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monomer for C


monomer for L

fatty acids and glycerol

monomer for P (how many)

20 amino acids

monomer for NA


elements in C


elements in P


elements in L


elements in NA


name two pentoses

ribose and deoxyribose

name three hexoses

glucose, galactose and fructose

C bond


what is in a nucleotide

phosphoric acid (phosphate group), 5-carbon (pentose) sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), nitrogen base (acid, base, and sugar)

what's in a nitrogen base

purines - 2 ring base (adenine 2, guanine 3), pyrimidines - 1 ring base (cytasine 3, thymine (DNA), uracil (RNA) 2)

bonds in nucleic acids/DNA

phosphodiester (phosphate group and sugar), n-glycosidic (nitrogen base and sugar), hydrogen (nitrogen bases)

types of disaccharides of C

sucrose (glucose+fructose), lactose (glucose+galactose), maltose (glucose+glucose)

what is a major lipid of cell membrane


types of polysaccharides of C

starch, glycogen, cellulose

L bond


difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in L

S - all single bonds, solid; US - double bonds, liquid

complex L

triglycerides, phospholipids, wax

difference between Essential AA and Nonessential AA in P

EAA - 8 amino acids, body can't make them into food; NAA - 12 amino acids, body can synthesize

P bond/ another name for P



P - chain of amino acids; S - alpha helix - coil/spiral, beta pleated - formed b/c of bonding between functional groups; T - between R groups (ionic, hydrogen, hydrophobic, disulfide); Q - w/ more than 1 polypeptide chain

ways P are denatured

-High Salinity
-High Temperature
-Strong Acids (pH damages enzymes)

types of P

enzymes (speed up rections; breaks down substrate @ tertiary structure (active site)); Antibodies (immunoglobulins; defense against disease); Hormones; Structural Proteins

types of Structural Proteins

Tubulin (cell skeleton); Actin and Myosin (for contraction; Keratin (hair/nails); Myoglobin (movement of O2); collagen (elasticity of skin); cytochromosones (electron transport); histones (in chromosones for support)

examples of NA


DNA forms a ________ and RNA forms a _____

double helix and single helix

sides of DNa are made of _______ and ________ and the rungs are made of ________

phosphate group, sugar, nitrogen bases

main function of C

store energy

formula for organic compound


alcohol common in triglycerides


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