Chapter 9 — Islam
Terms in this set (126)
Abduh, Muhammad (1849-1905)
Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar, and liberal reformer; regarded as a key founding figure of Islamic modernism, breaking with the rigidity of Muslim ritual.
Abu Bakr (573-634)
Senior Companion (Sahabi) and father-in-law of Prophet Muhammad; ruled over Rashidun Caliphate (632-34) as first Rightly Guided Caliph after the death of Prophet Muhammad; referred to as al-Siddiq (The Truthful) among later generations of Muslims.
Abu Talib (549-619)
Leader of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca in Arabia; married to Fatimah bint Asad and was an uncle of Prophet Muhammad; protected the young Prophet until Abu Talib's death.
al-Banna, Hasan (1906-49)
Egyptian schoolteacher and imam in Islam; founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the largest and most influential twentieth-century Muslim revivalist movements.
Cousin and son-in-law of Prophet Muhammad; the fourth and last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, according to Sunni tradition; the first Imam, according to Shia tradition; son of Abu Talib and the first male convert to Islam.
Arabic word for God; from the Arabic al-ilah (the God); used mainly by Muslims to refer to God, but also by Arab Christians and by Indonesian, Malaysian, and Maltese Christians.
Arabic term for "God is greater" or "God is [the] Greatest"; used in Islamic prayers, as an expression of Islamic faith, in times of distress, to celebrate a victory; also known as the Tabir.
Divinely guided one; an eschatological figure who Muslims believe will usher in an era of justice and true belief just prior to the end
of time; an honorific title applied to Prophet Muhammad and the first four caliphs by the earliest Muslims; a messianic deliverer who would return to champion Islam.
In Arabic, "Messiah," "anointed one," "savior"; Muslim view of Jesus as Messiah (al-Masih), understood as prophet or messenger; Islamic messianism combines the belief that Jesus is the Messiah and will return at the end of time with the belief that a divinely appointed Mahdi (guide) will appear around the same time to deliver people from tyranny and oppression.
The Recitation; the central sacred text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be the verbatim word of God given directly through angel Gabriel to Prophet Muhammad from 610 to 632 CE; only in Arabic; considered the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language.
One of the ninety-nine names for Allah in Islam; "the Exceedingly Merciful."
One of the ninety-nine names for Allah in Islam; "the Exceedingly Compassionate."
al-Wahhab, Muhammad ibn Abd (1703-92)
Arabian Islamic Salafi theologian and founder of the Wahhabi movement; his pact with Muhammad bin Saud helped to establish the first Saudi state (1744), beginning a dynastic alliance between their families that continues to present-day Saudi Arabia; sought to purify Islam by returning Muslims to the original principles of Islam and eliminating corruptions that had crept into Islam; Wahhabism often refers to a puritanical form of Islam.
Afternoon daily prayer of Muslims; the third of five daily prayers of Islam; also referred to as salat al-asr.
Bismallah al-Rahman al-Rahim
"In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"; Arabic phrase recited before each surah (chapter) of the Qur'an, except the ninth surah; usually the first phrase in the preamble of the constitutions of Islamic countries; known as Basmala.
On the eastern cornerstone of the Qa'abah (cube, House of Allah) in the center courtyard of the Great Mosque at Mecca; Muslim object of veneration, probably dating from the pre-Islamic religion of Mecca.
Politico-religious state comprising the Muslim community and the lands and people under its dominion in the centuries following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE.
Disciples, scribes, family of the Prophet Muhammad; those believed to have lived, interacted with, heard, or seen the Prophet Muhammad. In Sunni Islam, considered to be the most authoritative sources
of information about the conduct of Prophet Muhammad; Shia consider many Companions guilty of preventing their first Imam (Ali ibn Abi Talib) from succeeding to the caliphate.
Part of Islamic hadith classification, notably "weak" authenticity of the hadith.
Territory of War; denotes place or territory bordering on Dar al-Islam (territory of Islam), whose leaders are called upon to convert to Islam; jurists trace the concept to Prophet Muhammad, who demanded that people choose between conversion and war; when leaders of Dar al-Harb accept Islam, the territory becomes part of Dar al-Islam.
Territory of Islam; region of Muslim sovereignty where Islamic law prevails; abode, home, place of peace and submission; an area under the rule of Islam; compare to Dar al-Harb.
In Islam, a protected scriptural minority; a non-Muslim citizen of an Islamic state; allowed rights of residence in return for taxes (jizya), accompanied by several other restrictions on dress, occupation, and residence; a covenant of protection with conquered "Peoples of the Books."
Appeal or innovation; usually refers to supplicatory prayers in Islam, regarded as a profound act of worship within Islam, when Muslims ask Allah for forgiveness and favors.
In Islam, Feast of the Sacrifice celebrated at the end of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj); unblemished animals are sacrificed in commemoration of the ram substituted by Allah when Abraham was commanded to sacrifice his son, Isma'il, as a test of faith; also known as Id al-Adha and Greater Bayram.
In Islam, Feast of the Breaking of the Fast celebrated at the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting; begins upon sighting of the crescent moon and lasts for three days; also known as Id al-Fitr and Lesser Bayram.
First of five daily prayers in Islam; begins at dawn.
An expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence; a jurist, someone who has deep understanding of Islamic legislative rulings, pertaining to the actions of human beings, based primarily on the Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma (consensus), and qiyas.
Daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah; wife of the fourth caliph, 'Ali, and mother of Hasan and Husayn; known as "Mother of the Imams."
Authoritative legal opinion given by a mufti (Islamic legal scholar) in response to a question posed by an individual or a court of law; typically requested in cases not covered by the fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) literature and is neither binding nor enforceable; its authority is based on the mufti's education and status within the Muslim community.
Human attempt to understand Islamic divine law (sharia); whereas sharia is infallible, fiqh is fallible and changeable; the science of jurisprudence.
According to the Qur'an, the original state in which human beings are created by Allah as naturally good and with innate inclination toward tawhid (Oneness of God); Allah creates children according to fitrah, and their parents make them Jews or Christians; human nature.
Major purification ritual in Islam; consists of washing hands and sexual organs, performing wudu (minor purification), rubbing water into roots of hair, and pouring water over entire body, beginning with the right side; the water used must be clean, colorless, and odorless and cannot have been used for a previous ritual.
Report of the words and actions of Prophet Muhammad and other early Muslims; considered an authoritative source of revelation, second only to the Qur'an. Sunni and Shia traditions have different collections of hadith.
(Hagar) Mother of Ibrahim's (Abraham's) son Isma'il (Ishmael); servant of Ibrahim and Sarah.
In Islam, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Hijaah; performance of the hajj is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, required by all adult Muslims at least once in their lifetime if they are physically and financially able.
In Islam, an honorific term for a female pilgrim who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj); in some Muslim communities, a term of honor and respect.
In Islam, an honorific term for a male pilgrim who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj); in some Muslim communities, a term of honor and respect.
Islamic school of legal thought (madhhab) whose origins are attributed to Abu Hanifah in Kufa, Iraq, in the eighth century; most widespread Islamic school of legal thought, followed by roughly one-third of the world's Muslims; uses reason, logic, opinion (ray), analogy (qiyas), and preference (istihsan) in the formulation of Islamic laws.
Islamic school of legal thought (madhhab) whose origins are attributed to Ahmad ibn Hanbal in ninth-century Baghdad, Iraq; the official school of Islamic law in Saudi Arabia, with adherents in Palestine, Syria, and Iraq; uses the Qur'an, hadith, fatwas of Muhammad's Companions, sayings of a single Companion, traditions with weaker chains of transmission or those lacking the name of a transmitter in the chain, and reasoning by analogy (qiyas) when necessary.
In Islamic law, one of the five categories that define the morality of human action; "sinful"; in Islamic jurisprudence, an act that is forbidden by Allah. See also wajib, mandub, makruh, and mubah.
In Islam, means "good" and is used to describe hadith whose authenticity is not as well established as that of sahih hadith (sound hadith) but is stronger than daif hadith (weak hadith); hasan hadith is sufficient for use as religious evidence.
Ibn Saud (b. 1953)
Founder and first ruler of present kingdom of Saudi Arabia; his religious and political ideas formed the foundation of the kingdom; promoted and protected Wahhabi doctrines. See also al-Wahhabi, Muhammad ibn Abd.
Ibn Taymiyya, Ahmad (b. 1328)
Prominent and controversial Syrian thinker, theologian, Hanbali jurist within Islam; promoted supremacy of the Qur'an and the sunnah of Prophet Muhammad and early Muslim community, literal interpretation of the Qur'an, and condemned popular practices of saint worship and pilgrimages to saints' tombs; influenced radical Islamic perspectives of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Hasan al-Banna, and Sayyid Qutb, forming the basis for aspects of modern Islamic physical jihad.
In Islam, the original monotheist, purifier of God's house, builder of the Qa'abah, and first Muslim; rewarded by Allah for his faithful preparation to obey Allah's command to sacrifice his son, Isma'il; father of both Ishmael and Isaac, he is the common ancestor of Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
State of purity necessary to perform pilgrimage (hajj and umrah), achieved through ritual cleansing and symbolized by wearing a seamless two-piece white garment covering the upper and lower parts of the body for males; women in a state of ihram are allowed to wear any clothing they wish as long as it fulfills Islamic conditions of public dress.
In Islamic jurisprudence, an Arabic term referring to agreement or consensus of the Muslim community on religious matters; use of consensus to interpret Islamic law.
In Islam, "independent reasoning"; one of four sources of Sunni law and hermeneutics; opposed to taqlid (imitation).
One who stands in front; a role model for the Muslim community in all its spiritual and secular undertakings; leader of the congregational prayers in the mosque.
In Shia Islam, the divinely appointed successors to Prophet Muhammad, who are regarded as infallible, with the ability to make binding decisions in all areas of human activity; the two traditions of Shia Islam affirm the existence of seven and twelve Imans—thus, Sevener Shiism and Twelver Shiism, respectively.
Muslim South Asian political and religious writer, lawyer, professor, poet, ideologue (d. 1938) who supported the foundation of Pakistan as a homeland for the Muslims of India; delivered presidential address to the All India Muslim League (1930) that became a landmark in the Muslim nationalist movement for the creation of Pakistan, emphasizing Muslim nationalism and self-determination.
In Islam, Jesus; a righteous prophet, messenger to Israel, spirit from God, messiah; human, conceived miraculously, but not God; a great spiritual leader and teacher; also known as Isa ibn Maryam (Jesus son of Mary).
The fifth of five daily prayers in Islam; night prayer.
Muslim individuals or movements that attempt to implement Islamic values and Islamic law in all spheres of life; sometimes those who emphasize implementation of Sharia (Islamic law), pan-Islamic political unity, and selective removal of non- Muslim influences.
Major Shia Muslim community named after Isma'il, the eldest son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (d. 765); today, the movement consists of several branches and groupings.
In Islam, chain of authority; refers to the line of transmitters of a particular saying or doctrine, particularly with regard to hadith; indicates authority of given hadith.
Pre-Islamic period; "ignorance" of monotheism; secular modernity; some Muslim leaders argue for physical jihad against jahiliyya.
In Islam, to strive, to exert, to fight; applied in instances such as against one's evil inclinations, to convert unbelievers, for ethical betterment of the Islamic community; applied against Muslims perceived as unbelievers and non-Muslims; two types: Greater Jihad (spiritual) and Lesser Jihad (physical).
Islamic law of poll tax, per capita tax, levied on non-Muslim citizens (dhimmi) who meet certain criteria; a material proof of the non-Muslims' acceptance of subjugation to a Muslim state and its laws.
In Islam, Friday congregational prayers; also known as salat al-jumu'ah.
In Islam, philosophical or mystical discussions about revealed truth; theology; focuses on seven major is- sues: concept of Allah; ontological and cosmological proofs for Allah's existence; cosmology and the relationship between Allah and creation; free will of human beings and theodicy; role
of imagination; relationship between reason and revelation; application of divine law to community and society.
Khadijah (b. 619)
First wife of Prophet Muhammad and his only wife until she died; mother of Fatimah; first person to believe in Prophet Muhammad's prophethood.
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad (1817-98)
Indian Muslim philosopher and social activist born in India; jurist for the British East India Company, remained loyal to the British during the Indian mutiny (1857), later blamed British policies for the revolt; promoted Western-style scientific education; founded Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College (1875).
One of the five daily prayers in Islam; the sunset prayer; also means "the West," referring mainly to northwest Africa, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and sometimes Libya.
In Islamic law, one of the five categories that define the morality of human action; an offensive act; detestable or disapproved actions to be avoided by Muslims, though not forbidden (haraam). See also wajib, haraam, mandub, and mubah.
Malik (d. 795)
Founder of the Maliki school of Islamic law; compiled a collection of hadith (Al-muwatta), used widely by Sunnis; emphasized hadith as basis for legal principles; used personal opinion (ray) and analogy (qiyas) in legal matters.
In Islamic law, one of the five categories that define the morality of human action; actions that are approved in Islamic law; recommended duties, but not essential.
House of prayer in Islam; "a place of prostration" to Allah; Muslim place of worship.
In Islam, the content or text of a hadith report; with its chain of transmission (isnad), one of the two main parts of a hadith report.
Part of Islamic hadith classification; fabricated hadith.
Mawdudi, Sayyid Abu'l-A'la (b. 1979)
South Asian Muslim revivalist thinker, prolific writer, politician, founder of Jamaat-I Islami; advocated an Islamic anti-imperialist perspective, for restitution and purification of Islamic institutions and practices, and for a separate cultural homeland for Indian Muslims but not the creation of an independent Muslim state.
Holiest city of Islam; birthplace of Prophet Muhammad, site of the Qa'abah and the annual pilgrimage (hajj); the city Muslims face during prayer.
Second holiest city of Islam, to which Prophet Muhammad and early followers emigrated (hijra) in 622 CE; means "City of the Prophet"; place of Prophet Muhammad's burial site.
Islamic beacon; tower on a mosque from which the call to prayer is issued five times daily.
Individuals or groups that selectively interpret religion to maintain crucial elements of the tradition while being open to change and interpretation of the religious tradition; this immensely broad category is relative to context and other perspectives.
Individuals or groups that interpret religion to meet changing conditions of modern life; most religions have some kind of modernist perspective that permits flexibility in interpretation of the religion to be compatible with reason, science, and technology.
Muslim place of prayer and worship; place of ritual prostration. See also masjid.
Mountain located outside Mecca, on whose plain pilgrims gather on the ninth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, where they pray continuously from just after noon until shortly after sunset; many believe that Allah's spirit descends closest to earth at this spot at this time.
In Islamic law, one of the five categories that define the morality of human action; an action that is neither forbidden nor recommended; a religiously neutral action; often synonymous with "halal." See also wajib, haraam, mandub, and makruh.
Male Muslim who issues adhan (call to prayer) in Arabic for Muslims from atop the minaret five times daily; today a CD or tape recording is amplified through loudspeakers mounted on the minaret to announce the time for Islamic prayer.
In Islamic jurisprudence, an authoritative interpreter of the religious law of Islam.
In Islam, the prophet who led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt; he set down the tablets containing Allah's commandments, rather than breaking them, after discovering the Israelites worshiping the golden calf.
One who submits to the will of Allah.
Founded in 1928 in Egypt by Hasan al-Banna; one of the largest Islamic movements in the world; a pan-Islamic, religious, political, and social movement that has become a model of political activism combined with Islamic charity work.
In Islam, a prophet who was saved from the Great Flood in an ark while the rest of the world was destroyed due to its unrighteousness.
Organization of the Islamic Cooperation
International organization consisting of fifty-seven member states that represents the collective voice of the Muslim world and works to safeguard the interests of Muslims in the spirit of promoting peace; the OIC has a permanent delegation to the United Nations and is the largest international organization outside the United Nations.
Prophet Muhammad (570-632)
In Islam, the final prophet in a long line of prophets; referred to as the "Seal of the Prophets"; Allah's messenger sent to proclaim in Arabic the same revelation that had been proclaimed by earlier Jewish and Christian prophets; founder of the religion of Islam.
Cube-shaped "House of God" located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia; the focal point of the hajj pilgrimage and the spiritual center that all Muslims face during daily prayers; Muslims believe it was built by Adam, and then rebuilt by Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma'il; also known as ka'bah.
"Direction"; direction that Muslims face during prayer, which is toward the Qa'abah in Mecca; a prayer wall in the mosque into which the mihrab (niche) is set, indicating the direction of prayer, which is always toward the Qa'abah in Mecca.
In Islamic jurisprudence, an Arabic term referring to the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an; use of analogy to interpret Islamic law.
The Recitation; central religious text of Islam revealed through the angel Gabriel to Prophet Muhammad; guides Muslims in all areas of life and testifies to the one God (Allah).
Influential Meccan tribe during the life of Prophet Muhammad, of which Muhammad was a member; prosperous merchants who controlled Mecca and trade in the region; custodians of the Qa'abah.
Qutb, Sayyid (1906-66)
Muslim Egyptian novelist, literary critic, poet, activist, and leader of Islamist perspectives that advocated strict adherence to Islamic law; promoted idea that even Muslim leaders should be replaced (even assassinated) if they lived in a state of ignorance (jahiliyyah); executed in 1966 for trying to overthrow Egypt's President Gamal Nasser (1952); influential ideologue on contemporary Islamists advocating physical jihad; strongly criticized the society and culture of the United States.
Ninth month of the Islamic calendar when Muslims worldwide observe a month of fasting, one of the Five Pillars of Islam; an obligatory fast for all adult Muslims, except those who are sick, traveling, pregnant, have menstrual bleeding, or have health concerns; during Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn until sunset and also refrain from consuming food and liquids, smoking, and sexual relations during that time.
In Islamic jurisprudence, personal opinion used to interpret Islamic law.
In Islamic economic jurisprudence, "usury"; unjust gains in trade or business, considered a major sin in Islam; often defined as "interest" charged in an economic system.
Rightly Guided Caliphs
For Sunni Muslims, the first four successors
of Prophet Muhammad: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and 'Ali; all were the Prophet's Companions and from the tribe of Quraysh; their rule is considered a golden age of Islam, but is contested by Shia Muslims.
In Islam, a term used to classify hadith; "genuine," "authentic," conveyed by a trustworthy and completely competent person; contains neither a serious concealed flaw nor irregularity.
Ritual of the hajj pilgrimage in Islam when pilgrims, imitating Hajar's quest for water for her son, Isma'il, walk or run seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah.
The second of the Five Pillars of Islam; prayer or worship required five times daily: daybreak (salat al-fajr), noon (salat al-duhr); midafternoon (salat al-asr), sunset (salat al-maghreb), and evening (salat al-isha); times of prayer are determined by the sun's position and announced by the muezzin (prayer announcer) from the minaret (tower) of a mosque.
In Islam, one of the Five Pillars; fasting; required during Ramadan, when Muslims seek to gain heightened awareness of the presence of Allah; spiritually, to remind Muslims of those who fast involuntarily, because of poverty; time to acknowledge gratitude to Allah.
Major Shia Muslim community; named after Isma'il, the eldest son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (d. 756).
Shafi'i (d. 820)
Muslim jurist, theologian, founder of the Shafi'i school of Islamic law; called the architect of Islamic law; first jurist to insist that hadith were critical sources of law over customary doctrines of the earlier schools of legal thought; rejected use of personal opinion (ray) in favor of analogy (qiyas).
First of the Five Pillars of Islam; witness; recitation of the Islamic witness of faith: "There is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God"; declaration of acceptation to convert to Islam.
Islamic law; "path to the water hole," refers to the fact that water is the whole way of life and source of good; "the right path"; the straight path."
Party of 'Ali; followers of 'Ali who believe that 'Ali has Prophet Muhammad's spiritual authority and that divine guidance was passed on to his descendants; the defining moment of Shiism was the martyrdom of Husayn (the son of 'Ali), his male family members, and many companions at Karbala, Iraq, in 681 by the Umayyads.
In Islam, custom, normative precedent, conduct, tradition; usually based on Prophet Muhammad's example; Prophet Muhammad's words and actions are believed to complement the divinely revealed message of the Qur'an.
Largest branch of the Muslim community, represented by nearly 90 percent of the Muslim world; name derived from the sunnah, the exemplary behavior of Prophet Muhammad.
In Arabic, "chapter"; usually refers to chapters in holy scripture, especially the Qu'ran; also used to refer to chapters in the Bible in regions influenced by the Arabic language, such as Indonesia and Malaysia.
Qur'anic exegesis; elucidation, interpretation, commentary on the Qur'an; Prophet Muhammad is considered the most authoritative interpreter of the Qur'an.
God is Great.
In Islam, to send down; descent; the transmission of divine guidance for human beings through prophets, beginning with Adam and culminating in the mission of Prophet Muhammad.
In Islam, imitation; conformity to legal precedent and doctrines; juxtaposed with ijtihad (independent reasoning); modern reformers criticize taqlid for advocating cultural and intellectual stagnation.
In Islam, the circumambulating of the Qa'abah, House of God, seven times by pilgrims on the pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca; imitation of angels and all created beings circumambulating the throne of God; the first major ritual performed at the hajj.
"Divine Unity"; doctrine of God in Islam that communicates the concept of monotheism; that God is One and Unique.
Social, cultural, and religious perspective that advocates a return to the original sources of a religion to strengthen indigenous, native culture and religion, rather than allowing for outside influence; embraces nativism.
In Shia Islam, those who recognize twelve Imams; the largest subdivision within Shia Islam; also known as Ithna Asharis.
Muslim community worldwide; expresses essential unity and equality of all Muslims from diverse cultural and geographical settings.
Roots of Islamic jurisprudence; for Sunni, includes four fundamental sources of knowledge: Qur'an, sunnah, ijma (consensus), qiyas (analogy); for Shia there is less emphasis on ijma.
Uthman (d. 656)
Companion of Prophet Muhammad; third Rightly Guided Caliph, from the powerful Umayyad clan; under his leadership, the Qur'an was compiled and standardized.
Wahid, Abdurrahman (1940-2009)
Indonesian Islamic thinker, writer, politician; president of Indonesia (1998-2001); chair of the Nahdatul Ulama; moderate Muslim who promoted Islamic boarding schools, religious pluralism and tolerance, social justice, democracy.
In Islamic law, one of the five categories that define the morality of human action; denotes a religious duty commanded by Allah; obligatory or required actions for Muslims. See also haraam, mandub, makruh, and mubah.
In Islam, concept of guardianship, important within Twelver Shiism, where it signifies the legitimacy of 'Ali's claim to lead the Islamic community; in Islamic law, the term refers to guardianship of minors or to authority to contract marriage on behalf of a previously unmarried Muslim woman.
In Islam, minor ablution; obligatory cleansing rituals performed in order to render the believer ritually pure; required prior to prayer for both men and women; consists of washing the hands, mouth, face, arms up to the elbows, and feet; defilements such as sleep, sex, menstruation, and going to the toilet require minor ablution.
Second holiest city of Islam, to which Prophet Muhammad and early followers emigrated (hijra) in 622 CE; following the successful negotiation of a truce by Prophet Muhammad, the city was renamed Medina. See also Medina.
One of the Five Pillars of Islam; required almsgiving; purification of wealth; Muslims are required to give 2.5 percent of their net worth annually; connotes path to purity and spirituality; collection is used for the poor.
Second of five daily prayers in Islam; midday prayer; Dhuhr prayer or Salat-ul-Zuhr.
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Chapter 3 — Buddhism
Chapter 7 — Judaism
Chapter 1 — The Persistence of Religion
Chapter 2 — Hinduism