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what is in a nucleotide
phosphoric acid (phosphate group), 5-carbon (pentose) sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), nitrogen base (acid, base, and sugar)
what's in a nitrogen base
purines - 2 ring base (adenine 2, guanine 3), pyrimidines - 1 ring base (cytasine 3, thymine (DNA), uracil (RNA) 2)
bonds in nucleic acids/DNA
phosphodiester (phosphate group and sugar), n-glycosidic (nitrogen base and sugar), hydrogen (nitrogen bases)
types of disaccharides of C
sucrose (glucose+fructose), lactose (glucose+galactose), maltose (glucose+glucose)
difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in L
S - all single bonds, solid; US - double bonds, liquid
difference between Essential AA and Nonessential AA in P
EAA - 8 amino acids, body can't make them into food; NAA - 12 amino acids, body can synthesize
P - chain of amino acids; S - alpha helix - coil/spiral, beta pleated - formed b/c of bonding between functional groups; T - between R groups (ionic, hydrogen, hydrophobic, disulfide); Q - w/ more than 1 polypeptide chain
types of P
enzymes (speed up rections; breaks down substrate @ tertiary structure (active site)); Antibodies (immunoglobulins; defense against disease); Hormones; Structural Proteins
types of Structural Proteins
Tubulin (cell skeleton); Actin and Myosin (for contraction; Keratin (hair/nails); Myoglobin (movement of O2); collagen (elasticity of skin); cytochromosones (electron transport); histones (in chromosones for support)
sides of DNa are made of _______ and ________ and the rungs are made of ________
phosphate group, sugar, nitrogen bases
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