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What are the 4 accessory organs of the integumentary system?
hair, glands, receptors, and blood vessles
What are the 5 major functions of the integumentary system?
Protection, Regulation, Communication, Excretion, and Production of Vitamin D
How does the skin protect the body?
It acts as a physical barrier, prevents fluid loss, prevents the invasion of microorganisms and protects against UV damage
In order from deepest to most superficial, what are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
What is keratin?
a waterproofing protein that replaces the cytoplasm of skin cells in the stratum corneum
What regulates the production of melanin?
it is regulated by inheritance but can be increased by exposure to UV rays
What is the function of sebum?
keep hair and skin soft and pliable, and provide a waterproof barrier
What is the structure of a sudoriferous gland?
it is a coiled ball that realeases sweat through a long ducts and out a pore
What is the function of receptors?
sense changes in the external environment and relay information to the brain for processing
What are the 3 functions of the epidermis?
insulation, shock absorbing cushion, serves as an energy reserve
Why must the body temperature be kept within narrow limits?
to optimize enzyme activity within the body
What are the 3 ways that the integumentary system provides mechanisms for temperature regulation?
receptors sense temperature change; sweating and dilation of blood vessels; constriction of blood vessels and muscle contraction
What happens to the blood vessels when the body is too hot?
The blood vessels dialate (open up) and allow more blood to reach the surface of this skin and release more heat.
What happens to blood vessels when the body is too cold?
The blood vessels constrict to reduce the amount of blood flow to the surface and retain as much heat as possible.
What is Hyperthermia?
an inherited condition that results in an abnormally high body temperature and muscle rigidity
What is hypothermia?
the inability to maintain a normal body temperature in an extremely cold environment
What is the 2nd step of skin regeneration?
scab forms to stop bleeding, mast cells trigger an inflammatory response (redness, heat and swelling)
What is the 3rd step of skin regeneration?
cells in the stratum basale divide and come to the surface to replace lost cells
What is the 4th step of skin regeneration?
the scab falls off b/c the clot is completely disinergrated, new epidermis is formed under the scab
What are the 4 ways a burn can occur?
from exposure to heat, radiation, electrical shock and chemicals (strong acids or bases)
What tissue is injured in a 1st degree burn?
deep layer of the epidermis and papillary layer of the dermis
What tissue is injured in a 2nd degree burn?
damage may extend into the reticualr layer, but the accessory organs are unaffected
What does a 2nd degree burn look and feel like?
blisters form and it is very painful because the receptors and nerve endings are intact and exposed
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