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AP Psych Gurus to Know for THE Exam
Terms in this set (64)
1870-1937; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes, childhood influences personality formation; Studies: Birth Order
1913-1999; Field: development; Contributions: compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; Studies: The Strange Situation-observation of parent/child attachment
1907-1996; Field: social psychology; Contributions: studied conformity, found that individuals would conform even if they knew it was wrong; Studies: conformity, opinions and social pressures
1925-present; Field: sociocultural; Contributions: pioneer in observational learning, stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play
1921-present; Field: cognitive; Contributions: father of Cognitive Therapy, created Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories
1857-1911; Field: testing; Contributions: general IQ tests, designed test to identify slow learners in need of remediation-not applicable in the U.S. because too culture-bound (French)
Walter B. Cannon
1871-1945; Field: motivation; Contributions: believed that gastric activity as in empty stomach, was the sole basis for hunger; Studies: inserted balloons in stomachs
1928-present; Field: language; Contributions: disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
1850-1909; Field: memory; Contributions: 1st to conduct studies on forgetting: first, a rapid loss followed by a gradual declining rate of loss; Studies: memory-series of meaningless syllables/words
1913-2007; Field: cognitive-behavioral; Contributions: Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET), focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions
1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference
1902-1994; Field: neo-Freudian, humanistic; Contributions: created an 8-stage theory to show how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
1917-2012; Field: ; Contributions: led to knowledge that sickness and taste preferences can be conditioned Studied: taste aversion in rats
1943-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the theory of multiple intelligences (logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic)
1905-1981; Field: development; Contributions: realized that touch is preferred in development; Studies: Rhesus monkeys, studied attachment of infant monkeys (wire mothers v. cloth mothers)
1904-2001; Field: biological; Contributions: Known for his research on hypnosis and pain control. He theorized that a hypnotized person experiences a special state of dissociation of divided consciousness.
1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
1944-present; Field: memory; Contributions: expert in eyewitness testimony (false memories or misinformation effect); Studies: Reconstruction of Auto. Destruction, Jane Doe Case (repressed memories of Nicole Taus' sex abuse)
1908-1970; Field: humanism; Contributions: hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied, self-actualization, transcendence
1933-1984; Field: social psychology; Contributions: wanted to see how the German soldiers in WWII fell to obedience, wanted to see how far individuals would go to be obedient; Studies: Shock Study
1891-1951; Field: Gastroenterology; Contributions: developed foundation for classical conditioning, discovered that a UCS naturally elicits a reflexive behavior; Studies: dog salivation
1896-1980; Field: cognition; Contributions: created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
1922-present; Field: emotion; Contributions: stated that in order to experience emotions a person must be physically aroused and know the emotion before you experience it
1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
1863-1945; Field: intelligence; Contributions: found that specific mental talents were highly correlated, concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled 'g' (general ability)
1949-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)
1877-1956; Field: testing; Contributions: revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children
1874-1949; Field: behaviorism; Contributions: Law of Effect-relationship between behavior and consequence; Studies: Law of Effect with cats
John B Watson
1878-1958; Field: behaviorism; Contributions: generalization-inductive reasoning, emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; Studies: Little Albert
1832-1920; Field: structuralism, voluntarism; Contributions: introspection, basic units of experience; Studies: 1st psychological laboratory in world at University of Leipzig
1933-present; Field: social psychology; Contributions: proved that peoples behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play; Studies: Stanford Prison Study-studied power of social roles to influence people's behavior
1927-1987; Field: cognition, moral development; Contributions: created a theory of moral development that has 3 levels; focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior
1936-pres; Field: cognition; Contributions: maintained that Köhlberg's work was developed by only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of boys and girls; girls focus more on relationships than laws and principles
He pioneered the first study in JND (just noticeable difference). It became Weber's law; the JND between stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus. E.g. the bigger or more intense the standard stimulus, the larger the increment needed to get a noticeable difference. (Holding books stacked on your hand).
Behaviorist; Developed reciprocal inhibition (anxiety being inhibited by a feeling or response that is not compatible with the feeling of anxiety). After his experiments in the laboratory he applied reciprocal inhibition to his clients in the form of assertiveness training. The idea behind assertiveness training was that you could not be angry or aggressive while simultaneously anxious at same time. Also developed the method of systematic desensitization to eliminate phobias and the Exposure Therapy technique known as flooding.
Mary Whiton Calkins
studied with William James and went on to become president of the American Psychological Association
Argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
G. Stanley Hall
Founded first U.S psychology lab. First APA president.
Started first psychological journal.
Margaret Floy Washburn
First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921)
Studied brain damaged patients (left frontal lobe) to link localization to ability.
Broca's area-> Region in the left frontal lobe that controls the production of speech.
Psychologist in the neuroscience perspective, did experiments on left and right brain interactions.
Conducted the "HE-ART" experiments with split brain patients
Studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions. The first to propose "split-brain" surgery to help epileptic patients.
Discovered an area on the left temporal lobe of the cortex associated with speech comprehension.
David Hubel & Torsten Wiesel
Sensation and perception - discovered feature detectors in the visual system.
German experimental psychologist who demonstrated that mental processes can be measured. Pioneered the early work in the detection of thresholds. (Psychophysics)
Psychologist; when two significant events happen together, the animal learns the predictability.
Cognitive psychologist; Latent Learning & cognitive maps in rats
Considered to be the founder of Gestalt Psychology. Researcher who studied insight learning in chimps.
George A. Miller
Studied short-term memory; short-term memory holds 5-9 chunks of information.
Developed the emotion theory in which the physiological reaction occurs first and then the emotion is determined. (Jump then label)
He conducted the first large-scale survey of American sexual attitudes and behaviors
Researched recurring response to stress - general adaptation syndrome
Her theory of parenting styles had three main types (permissive, authoritative, & authoritarian)
Researcher who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds, a concept he called imprinting
Russian psychologist who developed social-cognitive theory development
Paul Costa & Robert McCrae
Creators of the "Big Five" model of personality traits (OCEAN or CANOE)
Theorized that head size and intelligence correlated. (C. Darwin's cousin)
Modern IQ tests with specialized subtests and use of factor analysis. Developer of WAIS and WISC intelligence tests.
Studied the dangers of labeling of mental patients by placing pseudo patients in mental institutions.
Mary Cover Jones
"Mother of behavior therapy"; used classical conditioning to help "Peter" overcome fear of rabbits.
A social psychologist that contributed the cognitive dissonance theory.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
CASA psych - final review - concepts
AP Psychology Review
Psychology : Chapter 1
AP Psychology (Weiten 7th Edition)
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