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84 terms

PSSA Practice Grade 7 ELA

The information on this quizlet is for terms that you will see on the PSSA test. It serves as a great review for the PSSA for 7th grade language arts.
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simile
a comparison using like or as
metaphor
A comparison of two or more things not using like or as
hyperbole
Exaggeration or overstatement.
personification
Giving human-qualities to non-human things
irony
Something happens that was the opposite of what was expected.
bias
A judgment based on a personal point of view.
author's purpose
The author's intent either to inform or teach someone about something, to entertain people, or to persuade or convince their audience to do or not do something.
alliteration
The repetition of initial consonant sounds in neighboring words.
allusion
An implied or indirect reference in literature to a familiar person, place or event.
autobiography
The story of a person's life written by himself or herself.
biography
The story of a person's life written by someone other than the subject of the work.
Cause and Effect
Cause statements stem from actions and events, and effects are what happen as a result of the action or event.
Characterization
The method an author uses to reveal characters and their various personalities.
Climax
the high point of suspense in a short story or novel.
compare
To find the similarities between two things.
conflict
The problem or struggle in a short story or novel.
context clues
Information from the reading that identifies a word or group of words.
contrast
To find differences between two things.
Dialogue
conversation between people in a literary work
Differentiate
Distinguish, tell apart and recognize differences between two or more items.
Editorials
A newspaper or magazine article that gives the opinions of the editors or publishers; an expression of opinion that resembles such an article.
Exaggeration
To make an overstatement or to stretch the truth.
Fiction
A story or novel that is not true; it is made up from the imagination.
Figurative Language
Language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect or feeling.
First Person
A personal point of view using the "I" point of view. May also contain me, our, we, us.
Free Verse
Poetry that does not have meter or rhyme scheme. It sounds more like regular speech.
Generalization
A conclusion, drawn from specific information, that is used to make a broad statement about a topic or person.
Imagery
A word or group of words in a literary work which appeal to one or more of the senses: sight, taste, touch, hearing and smell using figurative language.
Inference
understandings gained by "reading between the lines"
Informational Text
It is nonfiction, written primarily to convey factual information. (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, reports, directions, brochures, technical manuals, etc.).
Sarcasm
The use of a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal or usual meaning
Limerick
A light or humorous verse form of five lines, of which lines 1, 2 and 5 rhymes and lines 3 and 4 rhyme.
Main Idea
The main idea is the author's central thought; the topic sentence of a paragraph.
Meter
The repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.
Mood
The emotion created in the reader
Narrative
Text that tells a story. It may contain dialogue.
Nonfiction
Writing that is true.
Onomatopoeia
The use of words whose sounds express or suggest their meaning (ex.: hiss, pop, bang)
Plot
The sequence in which the author arranges events in a story. The structure often includes the rising action, the climax, the falling action and the resolution.
Point of view
who tells the story (1st, 2nd, 3rd person)
Problem/Solution
An organizational structure in nonfiction texts, where the author typically presents a problem and possible solutions to it.
Compare/Contrast
An organizational structure in nonfiction texts, where the author typically finds the similarities and differences between two objects.
Sequence
An organizational structure in nonfiction texts, where the author typically shows an order of events in time order OR by using time order words (first, second, next, then).
Name-calling propaganda
an attack on a person instead of an issue.
bandwagon propaganda
attempts to persuade the reader to do, think or buy something because it is popular or because "everyone" is doing it
red herring propaganda
attempt to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument
emotional appeal propaganda
attempt to persuade the reader by using words that appeal to the reader's emotions instead of to logic or reason.
testimonial propaganda
to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea (for instance, the celebrity endorsement).
repetition propaganda
attempts to persuade the reader by repeating a message over and over again.
sweeping generalization (stereotyping) propaganda
makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited information.
circular argument propaganda
states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument.
appeal to numbers, facts, or statistics propaganda
attempts to persuade the reader by showing how many people think something is true.
Resolution
The solution to the conflict of the story.
Rhyme
Identical or very similar recurring final sounds in words usually at the end of lines of a poem.
Rhythm
The pattern or beat of a poem.
Setting
The time and place in which a story unfolds.
Sonnet
A lyric poem of fourteen lines whose rhyme scheme is fixed.
Symbolism
A device in literature where an object represents an idea.
Theme
a major idea broad enough to cover the entire scope of a literary work.
Third Person
the "third person" point of view presents the events of the story from a narrator's point of view (he, she, it, they, them, their, her, his, or character's names are used)
Tone
The attitude of the author toward the audience and characters (e.g., serious or humorous).
Propaganda
used to influence people to believe, buy, or do something.
Connotation
The range of associations that a word or phrase suggests in addition to its dictionary meaning (e.g., slender/thin/scrawny).
Denotation
The direct or dictionary meaning of a word.
Analyze
To break something down and assess all parts
Trace
List in sequence
Infer
Read between the lines
Evaluate
Judge
Formulate
Build and create
Describe
Tell all about it
Support
Back up with details
Evidence
Support used in written prompts which is taken either from the text (for TDAs) or is formulated from the mind of the student (Regular essays)
Explain
Tell why or how
Summarize
Telling the short version
Compare
Coming up with ways things are alike
Contrast
Coming up with ways things are different
Predict
Tell what will happen next
Develop
Expand upon
Synthesize
Combine to make new
Characterize
Tell about the qualities of
Interpret
Explain your understanding of
Determine
Figure it out
Defend
Write in support of
Objective summary
A summary based on fact. It is unbiased.