

What type of cells produce hair?

epithelial cells

What are the 2 parts of the hair?

root and shaft

What is the shaft of the hair filled with?


What are arrector pili?

small muscles that surround the hair follicle; they produce goosebumps

What are sebaceous glands?

oil glands

What substance do sebaceous glands secrete?


What is the function of sebum?

keep hair and skin soft and pliable, and provide a waterproof barrier

What are sudoriferous glands?

sweat glands

What is the function of a sudoriferous gland?

regulate body temperature and excrete metabolic waste

What is the structure of a sudoriferous gland?

it is a coiled ball that realeases sweat through a long ducts and out a pore

What are the 2 types of sudoriferous glands?

Eccrine glands and Apocrine glands

What type of sweat gland releases a watery sweat to lower body temperature?

Eccrine gland

What type of sweat gland releases a thickened sweat once puberty is reached?

Apocrine gland

What is a ceruminous gland?

wax gland

What substance does the ceruminous gland secrete?


Where are ceruminous glands located in the body?

ear canal

Where are nails formed?

stratum corneum

What are nails composed of?


Where is the site of new cell production in a nail?

at the cuticle

Where are receptors found?

in all areas of the dermis

What is the function of receptors?

sense changes in the external environment and relay information to the brain for processing

What are the types of receptors?

Pacinian Corpuscle and Meissner's Corpuscle

What do free nerve endings detect?

exrreme temperature and pain

Where is the hypodermis located?

between the dermis and muscle layer of the body

What type of tissue is the hypodermis made up of?

adipose tissue and loose connective tissue

What are the 3 functions of the epidermis?

insulation, shock absorbing cushion, serves as an energy reserve

Why must the body temperature be kept within narrow limits?

to optimize enzyme activity within the body

What are the 3 ways that the integumentary system provides mechanisms for temperature regulation?

receptors sense temperature change; sweating and dilation of blood vessels; constriction of blood vessels and muscle contraction

What happens to the blood vessels when the body is too hot?

The blood vessels dialate (open up) and allow more blood to reach the surface of this skin and release more heat.

What happens to blood vessels when the body is too cold?

The blood vessels constrict to reduce the amount of blood flow to the surface and retain as much heat as possible.

What is a fever?

A high body temp associated with the body's inflammatory response

What are the chemicals called that induce a fever?


What part of the brain controls body temperature?


What is Hyperthermia?

an inherited condition that results in an abnormally high body temperature and muscle rigidity

What are the symptoms of heat exhaustion?

muscle cramps, nausea, dizzines, weakness

What causes heat exhaustion?

loss of body fluids and high environmental temperature

What illness may occur if heat exhaustion is left untreated?

heat stroke

Is heat stroke fatal?


What is hypothermia?

the inability to maintain a normal body temperature in an extremely cold environment

What is frost bite?

local damage to tissue caused by low temperatures

What is necrosis?

tissue death

What is gangrene?

decay of dead tissue

What is a slender, straight cut called?


What is a large scrape called?


Which will tkae longer to heal: an incision or an abrasion?


What is the 1st step of skin regeneration?

bleeding at the injury site

What is the 2nd step of skin regeneration?

scab forms to stop bleeding, mast cells trigger an inflammatory response (redness, heat and swelling)

What type of protein makes up the scab?


What is another name for a scab?

blood clot

Why do scabs form?

To stop the bleeding and prevent bacteria and viruses from entering the body

What is the 3rd step of skin regeneration?

cells in the stratum basale divide and come to the surface to replace lost cells

What is the 4th step of skin regeneration?

the scab falls off b/c the clot is completely disinergrated, new epidermis is formed under the scab

What are the 4 ways a burn can occur?

from exposure to heat, radiation, electrical shock and chemicals (strong acids or bases)

What tissue is killed in a 1st degree burn?

superficial layers of the epidermis

What tissue is injured in a 1st degree burn?

deep layer of the epidermis and papillary layer of the dermis

What does a 1st degree burn look and feel like?

appears inflammed, tender (average sunburn)

What tissue is killed in a 2nd degree burn?

all layers of the epidermis

What tissue is injured in a 2nd degree burn?

damage may extend into the reticualr layer, but the accessory organs are unaffected

What does a 2nd degree burn look and feel like?

blisters form and it is very painful because the receptors and nerve endings are intact and exposed

What tissue is killed in a 3rd degree burn?

all epidermal and dermal tissue

What tissue is injured in a 3rd degree burn?

hypodermis, deeper tissue and organs

What does a 23rd degree burn look and feel like?

appears charred with no sensation at all

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