29 terms

Rocks and Minerals Vocabulary

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mineral
a solid element or compound from Earth's crust that has a definite chemical composition and crystal shape
luster
the way minerals reflect light
hardness
a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
streak
the color of a powdered mineral
cleavage
a property that describes how some minerals break
color
the least reliable mineral property
quartz
is classified as a mineral because it has a specific crystal structure
diamond
the hardest mineral on the Mohs' scale
sedimentary rock
rock that forms at Earth's surface when sediments harden into rock
igneous rock
rock that forms when hot, melted rock material cools and hardens
metamorphic rock
rock that forms from existing rocks because of changes caused by heat, pressure, or chemicals
magma
molten rock material deep within Earth
igneous rock
type of rock most likely formed in a volcano
sedimentary
What type of rocks are limestone, sandstone, and shale?
relative age
how old a rock is when compared to other rocks
absolute age
how old a rock actually is (number of years)
chemical
_____sedimentary rocks form when water containing dissolved minerals evaporates and leaves the minerals behind or when chemical changes form new minerals. An example of this is rock salt.
clastic
____ sedimentary rocks form when water evaporates and leaves behind minerals that act like cement and hold sediments together
organic
sedimentary rocks form when the remains of plants and animals, or their parts, become squeezed or cemented together. Examples of this are coal and limestone formed from shells.
the plant dies
is the first stage how a plant might become a fossil
buried
The plant is _______ and over time, the leaves decay is the second stage how a plant might become a fossil.
woody parts are replaced with minerals
The _____ is the third stage how a plant might become a fossil
fossil is eroded and exposed
The rock containing the _________is the last stage how a plant might become a fossil
mold
an imprint of a trilobite is called a fossil ______
least
Burial metamorphism cause the ______ amount of change in rock.
contact metamorphism
_______ occurs when hot magma or lava comes in contact with rock
regional
Mineral grains of a rock tend become lined up during _____ metamorphism.
granite
____ (igneous rock) forms underground and cools slowly so large crystals form.
rhyolite
_____ (igneous rock) forms above ground and cools quickly so small crystals form.
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