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47 terms

Memory

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memory
mental processes that enable you to retain and retrieve information over time
encoding
process of transforming information into a form that can be remembered
storage
process of retaining information in memory to be used later
retrieval
process of recovering information (that has been encoded and stored) for conscious use; information is remembered the same way it was encoded
stage model of memory
model of memory with three stages: sensory, short-term, and long-term memory; ex: environmental stimuli triggers sensory memory to pay attention which triggers the STM to start encoding and transferring the information LTM for retrieval at a later date
sensory memory
stage of memory that registers information from the enviornment and holds it for a very brief period of time (~1/2 sec. snapshots); allows us to perceive the world as continuous rather than seperate/disconnected images and sounds
short-term memory
active/working stage of memory in which information is encoded and stored; duration: ~20 sec. capacity: ~7
long-term memory
stage of memory where stored information can be recalled when needed; duration: anything over ~20 sec., capacity: unlimited
George Sperling
demonstrated the duration of sensory memory (~1/2 sec.), which is just long enough for us to pay attention to specific elements that are significant to us at that moment
visual sensory memory
also called iconic memory because it's the brief memory of an image or icon (visual snapshot that lasts ~1/2 sec.); these sensory impressions slightly overlap so that we see continuous motions
auditory sensory memory
also called echoic memory because it's a brief memory of sound, like an echo (auditory snapshots lasts up to 4 sec.) which explains why we can hear a question after it was asked even if you weren't paying attention
maintenance rehearsal
mental or verbal repetition of information in order to remember it beyond the ~20 sec. of short-term memory
chunking
grouping of related items together into a single unit for easier remembering; ex: DVDFBIUSA
working memory
the active, conscious manipulation/encoding of temporarily stored information; necessary for reasoning, problem solving, learning, etc.
Alan Baddeley
developed a model of working memory; three main components: the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive
phonological loop
a component of working memory that is specialized for verbal material such as a list of numbers or words
visuospatial sketchpad
a component of working memory that is specialized for spatial or visual material such as the layout of a room or city
central executive
a component of working memory that controls attention, integrates information, and manages the activities of the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad
elaborative rehearsal
rehearsal that involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to LTM
factors that enhance encoding
rehearsal, applying information to yourself (self-reference effect), and use of visual imagery, mnemonics, distribution of practice (study in two short sessions rather than one long session)
types of information in LTM
procedural memory, episodic memory, and semantic memory
procedural memory
category of LTM that includes memories of different skills, operations, or actions; ex: buttoning your shirt, tying your shoes, driving
episodic memory
category of LTM that includes memories of events/experiences in your life (or events that you witnessed); ex: what you did on your 21st birthday, your graduation, taking your driving test, etc.
semantic memory
category of LTM that includes memories of general knowledge, concepts, facts, and names; ex: who brings you gifts if you've been good at Christmas? (isn't something you do or something you have experienced or witnessed)
subdivisions of LTM
explicit memory and implicit memory
explicit memory
information or knowledge (episodic or semantic) that can be consciously recalled and explained; memory with awareness (also called declarative); ex: your wedding (episodic) or who teaches your Gen. Psych. class at FV (semantic)
implicit memory
information or knowledge (procedural) that cannot be consciously recalled but is easy to imply or demonstrate; memory without awareness (also called non-declarative); ex: being able to type without looking at the keyboard but not being able to recall the letters on the bottom row of your keyboard
clustering
organizing information into related groups during recall from LTM
semantic network model
model that describes units of information in LTM as being organized in a complex network of associations (not individual neurons)
retrieval cues
any trigger (a clue, prompt, hint, smell, song, etc..) that helps you recall information in LTM
retrieval cue failure
inability to recall information in LTM because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues
tip-of-the-tongue experience
a memory phenomenon that involves the sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in LTM but being temporarily unable to retrieve it
free recall
a measurement of memory that involves producing information using no retrieval cues; ex: essay questions on a test
cued recall
a measurement of memory that involves remembering information in response to a retrieval cue; ex: matching or fill-in-the-blank questions on a test
recognition
a measurement of memory that involves identifying correct information out of several possible choices; ex: multiple choice questions on a test
serial position effect
tendency to remember information at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle
primacy effect
tendency to recall the first items in a list
recency effect
tendency to recall the final items in a list
serial recall
when you need to remember a list of items in a perticular order; ex: phone numbers
encoding specificity principle
when the conditions for retrieval are the same or similar to the conditions of encoding, recall is easier; if you re-create the (encoding)situation, it's easier to retrieve the information stored in LTM; ex: role playing an event
context effect
tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting; ex: walking through the house to remember where you put your keys
mood congruence
a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood; ex: if you're sad, you're more likely to remember your dog's death
flashbulb memory
a vivid, emotionally chared memory with very specific details (may be inaccurate); ex: where you were during 9-11 or your wedding day
brain structures involved in memory
prefrontal cortex - sequence of events, amygdala - memories with an emotional charge, hippocampus and medial temporal lobe - new explicit memories for LTM storage, and cerebellum - encodes memories with movements (procedural)
mnemonics
any learning strategy that helps memory
method of loci
mnemonic trick of associating information with a place; ex: using the cognitive map of your house to learn a timeline
mnemonic mediation
linking something you already know with new information; ex: all cows eat grass = the musical notes in spaces of the left cleft