65 terms

PSC 124 Ch. 11 & 12

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Tragedy of the Commons
Individuals acting independently and rationally according to each's self-interest behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group by depleting some common resource
Enclosure
Sealing off an area
Global Commons
The set of natural resources, basic services, public spaces, cultural traditions, and other essentials of life and society that are part of a public trust to be enjoyed by all people and cherished for the planet's well-being
Earth Day
An annual event, celebrated on April 22, on which day events worldwide are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection
Sustainable Development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
1992 Earth Summit
UN Meeting which attempted to address the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals, alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change, new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smoke and the growing scarcity of water
Global Warming
A gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth's climate.
United National Environment Program
(UNEP) A UN agency that assists developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) A scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations; produces reports that support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which is the main international treaty on climate change
Fossil Fuels
Buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years
Greenhouse Gasses
Any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation, thereby trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere; leads to global warming
1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change
Treaty that attempts to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system
Kyoto Protocol
An international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it
Ozone Depletion
When CFCs and HCFCs reach the stratosphere, the ultraviolet radiation from the sun causes them to break apart and release chlorine atoms which react with ozone, starting chemical cycles of ozone destruction that deplete the ozone layer
Montreal Protocol
An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion
Biodiversity
Different types of life found on earth
Loss of Habitat
Probably the greatest threat to the variety of life on this planet today; destruction of land that causes species to become displaced
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species [of Wild Fauna and Flora]
(CITES) Treaty to protect endangered animals
International Whaling Commission
Provides for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry
US Clear Air Act
A United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level
Rain Forests
Characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall between 250 and 450 centimeters; location of major deforestation
Debt-for-Nature Swaps
Financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation's foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in environmental conservation measures
High Seas
An international treaty created to codify the rules of international law relating to the high seas, otherwise known as international waters.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCOS) Conference that led to the High Seas Treaty
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
A sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind
Antarctic Treaty of 1959
Treaty signed by the twelve countries whose scientists had been active in and around Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58
Acid Rain
Any form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH)
Chernobyl
Worst nuclear explosion in history; occurred in Ukraine
Aral Sea
It has been steadily shrinking since the 1960s after the rivers that fed it were diverted by Soviet irrigation projects
1973 Oil Shock
Members of the OAPEC proclaimed an oil embargo; by the end of the embargo the price of oil had risen from $3 per barrel to nearly $12
Caspian Sea
The world's largest enclosed lake/sea
Malthusian
Was a prediction of a forced return to subsistence-level conditions once population growth had outpaced agricultural production
Demographic Transition
Refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system
China's One Child Policy
Is a population control policy of the People's Republic of China
Pronatalism Policies
A belief that promotes human reproduction; promotes child-bearing and parenthood as desirable for social reasons and to ensure national continuance
Infant Mortality Rate
An estimate of the number of infant deaths for every 1,000 live births
Green Revolution
A series of research and technology transfer initiatives, that increased agricultural production worldwide
Less-Developed Countries (underdeveloped/developing countries)
A country that exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development and with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world
UN Millennium Development Goals
To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
To achieve universal primary education
To promote gender equality and empower women
To reduce child mortality
To improve maternal health
To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
To ensure environmental sustainability
To develop a global partnership for development
Basic Human Needs
Food, water, clothes, shelter
UNICEF Methods to Save Children
1) Growth monitoring - prevent malnutrition
2) Oral rehydration therapy - stops diarrhea before death by dehydration
3) Immunization against six common deadly illnesses
4) Breast feeding promotion
Malnutrition
Lack of proper nutrition caused by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things or being unable to use the food that one does eat
Subsistence Farming
Farming practice where farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families
Cash Crops
An agricultural good which is grown for sale to return a profit; tobacco, cotton
Urbanization
A population shift from rural to urban areas
Land Reform
Involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership
Migrants
A worker who moves from place to place for work
Refugees
A person who is outside their home country because they have suffered persecution, are a member of a persecuted social category of persons or because they are fleeing a war
Remittances
A transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in his or her home country
Human Trafficking
The sale of humans mostly for the purpose of sexual needs
Capitalist View of N-S Gap
Global South lags behind; Concentration of Wealth is Self-Reinforcing
Welfare State
A system whereby the government undertakes to protect the health and well-being of its citizens
Capital Accumulation
The accumulation of capital forms the basis of the economic system of capitalism; where economic activity is structured around the accumulation of capital.
Economic Surplus
Refers to two related quantities:
Consumer surplus is the monetary gain obtained by consumers because they are able to purchase a product for a price that is less than the highest price that they would be willing to pay.
Producer surplus is the amount that producers benefit by selling at a market price that is higher than the least that they would be willing to sell for
World-System
A socioeconomic system that encompasses part or all of the globe
Center
Core countries that are industrialized capitalist countries on which periphery countries and semi-periphery countries depend
Periphery
Less developed than Center Countries
Semi-periphery
The industrializing, mostly capitalist countries which are positioned between the periphery and core countries
Resource Curse
The paradox that countries and regions with an abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources
Imperialism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
Colonialism
The policy of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
Decolonization
The undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.
Neocolonialism
The geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to influence a country in lieu of either direct military control or indirect political control, i.e. imperialism and hegemony.
Dependency Theory
The notion that resources flow from poor countries to core wealthy countries.
Enclave Economy
An economic system in which an export based industry dominated by international or non-local capital extracts resources or products from another country.